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■»\ 



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f^arbarti College l^ibrars. 

PROM THE BBqjLJEST OF 

CHARLES SUMNER, LL.D., 
OF BOSTON, 

(01«M of 1830). 

" For books relating to Politics and 
Fine Arts." 




AMERI CAN 



JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS 



AND 



BULLETIN OF AMERICAN NUMISMATIC AND 
ARCH.COLOGICAL SOCIETIES. 



QUAR TERL Y. 6~Z Y- ^ 



VOL. XXIII. 

July, 1888— July, 1889. 




COMMITTEE OP PUBLICATION. 

WILLIAM SUMNER APPLETON. 
SAMUEL ABBOTT GREEN. 
JEREMIAH COLBURN. 
WILLIAM T. R. MARVIN. 



BOSTON: 

PUBLISHED BY THE BOSTON NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 
M DCCC LXXXIX. 



CONTENTS. 



Accessions, Reeent, to the Mint Cabi 


FAOB 

net. . 93 


American Pieces sold in Eng^d, 


22 


A N^ected Series, . 


. . 78 


A New Cent of 1793, . 


. 45 


A New Washington Medal, 


. . 92 


Archaeological :— 




Mound Building, . 


62 


ReUcs of the Cliff DweUers, . 


• 94 


Remains of an Ancient City, 


22 


The Western Mounds, . 


21 


Annada Medals, .... 


. . 88 


Athens, Statue discovered at 


22 


Black Doggs, .... 


47 


Borromeo, St. Charies, Medals of 


. 10, 35»68 


British Museum Gold Room, 


19 


Bucharest College Medals, . 


." 60 


Canada Medical Medals, 


. 60, 62 


Canadian Jubilee Medal, 


40 


Ceylon Coins, . . " . 


75 


Cent of 1793 (New) . 


• 45 


Centennial Medal, Ohio, 


81 


Chantilly Medal, .... 


15 


Cliff Dwellers, Relics of the . 


94 


Coin Sales:— 




Chapman Bros., . 


71 


Ely Collection, 


71 


Ed. Frossard's, . 


71 


Haines Collection, 


71 


Hart Collection, . 


71 


Coins of Southern India, 


30 


Coins, Oriental .... 


7, 25» 49. 73 


College Medals, Bucharest, . 


61 


Crusaders^ Coins, 


. 79 


Currency, 


24, 48. 72, 96 


Currency, Fractional, . 


55 


Darien Medal, .... 


40 


Dollars, Silver, New Use for 


23 


Editorial, 


24, 48, 72, 96 


Eiffel Tower Medal, . 


93 


English War Decorations, . 


. 48, 72 



PAQB 

Facts about Old Paper Money, ... 20 
Foundations of Buildings, Medals deposited in 93 
Falton, Robert, Medals of .... 93 

Fractional Currency, 55 

German Medals, 9 

Gleanings : — 

Defeat of the Armada, .... 88 

Shakespeare^s Allusions to Coins, . . 44« ^ 

The British Museum Gold Room, . 19 ' 

Jubilee Medal, Canada, .... 40 

Kaiser Wilhelm, Medals of ... . 9 

La Calotte, Medal of 70,87 

Mardi Gras Medal, 93 

Masonic Medals, . . 16, 41, 63, 90 

Medals : — 

Annada, 88 

Bucharest College, . . . 61 

Canadian Jubilee, 40 

Chantilly, 15 

Deposited in Foundations of Buildings, 93 

Eiffel Tower, 93 

English Masonics, .... 63 

Foreign, relating to America, 48 

French Masonics, 66, 90 

La Calotte, 70. 87 

Mardi Gras, 93 

Marriage, 70 

Masonic, 16, 41, 63, 90 

Medical, 59 

Ohio Centennial, 81 

Papal 93 

Powell-Murray, 22 

Presidential, 48 

Recent German, 9 

Recent Spanish (Darien), ... 40 

Robert Fulton, 93 

St. Charles Borromeo, . . 10, 35, 68 

Relating to the Colonies of England 

in North America, struck in Europe, . i, 31 
Washington, (New) .... 92 



IV 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 



Medical Medals, etc., • 

Middle Ages, Coins of . 

Mint Cabinet, Recent Accessions to the 

Mound-builders, .... 

Neglected Series, A . . . 

New Use for Silver Dollars, 

Notes and Queries: — 

A Bronze Canadian Medal, . 

Marriage Medals, . 

Medals of ** La Calotte," 

Pieces relating to America sold in 
gland, .... 

Presidential Medals, 

Sioux Names of Money, 

Small Devices, 

Statue discovered at Athens, 

Zeulenroda Token, 
Obituary : — 

Davis, Robert Coulton . 

Leavitt, George A. 

Moore, Michael . 

Morris, Robert 
Ohio Centennial Medal, 



Eng- 



59 
79 
92 
21, 62 
78 
23 

22 

70 
70.87 

22 

48 
22 
70 
22 
70 

47 
70 

23 
46 
81 



Old Paper Money, Facts about 
Oriental Coins, . . 7, 25 

Papal Medals. Radiated Effigy of Pius V, 
Paper Money, Old, .... 
Pine-tree Sixpence found in Plymouth, 
Proceedings of Societies: — 

Amer. Numis. and Archaeological, 23 

Boston Numismatic, 
Recent Accessions to the Mint Cabinet, 
Recent Spanish Medal, 
Relics of the Cliff Dwellers, 
Robert Fulton, Medals of 
Roman Coins found in India, 
Sioux Names of Money, 
St. CharUs Borromeo, Medals of . 10, 

The Medals, Jetons and Tokens illustrative 

of the Science of Medicine, . 

Vikings, Coins of 

War Decorations, 

Washington-Confederatio, . . . . 
Washington Medal, (New) .... 

Western Mounds, 

Zeulenroda Token, 



PAGB 

26 

49.73 

93 

20 

n 

68,94 
68,94 
92 
40 
94 
93 
26 
22 

35, 6S 

59,82 
80 

48,72 
87 
92 

21, 62 
70 




^m^ 



^m 



iUL 20 18b8 



/ 



Two Dollars a Year, in Advance. CEntere^^t-ftitji&cc,iortc>n, at Second Class Rates.] Single Copies, 50 Cts. 



Vol. XXIII.— No. i.] 



[Whole No. 121. 



AMER I CAN 
JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS 

AND 

BULLETIN OF AMERICAN NUMISMATIC AND 
ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETIES. 

July, 1888. 




BOSTON: 

PUBUSHED BY THE BOSTON NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 

QUARTERLY. 



COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION. 

WILLIAM SUMNER APPLETON. 
SAMUEL ABBOTT GREEN. 
JEREMIAH COLBURN. 
WILLIAM T. R. MARVIN. 



/f^ SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED BY 
DAMRELL & UPHAM, 
283 WASHINGTON STREET, BOSTON, MASS, 

S. H. & H. CHAPMAN, 
1348 PINE STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 

LYMAN H. LOW, 721 BROADWAY, NEW YORK OTY. 

H. HOFFMANN, 
I RUE DU BAC, PARIS, FRANCE. 

W. S. LINCOLN & SON, 69 NEW OXFORD STREET, LONDON, ENGLAND. 
An Communications to be addressed to Jeremiah Colbum, 18 Somerset Street, Boston, Mass. 



CONTENTS. 



Medals relating to the Colonies of England 
in North America, Struck in Europe, 

Oriental Coins, 

Medals of Kaiser Wilhelm and Friedrich III 
The Medals of St. Charles Borromeo, . 
The Chantillv Medal, . . . ' . 

Masonic Meaals, 

Gleanings : 

The British Museum Gold Room, 
Facts about Old Paper Money, 
Archaeological : 

The Western Mounds, 

Remains of an Ancient City, 



i6 
20 



Notes and Queries: 

A Bronze Canadian Medal, . . . 22 
Pieces relating to America in a Recent 

English Sale, 22 

10 ! Statue Discovered at Athens, ... 22 

15, Sioux Names of Money, .... 22 
Proceedings of Societies: 

American Numis. and Arch. Society, . 23 
Obituary : 

Michael Moore, 23 

A New Use for Silver Dollars, ... 23 

21 I Editorial 24 

22 1 Currency, 24 



TTfte Gritic. 

A WEEKLY REVIEW DEVOTED TO LITERATURE, ART, 

MUSIC AND THE DRAMA. 

SINGLE COPIES 10 CENTS, $3.00 A YEAR IN ADVANCE. 

L. & J. B. aiLDER, Editors, 743 Broadway, New York. 



%^z ^ceorabr anb ||^urnisl^cr. 

PUBLISHED BY 

PRATT & SANDFORD, 

MONTHLY, $4 A TEAR, IN ADVANCE, SINGLE COPIES 35 CENTS. 

THOMAS A. KENNETT, Editor, - 30 & 32 EAST 14TH ST., NEW YORK. 



PUBLISHED QUARTERLY,--THE TWENTY-THIRD VOLUME BEGINS JULY ist, 1888. 

Subscription, two dollars per Volume, in advance. Prompt remittances are requested^ 

Communications desired from those interested in the Science. 

Address JEREMIAH COLBURN, 

July ist, 1888. 18 Somerset Street, Boston, Mass, 

We rarely quote what contemporaries say of the Joumat, but must deviate from our rule to give 
the following from a recent number of the The Sunday Schoot Times. 

1 The American youmat of Numismatics has probably done more than any other single 
agency to advance the interests of numismatic science in this country. To those who have no 
higher idea ^f numismatology than a more or less systematic hoarding and trading of coins, an 
investigation of such material as this Quarterly furnishes, would come with the freshness of a 
revelation. Few sciences bear directly or indirectly upon so many human interests, or throw 
light into so many dark corners, as this study of coins, medals, and tokens. It is the daughter 
of metallurgy no less than of fine art, the handmaid of histor}% economics, and archaeology. 
The American youmal is rich in its original matter, as well as in its selections from the 
writings of the highest authorities at home and abroad. It comes in fine dress, clearly printed 
on heavy paper, usually with a frontispiece illustration. With the July number, it enters upon 
the twenty-third volume. Published by the Boston Numismatic Society, at 18 Somerset Street, 
Boston, Mass. Price, $2 a year. 




lO 



1 1 








AM ER IC AN 

JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS, 

AND 

Bulletin of American Numismatic and Archaeological Societies. 

-,, ^ . — „_ , 

Vol. XXIII. BOSTON, JULY, 1888. No. i. 

MEDALS RELATING TO THE COLONIES OF ENGLAND IN 
NORTH AMERICA, STRUCK IN EUROPE. 

BY HON. GEORGE M. PARSONS, LL.D. 

N 1664 a war broke out between England and Holland, although 
a treaty of alliance between the two nations had been concluded 
so recently as 1662. England was the aggressor and without 
any provocation. Hume in his History says that *' the rivalship 
of commerce had in England begotten a violent enmity against 
the neighboring republic." He further says that the Dutch by industry and 
frugality were enabled to undersell the English in every market, and retained 
possession of the most lucrative branches of commerce ; and the English 
merchants had the mortification to find that all their attempts to extend their 
trade were still turned by the vigilance of their rivals, to their loss and 
dishonor. Their indignation increased when they considered the superior 
naval power of England, the bravery of her officers and seamen, and her 
favorable situation which enabled her to intercept the whole Dutch commerce. 
By the prospect of these advantages they were strongly prompted to make 
war upon the States, and at once to ravish from them by force what they 
could not obtain, or could obtain but slowly, by superior skill and industry. 

The first step taken by the English was a declaration by the Commons 
that ** the wrongs, dishonours, and indignities, offered to the English by 
subjects of the United Provinces, were the greatest obstructions to foreign 
trade." Although no supplies were voted by Parliament, this declaration was 
considered as a sufficient sanction for vigorous measures. A squadron of 
twenty-two vessels was sent to the west coast of Africa, and the commercial 
settlements made there by the Dutch were seized. The fleet then sailed to 
America, and took possession of the Dutch colony on the Hudson, then 
called Nova Belgia, now New York. The Dutch immediately retaliated in 
the same manner on the African coast, and inflicted upon the English even 
greater injuries than those which they had suffered. 

In 1665 war was formally declared by Charles II against Holland; large 
appropriations were made by Parliament, and a private contribution of 

VOL. XXIII, I 



2 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [July, 

;^ 1 00,000 was made by the merchants of London. The war continued for 
two years with varying success. France and Denmark ranged themselves 
with Holland, but the brunt of the fighting was borne by the navy of the 
latter country. In 1666 a sea-fight of four days occurred. The first day s 
engagement was ended by the approach of night ; on the second and third 
days the English were worsted and obliged to retire to their coast. Their 
vessels were only saved, in one case by darkness, and in the other by a heavy 
mist which put an end to all operations. On the fourth day the Dutch 
vessels retired to their harbors. 

The historian claims that the English were victorious. It is a fact, 
however, that the first proposition for a peace was made by Charles. He had 
failed to gain the commercial advantages which he had expected, and he was 
without money for the payment of his sailors ; on the other hand, the Dutch 
were in good heart for a continuance of the conflict, and their treasury was 
well supplied. After some prolonged negotiation, commissioners met at 
Breda to settle the terms of peace, without having made any stipulation as to 
the cessation of hostilities. The English commissioners made difficulties by 
insisting upon conditions unacceptable to the other side. At this time, 
although supplies had been voted by the English Parliament, the king 
neglected to make the necessary preparations for the continuance of the war, 
and the navy was in no better condition than in time of peace, while the 
Dutch navy was thoroughly prepared for further conflicts. The English 
commissioners proposed that hostilities should cease until all unsettled ques- 
tions were adjusted. De Witt, the Grand Pensionary of Holland and at the 
head of the government, knowing the weak condition of England and the 
strong condition of his own nation, secured the rejection of this proposition. 
The negotiations were purposely protracted, and a number of war vessels and 
fire ships were sent to the English harbors. They ascended the Medway, on 
which was the naval depot of England, burned a number of war vessels, took 
several towns of importance, and excited fears that they might ascend the 
Thames as far as London bridge. The whole country was alarmed, and in 
the highest degree mortified at the ravages committed by a nation which had 
been regarded as an inferior. The English commissioners were instructed to 
recede from their demands, and the Peace of Breda was signed July 10, 1667. 

Acadia, Nova Scotia, was ceded to the French and New York to the 
English. This was the only acquisition of importance which the English 
gained by the war, and not much valued at the time. It proved, however, in 
the following century, during the war with the American Colonies, to be of 
great value. If New York had been- restored to the Dutch, the English 
would have been much embarrassed in their military operations ; as events 
happened, it is also evident that the final negotiations for peace were much 
simplified to the Americans in having but one power to deal with, when 
seeking for the recognition of colonial independence. 

These are the facts which gave an interest to a medal which was issued 
by the City of Amsterdam, in commemoration of the Peace of Breda. It is 
shown in Figure i of the plate of illustrations. On the obverse, prominent 
in the foreground leo batavus, the lion of the Batavians, stands in defiant 
attitude, and with aggressive mien, master of the field, surrounded by arms, 
while beyond him is the far-stretching sea covered with vessels of war. The 



i888.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 3 

legend, in which the date 1667 is indicated by a chronogram, interprets the 
scene : sIC fInes nostros Leges tVtaMVr et VnDas (Thus we protect our 
territories, our institutions and our ^eas). The reverse is covered by an 
inscription in Latin, which recites that the Batavians (the name applied by the 
Romans to the ancient inhabitants of the Low Countries) having successfully 
defended their hereditary institutions against three most powerful Spanish 
kings, were afterwards, once and again, obliged to take up arms against their 
British neighbors, and by supreme bravery in war established peace and the 
restoration of commerce with mankind; hence ''hoc monumentum'' decreed 
by the Consuls and Senate of Amsterdam. This medal is probably the first 
one issued to commemorate any event connected with the early history of 
the English Colonies of North America, and its history affords a proper 
introduction to the consideration of later events. 

The American Colonies, at an early stage of their contest with the home 
government, applied to France for assistance, and many circumstances secured 
for their application a prompt and favorable reception. There had been 
frequent and long periods, during which hostilities prevailed between Eng- 
land and France ; while during the intervals of peace, the feelings of the 
parties towards each other were not by any means of a friendly character. 
France therefore watched at first with interest, then with pleasure, the resis- 
tance of the American Colonies to the unfriendly legislation of the mother 
country. 

In addition to this feeling there was another one, having reference to the 
war which wrested from France the larger part of her own North American 
colonial possessions, and which was concluded by the treaty of 1762. In 
that war Great Britain and her Colonies were allies. The Court of France 
thought it possible that the Colonies, fearing lest an effort might be made by 
France to regain her lost possessions, would submit to the home government. 
The idea also obtained with the Court, that if the controversy were termi- 
nated, whether by submission or by conquest, the large army and powerful 
fleet which the English would have at hand, would be perilous to the safety 
of France and of her Colonies. It was therefore the interest of France that 
the breach between England and her American Colonies should be widened, 
until a complete separation should be established. 

Another condition of feeling must be noticed. The spirit of liberty 
which finally burst forth in the Revolution of 1789, was rapidly spreading. 
The Third Estate, composed of the mass of the people, had reached maturity 
and was prepared to assert itself at the first opportunity. Although not 
possessing even the smallest share of political power, it was the source of a 
public sentiment, which existed independent of court, camp or church. This 
sentiment was in warmest sympathy with all the aspirations for political 
independence which manifested themselves in such resolute manner beyond 
the seas. Thus the several political classes of France, while hostile 
towards each other to a degree which made the subsequent Revolution 
inevitable, were of one mind and of one sentiment with reference to the 
subject of American Independence. 

Governed by these influences, France gave prompt and timely assistance 
to the Colonies. From the time of the arrival of the first commissioners 
from America, in March, 1776, until the treaty between them and France in 



4 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [July, 

April, 1778, all the aid was rendered that was possible without coming to 
open hostilities with England. Money was liberally advanced, ships laden 
with supplies were continually starting from French ports, while in these 
ports American vessels, not only merchant vessels but privateers with their 
captures, found shelter. 

In April, 1777, Lafayette embarked for America in a vessel purchased by 
himself. He went without an army, but his openly espousing the cause of the 
new Republic was equal to an army with banners On the 1 7th of October 
following, the British forces under Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga to the 
Colonial troops. This victory was a fortunate event, independently of the 
encouragement it gave to the Americans. It satisfied the Court of France 
that the Americans would establish their independence, and it secured at once 
a treaty of alliance between the two countries, which was concluded on the 
sixth of February, 1778. ** The absolute and unlimited independence of the 
United States was described as the essential end of the defensive alliance, 
and the two parties mutually engaged not to lay down their arms until it 
should be assured by the treaties terminating the war." The fact that the 
treaty had been concluded was formally communicated to the English govern- 
ment on the 13th of March, and war between England and France imme- 
diately ensued. 

After the conclusion of this treaty, an effort was at once made by France 
to secure the cooperation of Spain in her military operations against England. 
In this effort she encountered many obstacles. The liberal sentiments which 
prevailed in France and moved her so readily to the alliance with the United 
States, did not exist in Spain. The Court had no sympathy with the feelings 
which led to the Declaration of Independence, and among the people there 
was no public opinion that could operate to influence the Court. Besides, 
there were numerous Spanish Colonies on the American continent, whose 
allegiance would be put in peril by the success of the revolting English 
Colonies. Assistance was however occasionally rendered by Spain to the 
United States, and their privateers were permitted to enter Spanish ports with 
their prizes, but the Court would not join France in her hostilities against 
England until it was tempted by the prospect of regaining Gibraltar. Finally, 
on the 1 2th of April, 1779, a treaty was concluded by which the two countries 
were bound to join in an invasion of England, and not to agree to a cessation 
of hostilities by treaty or by truce until Gibraltar was surrendered to Spain. 
The United States was not a party to this alliance, and profited by it only from 
the fact that England had gained another enemy. 

France was the only ally of the United States, the only nation from 
which they could hope to receive direct and active assistance. There hap- 
pened however in 1780, an event which practically arrayed the whole of 
Europe against England. In the conflict between England and her enemies, 
it became a matter of great importance that the supplies which they received 
from neutral powers should be cut off, — not only supplies of arms and muni- 
tions of war, which were contraband, but all other supplies which might be 
necessary for their subsistence. It had been established by numerous treaties 
that the flag protected the cargo, and that the ships of neutral powers were at 
liberty to carry on traffic in everything that was not contraband of war. 
England paid but little attention to this rule. She declared, for instance, that 



i888.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. S 

she would not permit ship timber to be carried into French ports. On all 
occasions she exercised the power which a superior navy gave to her in such 
an offensive and overbearing manner that indignation was everywhere excited, 
and with it a determined spirit of resistance was aroused. 

After much negotiation between the different powers of Europe who had 
suffered from the aggressions of the English, their attention was directed to 
Catharine of Russia, and she was urged to take position at the head of the 
movement for a combined protection of the rights of neutrals. The result 
was that the Empress yielded to the general wish, and on the 8th of March 
issued the famous declaration that ** Neutral ships shall enjoy a free naviga- 
tion, even from port to port and on the coasts of the belligerent powers. 
Free ships, free all goods except contraband. * Contraband * are arms and 
munitions of war, and nothing else. No port is blockaded unless the 
enemies' ships, in adequate number, are near enough to make the entry 
dangerous. These principles shall rule decisions on the legality of prizes." 
Many of the neutral powers on the continent acceded to this code during 
the year, and ultimately all accepted it. This league isolated England and 
restrained her power on the sea. 

F'igure 2 of the plate of illustrations shows a beautiful medal issued in 
commemoration of the auspicious league. The obverse, not shown, is occu- 
pied by a bust in bold relief of the full-bosomed Empress Catharine, Autocrat 
of the Russians. On the reverse are seen, on the shore of the sea and at the 
water's edge. Mercury with empty cornucopia, and a sailor, both in suppliant 
attitude. In the middle field, on a shell which floats on the water, stands 
Neptune defiantly brandishing his trident. The simple inscription uberum 
MARE (Free Sea), and the expressive attitude of the god, announce in suffi- 
ciently plain language to the Patron of commerce and his followers that there 
shall be no impediments to their enterprise. It may well be imagined that 
the designer of this medal had in his mind the scene in the Mediterranean, 
described by Virgil, where Neptune rising from the bottom of the sea looks 
with indignation upon the disturbance which the aggressive subjects of 
Aeolus had created in his dominions, and suddenly cutting short his rebuke 
with the memorable terse ** Quos, Ego — " he dismissed the winds to their 
cave, composed the sea, 

"Atque rotis summas levibus perlabitur undas.*^ 

Aeueidy I, 147. 

During the negotiations relating to the league, England made every 
possible effort to prevent Holland from becoming a party to it. Hitherto the 
policy of the Dutch had been determined by English influence. The Stadt- 
holder and the Prime Minister might as well have been English subjects, so 
completely did they subserve English interests with but little reference to 
those of their own country. All efforts were however unavailing. The 
commerce of the Netherlands was large, and they who had carried it on had 
suffered more than the merchants of any other nation, from the violation by 
England of the rights of neutrals. Notwithstanding the subserviency of its 
rulers to English dictation, the country resolved to take the step which its 
interests required. 

The English were prompt in action, even to anticipating the course of 
the government of the Netherlands. As soon as it became certain that the 



6 AMERICAN JOlJRNAL OF NUMISMAtlCS. tfuLY, 

latter would join Russia, but before action was taken, while negotiations were 
going on at the Hague and in a time of pe^ce, the British cruisers seized two 
hundred merchant vessels, carrying cargoes worth fifteen millions of guilders. 
Subsequently, on the 3d of February, 1781, the British fleet captured the 
Island of St. Eustatius, situated in the leeward group of the West Indies. 
This island was a storehouse of merchandise from all parts of the world, and 
the whole was seized. Its value amounted to three millions of pounds, to 
which must be added numerous merchant ships and vessels of war. 

The Dutch were always fierce and brave fighters on the sea. Their 
pledge to support the Armed Neutrality was not an idle promise. They had 
no sufficient navy when first attacked, but one was soon equipped and it 
boldly sailed out to encounter the fortunes of battle. In August, six months 
after the attack on St. Eustatius, a desperate engagement within musket-shot 
occurred between the English and Dutch fleets on the Doggerbank, in which 
neither party was victorious. Both retired from the field to their own ports. 
This engagement was a severe one, and the Dutch issued several medals in 
memory of the many officers who fell. The space allotted to illustrations will 
not admit of showing them. There is however one beautiful medal which 
may well be given a place. It commemorates an. engagement off Cadiz, on 
the 30th of May, 1781, between two Dutch and two English vessels, in which 
the latter were defeated. The obverse shows the four ships, two of which 
are in good condition, the others well nigh helpless. The design of the 
reverse, Figure 3, is very simple, but very effective in its good taste and in 
the skill with which it has been executed. It is simply a trident, erected as a 
trophy on the sea shore, on which is suspended the shield of Holland ; above 
it is a naval crown, and below are two smaller shields, carrying what are 
probably the arms of the successful commanders, Melville and Oorthuis, 
whose names and rank are inscribed on pennons floating gracefully from 
staves projecting from the top of the smaller shields on each side the trophy ; 
behind the shield of Holland are two crossed anchors.' What adds so much 
to the beauty of the medal, is the skill with which it represents the boundless 
sea and the sun half seen behind the distant horizon. The inscription begins 
on the obverse and is concluded on the reverse : vis vi fortiter repulsa. 

PROPE GADES XXX MAY MDCCLXXXI. ANTIQUA VIRTUTE DUUM VIRI P. MELVILL 

NAVARCHUS G. OORTHUIS NAVARCHUS [Force courageously repulsed by force and 
the old time valor of two men, P. Melvill, Captain, G. Oorthuis Captain, — 
the place and date of the battle in exergue of its obverse, — near Cadiz, May 
30, 1781.] 

The United Provinces of the Netherlands were not allies of the United 
States. The government had not paid any attention to the communications 
addressed to it by John Adams, the American Commissioner, and refused to 
do anything that would amount to a recognition of their existence as an 
independent nation. It was not until 1782 that Mr. Adams was formally 

I The dies of this beautiful medal were cut by I. G. one of the captains : the charges on the other shield are 

llollzhey* whose name appears in the exergue of the not so readily distinguished, but the field is gold, and 

reverse. The upper shield has the rampant lion in gold, the devices seem to be three lozenge-shaped cushions of 

holding a sheaf of arrows and brandishing a falchion, red, two over one, on each of which is a crescent of 

on a red field : over his head are the letters A. R. The silver (these cushions might be taken for lozenges, but 

shield below, at the right, has the front of a hmtse or for the tassels at their corners). The lines aenoting 

building between two trees ; this device, a blazon known heraldic colors arc delicately cut on the shields. 
as **armes parlanteSy^ doubtless alludes to the name of Ed. 



i888.] 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 



received as the representative of the young republic. Holland was fighting 
solely for the protection of her own commerce, without reference to the 
interest of the United States, but like Spain, she was another enemy of 
England, and a dangerous one on the seas. 



[To be continued.] 



ORIENTAL COINS. 

WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THOSE OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

BY R. H. C. TUFNELL, M. S. C, F. Z. S. 

[Continued from Vol. xxii, p. 84.] 

Unlike ordinary Persian or Hindustani writing, numbers in the Arabic 
language are read from left to right, the numerals being represented as 
follows : — 



\ 



o 



I 



10 



i234507«9 

Their years are governed by lunar months, and therefore each year is 
eleven days shorter than ours, which amounts to about three years in each 
century. They are reckoned from the Hejrah or flight of Mohammed, which 
took place on the i6th of July, A. D. 622, and as the reduction of the Hejrah 
dates to those of our era is often necessary for the identification of many 
coins one meets with, especially those in which the year is legible while the 
name of the ruling sovereign is effaced, I append the Hejrah dates corres- 
ponding to the commencement of each half century of our era, die last 
column showing the month of the Christian year in which the Mohammedan 
New Year falls. 



A.H. 


A.D. 


A.H. 


A.D. 


A.H. 


AD. 


1 


622- 7' 


450 • 


1058- 2 


900 . 


1494-10 


50 


670- I 


500 . 


1106- 9 


950 . 


1543- 4 


100 


. 718- 8 


550 • 


1155- 3 


1000 . 


1591-10 


150 


. 767- 2 


600 . 


1203- 9 


1050 . 


1640- 4 


200 


. 815- 8 


650 . 


1252- 3 


IIOO . 


1688-10 


250 


. 864- 2 


7cx> . 


1300- 9 


1 150 . 


1737- 5 


300 


912- 8 


750 . 


1349- 3 


1200 . 


1 785- 1 1 


350 


961- 2 


800 . 


• 1397- 9 


1250 . 


• 1834- 5 


400 


. 1009- 8 


850 . 


■ 1446- 3 


1300 . 


1882-11 



There is, however, one notable instance in which these do not hold 
good. On the accession of Tipu to his father's throne in Mysore, he greatly 
enlarged the number and variety of coins in circulation in his dominions ; 
and, being withal a man of an inventive turn of mind, started an era of his 
own, which counted not from the flight but from the conversion of Moham- 
med, twelve years before the Hejrah. Hence it is no unusual thing to find 
coins of Tipu's to all appearance posthumous. This system he was pleased 

t That is, commencing in the seventh month (July) of that year. 



8 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [July, 

to christen' Muludie, and in it the numbers read from right to left, A speci- 
men of this I figure as No. 26, on the reverse of which appears, ** Sun Muludie 
1226," corresponding to 181 1 of our reckoning, whereas Tipu completed the 
sum of his iniquities in A. D. 1799. 

During his reign,^ two distinct systems of coins were in use in Mysore — 
the mohurs and rupees of the Mohammedans side by side with the pagodas 
and fanams of the Hindu. The former of these included double, single and 
half gold mohurs (though as far as I can learn there is no specimen of the 
first extant), and double, single and half rupees. The whole series (known 
as the **Sultani") resembles very closely the double rupee (Figure 27), though 
the inscriptions on all vary slightly in minor details. The usual inscription, 
which is in Arabic, may be rendered as follows : ** By Hyder s victories is the 
faith of Ahmad made bright in the world. Struck at Pattan (Seringapatam) 
in the year of the Hejrah 1200." The smaller coins corresponding to this 
series are known as the ** Bakri," struck in the sixth year of his reign (and so 
called possibly after Mohammed Baker, the Fourth Kalif), the ** Jasri" or two 
anna piece, struck in the eleventh year, the one anna bearing the word 
**Kazmi," struck in the twelfth, and a half anna, also in silver, with the word 
** Kizri " impressed thereon. In all these coins the milling is different from 
that of any other coins I know; the lines instead of running straight across, as 
usually in milled coins, are angular, the angles pointing along the circumfer- 
ence, a feature which at once renders the detection of many forgeries 
an easy task. 

(The pagodas and fanams struck by him and the states dependent on 
Mysore have been so recently and so fully treated on in the two papers to 
which I have alluded above, that they require no notice here.) 

During Tipu's reign a very large number of copper coins were in circu- 
lation, and these are still common in every bazaar in the province. As a rule 
they bear the elephant on the obverse, and on the reverse the mint town. 
Above the elephant in some instances he places the date, sometimes reckoned 
by the Hejrah time, at others following his own patent system. Others again 
he inscribed with the name of a planet, usually that of Jupiter (Mushta) over 
the larger and of Venus (Z'hera) over the smaller, while others bear only the 
word **akhtur" (star). Another series, again, are distinguished by the addi- 
tion over the elephant of one of the first three letters of the Persian alphabet. 
Hawkes, in his invaluable little pamphlet on the coins of Mysore (published 
in 1857), entered most exhaustively into the copper issues of Tipu, but 
unfortunately his useful little book is now out of print and no longer procur- 
able, though an exhaustive catalogue of the coins in the Madras Central 
Museum, now in the press, will go far to supply its place. 

On the fall of Tipu and the return to power of the Hindu line, the 
elephant was at first continued (Figure 28), but the Persian inscription gave 
place to Kanarese and a rude style of English in which it is not unusual to 

I Mir Hussein Ali Khan Kirmani, in his history of ular mission are considered distinct), being previously 

the reign of Tipu (a continuation of the " Neshani Hy- arranged and ready, was now made current throughout 

duri "), says : "The institution of the Muhammedi year, the whole extent of the Sultan's dominions." 

which is thirteen years more than, or exceeding that of, 2 Hence, in Article H of the "Treaty of peace be- 

the Hejri, it being reckoned from the conclusion of the tween the confederated powers and Tipu Sultan," we 

prophet's office, and the commencement of the duties of read, " Three kroor and thirty lak of rupees to be paid 

his mission (the office of a prophet and that of a partic- by Tippu Sultan in gold mohurs, pagodas, or bullion.** 



i888.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 9 

find one or more letters upside down. Shortly afterwards the Mysore lion 
was substituted for the elephant (Figure 29), and this device continued to be 
in vogue till the province ceased to have a distinctive coinage of its own. In 
gold the Hindu raj still held to the old Ikkeri type of pagoda, which with a 
different reverse had been continued through the Mohammedan period, the 
words ** Sri Maharajah Krishna" now taking the place of Hyder*s initial. He 
also made a re-issue of the canteroy fanam and a series in silver of (approxi- 
mately) four, two, and one anna pieces, bearing on one side the dancing 
figure of Chamundi and on the other an inscription in Hindustani on the 
larger, and in Kanarese on the two smaller issues. All these are very plenti- 
ful still in Mysore.* (Figure 31.) 

Having thus rapidly glanced at the various coinages of the different 
dynasties which have been indigenous to Southern India, and endeavored to 
point out some of the symbols, which alone in so many instances can guide 
us in the identification of these coins, and in the hope that such may prove of 
some assistance to the student who is just beginning this most fascinating 
pursuit, I reserve for a future paper the consideration of those coins which, 
though still plentiful in Southern India, were struck by powers foreign to the 
country, such as the Romans, Pathans, Moghuls, Dutch, French, English, 
Portuguese, etc., all of which occur with more or less frequency and are apt 
to confuse the tyro considerably. 

[To be continued.] 



MEDALS OF KAISER WILHELM AND FRIEDRICH III. 

There have been a large number of Medals struck in Germany, in commemora- 
tion of the late Emperor William, and in honor of his successor, whose untimely death 
has just been announced. We mention briefly a few that have come to our knowledge, 
and no doubt the number might be largely increased with but little search. First is a 
small silver Medal, with the portrait of Kaiser Wilhelm on the obverse and a cross on 
the reverse. There is a medal in britannia, or white metal, for popular wear ; on the 
obverse a portrait of the late Emperor ; on the reverse the inscription in German : 
" Kaiser Wilhelm todt. So klagt*s von Mund zu Munde : Was er vollbracht } Das 
Deutsche Reich, der Erdball giebt die Kunde." Which may be rendered, "The 
Emperor William is dead ! So run the mournful tidings from mouth to mouth ! 
What has he accomplished.^ The German Empire, the round world proclaims the 
answer!" Size, 31 millimetres. Several struck in anticipation of his ninety-first 
birthday have also been placed in the market. A medal to Frederick II has on the 
obverse his portrait, above which the imperial crown, and on the reverse, a wreath of 
laurel with the inscription, "Gotte erhalte unsern Kaiser." This is struck in three 
sizes, — 26, 28, and 33 millim. There are also quite a number in his honor, struck 
before his accession, and indicative of the loyal sympathy for him in his fatal sickness. 
His death has been commemorated by similar issues, descriptions of which have not 
yet had time to reach America. Aside from these personal medals, the coins struck 
during the brief reign of the late Emperor are already sought by collectors, and from 
their scarcity now command an advance over their nominal value, and will soon be 
reckoned among the rarest of the German pieces. Most of the Medals can doubtless 
be procured through C. G. Thieme of Leipzig, if any of our readers so desire. 

M. 
I The references of Figures are to the Plate in the April number. 

VOL. XXIII. 2 



lo AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [July, 

THE MEDALS OF ST. CHARLES BORROMEO, 

CARDINAL ARCHBISHOP OF MILAN. 
BY DR. H. R. STORER.* 

In the course of researches having for their end the medallic history of 
medicine, which includes mental as well as physical diseases, needs and 
remedies, I have entered certain by-paths that have led directly to convents, 
holy shrines, cathedrals, and even to the Vatican itself. These digressions 
have been extremely interesting, and productive of much half forgotten but 
none the less valuable historical material, a portion of which has proved 
useful for the purpose I have in mind. Curiously enough I have failed, 
although I have sought it far and high, to find the aid I had hoped in the 
quarter where it was most reasonably to have been expected, that is to say, 
among Catholic clergymen. Unlike their predecessors of a century ago, few 
of them at the present day, at least in this country, seem versed in these 
pursuits. The late Rt. Rev. Bishop Hendricken of Providence, although 
making no claim to be a numismatic expert himself, was so interested in this 
matter that he assisted me in searching for such among his colleagues, but in 
vain. I shall be glad if the present paper shall have the effect of inciting 
some one among this great body of scholars to prepare a work, corrected to a 
recent date, upon what would prove a fruitful and, from their standpoint, a 
very useful field of study, — ecclesiastical numismatics. In this there would 
be found to be several sub-departments ; as, for instance, 

I. Medals regarding the general subject, illustrated by many works, among 
which are 

Loescher, Dissertatio de nummariae rei usu in historia ecclesiastica. Vit., 1695, 4*^' 
Grainville. Lettre sur Tusage qu'on peut faire des M6dailles par rapport ^ la religion. 
M6m. de Trev., Aug., 1715, pp. 1411-1433. 

Seelen. De studio conservandi religionem per numos. Lubec, 1721, 4to. 

II. Biblical Numismatics. 

Cavedoni. Numismatica biblica o sia dichiarazione delle monete antiche memorate nelle 
Sante Scritture. Modena, 1850, 8vo. ; with Appendix in 1855. 

De Saulcy. Recherches sur la Numismatique Judaique. Paris, 1854, 4to. 

Werlhof. Biblische Numismatik, oder Erklarung der in der heiligen Schrift erwahnten 
Miinzen. Hannover, 1855-6, 8vo. 

Levy. Geschichte der judischen Munzen. Breslau, 1862, 8vo. 

Madden. History of Jewish Coinage and of Money in the Old and New Testaments. 
London, 1864, ^vo. 

Coins of the Jews. Boston, 1881, 4to. 

King. Early Christian Numismatics. London, 1873, 8vo. 

III. Purely religious medals and tokens, as those of Our Saviour, The Blessed 
Virgin, Saints, Congregations, Brotherhoods and Ecclesiastical Societies generally ; a 
great many of which are in my possession. 

Olearius. Prodromus Hagiologiae numismaticae. Amstadt, 1709, i2mo. 
Weinrich. Epistola de numis Sanctorum imagines exhibentibus. Erfurt, 1709, 4to. 
Verzeichniss der Heiligen auf mtlnzen. Leipsic, 1746, 8vo. 
Woog. De S. Andrea Martyre in numis. Dresden, 1749, 4to. 

Schlegel. Collectanea de Sanctis in numis. A manuscript mentioned by Lipsius as 
existing at Gotba in 1801. 

* Read before the Newport, R. I., Historical Society. 



1888.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. ii 

IV. The medals of the Vatican mint. 

Bonanni. Numismata Pontificum Romanorum. 2 vols. Rome, 1699, f^^* '^^^^ ^^ ^^ 
my library. 

Mazio. Serie dei conj. di medaglie pontificie, etc. Rome, 1824, 8vo. 

V. The coinage of the States of the Church. 

Scilla. Breve notizie delle monete pontificie. Rome, 1715, 4to. I have this. 
Salvaggi. De numo argenteo S. Zachariae pont. max., etc. Rome, 1807, 8vo. 
Cinagli. Le monete dei Papi descritte in tavole sinottiche. Fermo, 1846, 4to. 
Gagarine. Unerdirte p&pstliche mtlnzen. Berlin, 1846, 8vo. 
Promis. Monete dei romani pontefici avanti il mille. Turin, 1858, 8vo. 
Pelletier. De la numismatique papale. Paris, 1859, 8vo. 
Sipelli. Quatro monete ponteficie, etc. Trieste, 1859, 4to. 

Charvet. Origines du pouvoir temporel des papes, pr6cis6es par la numismatique. Paris, 
1865, 8vo. 

VI. The coinage of prelates and monastic houses having secular power. A 
great number of the issues of these is contained in 

Neumann. Beschreibung der bekanntesten kupfermttnzen. 6 vols. Prague, 1836-72, 8vo. 

VII. The medals of Cardinals, Papal legates and other dignitaries other than 
the sovereign pontiffs. 

Gaetani. Museum Mazzuchellianum, seu numismata virorum doctrind praestantium. 
2 vols. Venice, 1761, fol. This magnificent and most valuable work I own. 

VIII. Regarding the additional group, however, of medico-ecclesiasticals, if I 
may use this expression, which comprises the extensive series of the medals and 
tokens of sacred places, occasions and sources, of healing, many of which are in my 
collection, while several of them I have described in my papers upon the medals of 
obstetrics * and of sanitation,! there seem to exist very few publications to aid one. I 
scarcely know more than the following : 

Benno (Abbot). Disquisitio sacra numismatica de origine, quidditate, virtute, pioque usu 
numismatum, seu Crucularum S. Benedicti Abbatis. Vienna, 1743, i2mo. The medals of St. 
Benedict have always been esteemed of peculiar efficacy toward keeping good hope in their 
wearer during the prevalence of epidemics, as of the plague and cholera. The work referred to 
is so extremely rare that it was unknown to Lipsius,t and is therefore unmentioned in his 
enumeration of all numismatic books published previously to the existing century. It was 
equally a stranger to Pfeiffer and Ruland, who have catalogued no less than one hundred and 
fifty-seven varieties of the " Benedict-pfennige." It is however in my library. 

Pfeiffer and Ruland. Pestilentia in nummis. Weimar, 1880, 8vo. 

The same, revised and enlarged, with photographic plates. Tubingen, 1882, 

8vo. Both of these editions I have, as also 

Die Deutschen Pestamulete ; ein nachtrag zur " Pestilentia in nummis." 

Deutsches Archiv fftr Gesch. der Medicin, etc., 1882. 

With these preliminary remarks I come to the subject of the present 
paper. 

A couple of years ago, while examining the manuscript catalogue of the 
medical collection of a professional friend with similar tastes to my own, Dr. 
G. J. Fisher of Sing Sing, N. Y., I found included among these memorials of 
physicians, surgeons and professors of the art humane, one of St. Charles 
Borromeo, with the explanation that it was because ** during the prevalence 

♦ New England Medical Monthly, November and t The Sanitarian, Mav, July, August, and Oct., 1887 ; 
December, i^ February and April, 1888. 

I Bibliotheca numaria. 2 vols. Leipsic, 1801, 8vo. 



12 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [July, 

of the plague at Milan in 1576, he gave his personal attendance to the sick at 
the risk of his life, and spent all that he possessed in ministering to their 
wants." 

Recognizing the justice of this reasoning, I further discovered in a work 
in my library upon the medals commemorative of numismatists,* evidence that 
St. Charles, like Goethe, whose medallic biography in connection with medi- 
cine I have similarly endeavored to collate,t was also a student of coins and 
medals. The collection of this kind that he formed while at Rome was long 
preserved intact. It was cited by the learned Hubert Goltzius of Bruges, who, 
upon his return to the Netherlands in 1560, reported that he had examined in 
Italy no less than nine hundred and fifty numismatic cabinets ; a proof of the 
ardor with which this department of history was then pursued by scholars. 

Upon examining my own collection, it proved that I at this time pos- 
sessed but one or two medals of St. Charles, and so seldom had I seen them 
referred to by authors, that I presumed there probably did not exist more than 
a dozen separate varieties. Durand of Geneva, in 1865, was able to present 
in the body of his work already cited, but four, and in his supplement one 
other, a fifth. The investigation that I have made has, however, already 
revealed no less than forty-one. 

In commencing my study of the medals of St. Charles, I had this addi- 
tional interest. In the spring of 1854, nearly thirty-five years ago, I made 
my first visit to Milan. The winter had been spent at Valletta among the 
memories of St. John of Jerusalem and his Knights Hospitallers, at Naples, at 
Rome, and at Florence. Upon passing thence into Lombardy, each day that 
was spent within the beautiful northern city, nestling under the snows of the 
Alps, produced a more and more profound satisfaction, which rapidly centered 
about its most impressive of cathedrals and the relic in crystal casket that this 
contained, the embalmed body of St. Charles Borromeo. I had already 
visited many notable shrines of the kind, but had been equally affected by 
none. During a trip at that time to the Borromean Islands in Lago Mag- 
giore, which for several centuries have been in the possession of the family of 
St. Charles, I availed myself of the opportunity of visiting Arona, his birth- 
place, near which stands the colossal bronze statue erected to his memory in 
1697, one hundred and thirteen years after his death. Towering to the 
height of nearly seventy feet, it represents the saint in the habit of a simple 
** religious," bestowing his blessing upon his town*s-people, and indeed upon 
his country. The feeling of veneration that then impressed itself upon me 
was intensified upon a subsequent visit to Milan, many years afterwards, and 
it has been with peculiar satisfaction that I have found myself able by the 
preparation of the present paper, to pay professional tribute to his memory. J 

• Durand. M^daillcs et jetons des numismates, then Chief Penitentiary and Archprelatc at Sta. Maria 

Geneva, 1865, 4°. Maggiore, and to the legates at Bologna and Ravenna, 

t See Journal^ Oct., 1877, and Jan., 18S8. At the death of Pope Pius he returned to his See of 

X St. Charles was the grandson of Federigo Borro- Milan. He died in 1584, and was canonized by Pope 

meo, and second son of Ghiberto II, Count of Arona, Paul V in 1610. These facts I take from an extremely 

and Margarita de* Medici, sister of Pope Pius IV. He minute history of the House of Borromeo, in my library, 

was born in 1518. In 1560, while an abbot, he was contained in Der Historischen Remarques iiber die 

called to Rome by his uncle, and appointed Apostolic neuesten Sachen in Europa, Vol. IX. Hamburg, 1707, 

Protonotary, and early in the next year Cardinal I)ea- 4°. The several chapters are upon pages 116, 123, 140 

con, under the title of Sts. Vitus and Modestus; then and 148. St. Charles's biography is given upon pages 

Archbishop of Milan and Cardinal Patron ; soon after, 141 and 142. The family name was originally Bonro- 

Cardinal Presbyter, with the title of St. Praxedes, and mano, afterwards contracted into Borromeo. 



i888.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 13 

While engaged upon this catalogue, it occurred to me that among my 
foreign correspondents there was one at Milan from whom, as a townsman of 
St. Charles, I might expect great aid. The event has justified the reasoning. 
Of the thirteen medals of which he has sent me descriptions, twelve were 
wholly new to me ; while, curiously enough, with the single exception indi- 
cated, the twenty-nine that I had myself independently collected, were as 
completely unknown to my Milanese friend. He will pardon me if I thus 
freely express my thanks to Signor Francesco Gnecchi, the author, conjointly 
with his brother Ercole, of several important numismatic works.* 

I will now enumerate the medals of St. Charles thus far within my 
knowledge. As it is more than likely that there are others still of which I 
have not heard, I shall trust that if any such omissions occur to my readers 
they will be kind enough to inform me of them. I shall be particularly grati- 
fied if clergymen in charge of parishes dedicated to St. Charles Borromeo, or 
holding collegiate chairs under the same patronage, shall become sufficiently 
interested to aid me. It will be perceived in the course of the paper that I 
am already under obligations of the kind to one of the Reverend professors 
at the College of St. Laurent, near Montreal, Canada. I must also acknowl- 
edge my gratitude to Rev. James Coyle, of St. Joseph's, Newport, R. I., for 
valuable assistance in interpreting several abbreviations that would have been 
utterly unintelligible to any person save an ecclesiastic. It will be noticed 
that I have endeavored to arrange the medals according to the device and 
inscription upon the obverse, of which there are several distinct types or 
groups. 

1. Obverse. Bust of the Holy Father to the right Inscription : pavlvs • v • 

BVRGHESIVS. RO(MANVS). P(ONTIFEX). MAX(IMVS). 

Reverse. The canonization of St. Charles. Inscription : to right, above, inter. 
SANCTOS. REFERT and in cxcrguc, card(inalem). borromevm. a(nno). n. (Nostro.^or 
Nativitatis T) m. d c. x. (The points are three-cornered.) 
Bofianni, Loc. cit., II, pp. 505, 526, fig. XXI. 

This is figured by Bonanni, and was struck upon the canonization of the saint. 

2. Olnwrse, As the preceding. 

Reverse, Two angels, hovering, uphold a crown, which rests upon the word 
Humiliias in "Lombardlc*' characters. Legend, commencing at the right of the 
crown, ET. EXA-LT-AViT. iiv-MiLES. (The points are three-cornered.) 
Ibid, II, pp. 505, 527, fig. XXII. 

This is figured by Bonanni. Its reverse resembles that of No. 21. The crowned 
" Humilitas '' is spoken of by Signor Gnecchi in a recent letter to me as the arms of 
"the Borromeo family," as though it had been such previously to the time of St. 
Charles. I think, however, that this may be an error, and that the crest in question 
was the private one of the saint, assumed by himself. It was at any rate by his orders 
placed upon his tomb, after the epitaph which he himself had written.! The three 
signet rings, interlocked, which appear on Nos. 10, 11, and 25 were similarly probably 
not the general family crest. They are given upon the medal of Cardinal Federigo 

* Le Moncte di Milano da Carlo Magno a Vittorio their crest, others of them had employed three feathers, 

Emanuele II, 1884 J Guida Numismatica Universale, as suggestive of the worthlessness of worldly posscs- 

1886, and Le Monete dei Trivulzio (a celebrated family sions and desires. (Loc. cit., II, p. 527.) Both of these 

of Milan), 1887. emblems were employed by Vitalliano Borromeo, more 

t Bonanni states that the ancestors of St. Charles than a century before the birth of St. Charles (Der His- 

had also professed the great virtue of humility, and that torischen Remarques, etc., 1707, p. 118). The feathers 

while some of them had adopted a kneeling camel as are spoken of as springing from a camel's hump. 



14 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [July, 

Borromeo hereafter described. They appear to have originated with this latter prelate, 
who died half a century after St. Charles, as his own device, and to have been subse- 
quently perpetuated by his friends. This seems to have been the opinion of Count 
Gaetani of Brescia, to whose work I have already referred, and who from being a cleric 
himself would have been likely to have ascertained all the facts in the case. 

3. Obverse. As the two preceding. 

Reverse. In the field, a little to the right, the church of St. Charles upon the 
Via Flaminia or Corso, in Rome. At the left, above, the saint, in clouds representing 
heaven, blessing the church. Inscription : DEi-AEDr-FicAXio. est(is). In exergue, 
s(anctvs). carolvs. (The points are three-coniered.) 

Ibid. II, pp. 505, 527, fig. XXIII. 

Figured by Bonanni. Upon the foundation, in 1612 (Bonanni erroneously says 
1512), of the church of St. Charles in Rome, to the custody of which was committed 
the heart of the saint, by Cardinal Federigo Borromeo of Milan, hereafter to be 
referred to. 

4. Obverse. The front of a church with three portals. In the centre a statue 
of St. Charles ; to the right, one of St. Paul ; and to the left, of St. Blasius. At the 
summit, the cross ; and below, to the right and left, the eagle and dragon of the crest 
of the Borghesi, the family of Pope Paul V. Above these, the Greek letters A and ft. 
Beneath the statue of St. Charles, his crest, the crowned hvmilitas, bisecting the 
word fvnda-me(n;tvm * Legend : tales, a-mbio. fvn-datores. (The points are 
threfe-cornered.) 

Reverse. Inscription : d(omino). o(ptimo). m(aximo). | pavlo. v. p(ontifice). 

M(AXIMO). FAVE(n)TE I AD AMPLIAKDAM iEDEM | S. CAROLI NOMINE | ROMiE PRIMO 
DEDICATAM I LAPIDEM FVNDAME(n) TALE" | PER ARCHIP(RESBYTERVM). S. PETRI | 

CLERici regvl(ares). s. pavli | PONi cvra(ve)rvnt | anno MDCXII 

Ibid. II, pp. 505, 528, figs. XXIV, XXV. 

This, of similar occasion to the last, is figured by Bonanni. The four pieces now 
described constitute what may be termed the Vatican series of the St. Charles medals. 

5. Obverse. Bust of the saint, with biretta, to left. Inscription : car(olvs). 

BORROMEVS-CARD(iNALIS)* ARCHIEP(iSCOPVS). MEDl(OLANl). 

Reverse. An altar, bearing a lamb with uplifted head. Upon it fire descends 
from heaven. Legend : sola gavdet. hv. mil-itate • devs. (This legend will be 
found, abbreviated, upon No. 27.) Bronze. Size 50 mm. (millimetres). By the Ameri- 
can scale, 32 (sixteenths of an inch). 

KoehUr. Historische MUnz-Belustigungen. Nurnberg, 1720-50, 4to; XIII, 377.... (7<7^//i«/. Loc. 
cit., I, p. 379, pi. LXXXV, fig. 2. . . .Tr6sor de Numismatique et cfe Glyptique. M6d. coulees en Italie. 
Paris, 1834-44, fol. ; I, XXXIII, ^....Armand. Les M^dailleurs Italiens des Quinzi^me et Seizi^me 
Si^cles. Paris, 1883,870; II, p. 263. 1 have this work. 

This is thought by Armand to have been struck in the last quarter of the six- 
teenth century, from 1575 to 1600. If such is the case, it must have been shortly 
after the death of St. Charles, and would therefore antedate those issued by the 
Vatican. It is in the collection of Dr. G. J. Fisher, of Sing Sing, N. Y., who has 
kindly sent me impressions. 

6. Obverse. As the preceding, save that the car. is preceded by a distinct 
point, which is absent in the specimen there referred to, and is not mentioned by the 
careful writers previously cited. 

Reverse. As the preceding. Silvered bronze. 50 mm. 32. 

In my own collection. In Gaetani's figures of No. 5, the front (right) panel of 
the altar is plain ; in the present it presents an internal rectangular plate. In his 
figure the altar stands away from the front, with broken ground intervening and 

* The expression e(n) denotes that the letter e has a small dash above it, signifying en, which lack of 
material prevents showing in type. 



i888.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 15 

obscuring the base ; in my specimen it stands nearer, and the whole base is seen. In 
these respects Dr. Fisher's medal seems, from the impressions, to coincide with my 
own. 

7. As the preceding, save upon reverse med. instead of medi. 

This has been communicated to me by Signor Gnecchi of Milan, who has it in 
bronze. He considers it a modern reproduction. 

8. As No. 5, save upon obverse b(eatus). car. instead of car. 
Durand, Log. cit., p. 28, No. 2. 

Durand is in error in referring this to the Tr^sor de Numismatique and to 
Gaetani. The latter at least has s. car. It is possible that Durand but mistook the 
s for B, in which case the present variety does not exist. This abbreviation exists 
however upon Nos. 16 and 17. 

9. Obverse. As that of No. 6. 

Reverse, The cross of Malta, suspended, like that of a military decoration. 
Bronze. 45 mm. 28. 

In the collection of Signor Gnecchi, who has sent me an impression of the reverse. 

10. Obverse, Bust of the saint, to left, with biretta. Inscription : car. borro- 
mevs-car. arc med. 

Reverse, The crowned hvmilitas of St. Charles. Below, three signet rings 
interlocked, as explained under No. 2, and seen also in Nos. i \ and 25. Above the 
rings, M. D. c. To left a large scroll ; to right a smaller one. 'Gold plated. 32 mm. 20. 

In my collection. Commemorative of the beatification of St. Charles, in 1600. 

11. Obverse and reverse as the preceding, but without the date. Bluish 
bronze. 32 mm. 20. 

In my collection. 

12. Obverse, Bust of the saint, to left. Inscription : car. borromevs. car. 

ARC. MED. 

Reverse, The cathedral of Milan. Inscription : templvm maximvm mediolani. 
Bronze. 

In the Gnecchi collection. 

13. Obverse and reverse as the last, save upon the reverse merely templvm 
maximvm. Bronze. 32 mm. 20. 

Jules SamboH. Catalogue d^une Collection de M^dailles Grecques, Romaiaes et de Moyen-Age. 
Rome, 1885, P- 211, No. 2366. 

This is in my library. If it were not for Signor Sambon's deserved reputation 
for carefulness in description, I would suppose that it was but the preceding. 

[To be continued.] 



THE CHANTILLY MEDAL. 

The medal which the Institut de France ordered to be struck in commemoration 
of the Duke d'Aumale's munificent gift of Chantilly to that institution, is a remarkable 
specimen of art. It bears on the obverse a medallion portrait of the donor by Chaplin, 
and on the reverse a view of the chateau and park. Impressions have been struck in 
gold, silver and bronze, and one of each, encased in a fine casket, with dedicatory 
inscription, was presented to the duke at Brussels by a delegation of the institute, 
headed by M. Renan. None but members of the Institute will be entitled to a 
bronze copy. 



i6 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [July, 

MASONIC MEDALS. 

[Continued from Vol. xxii, p. 93.] 

DCCLIV. Obverse, Same as obverse of DCCXLV. Reverse, Mono- 
gram of the letters d.g.p. Legend, la □ reg.\ des def/. de guill/. et de 
LA PAT. ALO DE BRUX.*. [The Regular Lodge of the Defenders of William 
and the Country, in the Orient of Brussels.] The monogram repeats the 
title abbreviated, ** Defenders, Guillaume, Patrie." The planchet is sur- 
mounted by a loop composed of oak leaves.' Bronze, gilt. Size 26. 

DCCLV. Obverse, An hexagonal-pointed star formed of two triangles 
** braced." Two right hands clasped. An irradiated triangle on which is an 
All-seeing eye. Legend, mons | pare.*, union.', in two lines. At the three 
angles of the lower triangle in triangles, j.b.g. which probably have reference 
to the two pillars and the sacred symbol.^ Reverse, Plain. Star-shaped. 
Bronze. Size, from point to point, 18. 

Obverse, A draped female figure seated, holding an olive branch, whilst another 
female empties a cornucopia at her feet ; between the two, a bee-hive on a stand. 
Legend, plenty and peace are the fruits of industry and subordination. 
Reverse, Engraved with emblems of the Royal Arch degree, and the legend, phoenix 
NO. 368. Silver. Size not given.^ 

DCCLVL Obverse, Naked bust of Frederick VII of Denmark to the 
right, wearing a wreath of laurel leaves and berries tied by a bow at the back 
of the head ; the end of the ribbon turns to the right, and falls on the bare 
neck ; on the decollation, schmahlfeld fec. in very small letters. Legend, 
above, Frederick vii. r. 8"^° fr. m.-. prov? v.*. s.-. v.*. [Frederick VII, King, 
Vicar of Solomon for life, of the Eighth Province of Freemasons.] Below, 
t5863. II. 15 (Died Nov. 15, 1863). Reverse, A cross patee, within an open 
wreath of palm to the right and acacia to left and tied with ribbon at the 
bottom ; a sword with its hilt to the right is thrust through the bow ; the ends 
of the ribbon are entwined with the sword-blade on the left, and the stalk of 
the acacia at the right ; above the cross is a radiant double triangle, interlaced 

1 This is a member's badge of some Lodge which peace are symbolired in the second degree, it is by 
does not exist, nor can any trace of it be found in the different emblems from the above, and the bee-hive 
Calendars of 1 863 or 1869, as I learn from Bro. Shackles, alone is hardly sufficient to entitle it to be classed as 

2 Bro. Shackles tells me that the Grand Orient of Masonic, since it is often used on medals having no 
France constituted at Mons, 9 May, 1800, the Lodge relation to the Order ; as for instance, on the piece men- 
Concorde according to its Modern Rite. In 1838 the tioned on page 2ci of my work, frequently but errone- 
Lodge passed to the Grand Orient of Belgium under ously catalogued as Masonic. The lack of any other 
the name of Perfect Union. Hence the legend on the distmctively Masonic device, as well as of any attribu- 
medal. On the 29th Dec. i8j9, the Lodge superadded tion on the obverse, and the fact that the reverse is 
the grades of A. and A. S. Rite, so that there are now engraved, seems to me to throw additional doubt upon 
attached two Chapters of the i8th or Rose Croix grade, it. From all that appears, it may be a prize medal of 
(one ** Rit Moderne " 1806, and one A. and A. S. Rite, some Exhibition, with the reverse smoothed and en- 
1840,) and an Areopagus conferring up to the 30°. The graved. Hughan has succeeded in tracing the Lodge 
Lodge is still working. mentioned, for he says " Phoenix Ix}dge No. 368 was 

3 Bro. Hughan considers this piece, the obverse of removed to Hull, England, in 1817, viae Riley^s York- 
which is from a die, (which was shown in the Masonic shire Lodges, page 76." I infer from this that he has 
Exhibition at Worcester, England, Aug. 27, 1884, No. changed his opinion, at least as to the origin of the en- 
31), and at Shanklin, Sept, 9, 1886 No. 314,) to be Ma- graved reverse. It is an interesting medal, and I insert 
sonic ; and in commenting on it in the earlier catalogue, the description, hoping further light may discover the 
thought the obverse was struck in England and the source of the obverse die. I judge that some member 
reverse subsequently engraved in the United States ; in of the Ix)dge, pleased with the emblems of the obverse, 
the latter he traces it to a Lodge in England. I hesitate which certainly suggest the emblems of the Fraternity, 
to express a contrary opinion, but while plenty and had adapted tne medal to Masonic use. 



i888.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 17 

or *' braced," on which is G. Legend, opfyldte lofter vare hans trost i 
DODEN [Fulfilled promises were his comfort or trust in death]. At the bottom, 
very small, w. christesen.' Bronze. Size 34. 

DCCLVII. Obverse, A foul anchor with a crown at the end of one of 
the stocks. No legend. Reverse, Inscription in three lines, Monday | nights 
Ilodg in rude letters. Brass. Size 19. This is probably a cast ; although 
it has no Masonic emblem, I think it is most probably an old English Medal 
of the Fraternity ; it is possible of course that it may be of some non- Masonic 
body, but its apparent age leads me to this attribution, in which Bro. Hughan 
coincides.* 

DCCLVIII. Obverse, The two pillars on a platform, their plinths 
corner-wise to the observer ; they are surmounted by ornamental capitals and 
a pomegranate Hn form resembling a pine-apple) , one on the top of each ; 
against that on tne right leans a ladder of three rounds, over which, between 
the pillar and the edge of the medal, are a hand holding erect a flaming 
sword, and three candles arranged in a triangular form ; against the pillar on 
the left leans the twenty-four inch gauge, above which is a sprig of acacia, a 
gavel, and a trowel ; between the pillars, resting on three steps, is the Holy 
Bible erect, on which are the square and compasses ; over it is the face of the 
radiant sun, above it on the left the crescent moon, and on the right a cluster 
of seven stars ; at the top the All-seeing eye sheds its rays ; in exergue, the 
level with the square on the left and the plumb on the right ; between the 
plumb and the foot of the ladder is the name of the die-cutter, brush (?) very 
small. No legend. Reverse, The porch of a temple, two columns on either 
side, supporting an entablature, from which springs an arch, the key-stone of 
which is wanting ; at the top, over the arch, a glory from which rays fall 
through the space, and a hand (?) is extended downward from the rays ; 
between the two pillars on the left is the rod of Moses entwined with a 
serpent, over which is a burning bush ; between the two pillars on the right 
are three triangles interlaced, and above them Moses kneels and receives the 
tables of the Law from heaven ; between the centre pillars stands an altar 
approached by seven steps, on its right a vase or pitcher ; on its left the 
ephod or breast-plate of the High Priest ; over the altar is the letter G, an 
Eastern crown above it and one on each side ; an ashlar at the foot of the 
arch on each side, rests on the top of the entablature ; in the exergue is what 

1 This mortuary medal, struck by the Grand Lodge the Grand Lodge adopted the Swedish Rite of 12 de- 
of Denmark, I describe from an impression sent me by grees, based on the Rite of Zinnendorf (of 7 degrees). 
Mr. Lyman H. Low, of New York. The legend on the I have not learned the provincial divisions of this, and 
reverse is said to have been the favorite motto of the the authorities I have consulted differ hopelessly in 
king. I hazard the interpretation of the second v on their statements. I learn from Bro. Shackles that the 
the obverse ; V. s. I have no doubt stands for Vicar of Swedish rite has now but two " provinces " ; I presume 
Solomon, the name of the highest grade in the rite and that Norway and Sweden may constitute one, and Den- 
also of the Presiding Officer (See Note 294). This mark another, and though tnere are not so many as 
office, in Denmark at least, appears to have been held formerly, it retains its original number. Frederic was 
for life. elected to the position in 1848 under the old regime^ and 

It has been thought by some authorities to have ref- seems to have retained the old title. 

crcncc to the Rite of Strict Observance, introduced into 2 I have found no lx)dge of this name in Hughan's 

Denmark by Baron von Bulow in 1782, but the eighth List of Lodges at the time of the "Union," but about 

province of that rite was Russia ; Rebold says, (p. 021,) 1770 the Grand Lodge and some of the subordinate 

that that system was abandoned after the Convention Lodges were accustomed to hold their meetings at 

of Wilhclmsbad, in 1782, and Danish Masonry returned the "Crown and Anchor," Strand, London. See Note 

to the English system of 3 degrees, but retained the 321. I describe this from the specimen in the Poillon 

Past Master and Scotch Master grades. Jan. 6, 1855, <-^ol lection. 

VOL, XXIIL r 



i8 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. (July, 

I suppose to be a roll, and the name of the die-cutter, brush, repeated.' 
Silver. Size 25 nearly. 

DCCLIX. Obverse, The arms of the City of London ; argent, a cross 
gules ; in the first quarter a sword erect gules, the emblem of St. Paul, the 
patron saint of the city. On the horizontal crossbar, 1882. Legend, On 
the right, the city motto abbreviated, dom. dir. nos [For Domine dirige nos, 

Lord, direct us,] and on the left r m i boys [Royal Masonic Institution 
for boys.] Reverse, Plain or not described. An engraving of this medal, 
struck for the annual celebration of the institution named, which is a charity 
under the patronage of the Grand Lodge of England, is given in the London 
Freemason for July i, 1882, page 39. I do not know the metal, but suppose 
it is of silver ; the size is perhaps as engraved.' 

DCCLX. Obverse, A circle, formed by a snake devouring its tail, sur- 
rounds a triangle ; on the left, >LiiLL.J-; on the right, VDUQriu'nn; be- 
low, A JQ V. •> n< <, which does not require explanation ; within it a key- " 
stone on which htwsstks Reverse, Within a circle the mallet and 
chisel crossed, surrounded by the legend, son of man mark well Outside 
the circle the legend, advanced and space for date. Bronze. Size 21.^ 

DCCLXL Obverse, Within the square and compasses a pentalpha 
(the English jewel for a Provincial Grand Master, a position corresponding 
very much to that of District Deputy Grand Master in American Lodges). 
Legend, sir e. a. h. lechmere bart. m. p. p. g. m. w. b. Williamson, mayor. 
MASONIC EXHIBITION. AUG. 27. 1 884. WORCESTERSHIRE. Reverse, The arms of' 
the city of Worcester impaled in sinister with another coat, with which 

1 am not familiar. I have seen only an engraving of this medal, which 
is not so distinct as could be desired, and I doubt if it fully represents 
the blazon. Dexter, parti per fess : in dexter chief a bee-hive and in 
sinister a sloop sailing sinister, a horn of plenty below (tinctures not indi- 
cated) : in base, per pale, argent and gules, dexter an anchor ; no device 
on sinister. Sinister, the arms of Worcester; quarterly, sable and gules, 
over all a castle triple-towered argent. The first quarter impales the arms 
of the same city as used at a later period ; argent, a fess between three pears 
sable, two in chief, one in base. Legend, Separated by a circle, floreat 
SEMPER FiDELis civiTAS. [May the faithful city flourish forever.] An orna- 
mental cross at the bottom.'* Silver, bronze, and white metal. Size 26. 

W. T. R. MARVIN. 
[To be continued.] 

1 This is evidcntljf a Royal Arch medal of English 3 This medal is described from one in the collection 
origin, and my description is made from a rubbing of of *Bro. J. Newton, of Holton, England, P.P.S.G.D., East 
the impression in the collection of Bro. James Newton, Lancashire, exhibited at Worcester (No. 36), Aug. 27, 
P. P. S. G. D., of Bolton, England, sent me by Bro. 1884. It is there stated that it was designed by Major 
Hughan j I may have omitted some minor details. F. G. Irwin, of Bristol, England, as a Mark token. 
Doubtless rare, as I have never seen or heard of any 4 This medal, for an engraving of which I am in- 
other impression. This piece was shown in the Ma- debted to Bro. Hughan, was struck in commemoration 
sonic Exhibition at Worcester, August, 1884, No. 33. of the opening of the Masonic Exhibition, held at 

2 There have been badges struck for other Annual Worcester, England, Aug. 27, 1884, by Sir E. A. H. 
Celebrations of this Chanty, and also for the other Lechmere, the Provincial Grand Master. In the Cata- 
Masonic charities supported by the English Freemasons, logue of this Exhibition, the last number mentions a 
as I am informed, but they are badges rather than medal with a different legend, "Masonic Exhibition, 
medals : some of them I understand have been very Worcester, Aug. 27, 1884." I have seen no other des- 
elegant and elaborate ; but they are hardly to be con- cription or mention of such a medal, and think that the 
sidered Medals, and I have made no effort tQ get de- legend may have been changed to that in the text, and 
8criptiQii9 fpr that reason, the die cut after the description was made. 




i888.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. t^ 

GLEANINGS. 

THE BRITISH MUSEUM GOLD ROOM. 

Turning out of the gallery of ancient glass and majolica, a closed 
door to the left opened on my ringing, and admitted me to the passage 
I leading to the gold room, to which I proceeded after the formality of 
inscribing my name and address on the official record of visitors. I 
then found myself in an apartment of about twenty-five feet square, 
lighted by a glass roof, wall cases surrounding the chamber, and the 
floor also filled with other cases ingeniously constructed to show to great advantage 
the treasures displayed. 

Commencing with the western side, the exhibits comprise Phoenician detached 
beads (the earliest colored glass made) and necklaces ; ornaments, in gilded terra cotta, 
such as the flying Nik6 (Victor)*^ ; snakes intertwined ; Pallas ; pendants and gilded 
leaves; besides bronze gilded leaves, silver dishes from Toulouse, etc., all of early 
Greek (?) manipulation. Succeeding the above, in cases against the north wall, appear 
the Museum collection of rings, and gems for mounting therein ; rings of bronze, rings 
of gold, rings of ivory, classical, mediaeval, and renaissance in period ; apostolical 
rings ; grotesques ; a very phalanx of these finger ornaments. I enumerate a few 
designs, t, e. the snake form, so popular at this present date, gold rings with bezels 
engraved, to use as seals ; gold rings with heads of that precious metal, in relief, and 
comprising among others, Hecate, a Satyr, Athene, a tragic Muse, and a Medusa. 
Further noteworthy specimens are found in the Victory crowning a charioteer, taken 
from the famed Syracusan Medallion ; and some Assyrian rings with animals on the 
bezels. Past the door of entrance, in the first upright wall case are gold objects of 
.various periods, among which are seen a gold medal portrait of Queen Elizabeth, a 
couple of gold snuff-boxes formerly belonging to Napoleon I, one with his miniature 
and a setting of brilliants, the other with a cameo of a satyr and goat. Then in the 
cases abutting the east wall, are exhibited Anglo-Roman ornaments in gold ; chains, 
bracelets, torques ; Byzantine and Teutonic decorative and personal objects, of ancient 
British, Irish, and barbaric character, all in gold. Fresh examination revealed Egyp- 
tian rings and seals, rude Assyrian masks of thin beaten metal, silver and amber 
ornaments from Praeneste ; a gold bowl, embossed, with a procession of six bullocks, 
from Agrigentum ; and gold objects in variety from Sardinia. Of early Etruscan 
designs, continuing on in the cases on the south side, there are numerous examples, 
both in impressed, embossed, and filigree golden work, as witness armlets from Caede ; 
masks ; lovely throatlets of elaborate construction ; brooches, one with a chimera in 
relief ; a golden bulla,* representing the birth of Pegasus from the body of Medusa ; a 
large circular ornament of filigree and agates ; another circular piece with a mask or 
Gorgon*s head, as on coins of Parium , for suspension as a bulla in the centre of a 
necklace ; and lastly, a necklet of diotas (vases) alternating with heads of lo. In late 
Etruscan style, there are seen large golden leaves, sepulchral diadems, a myrtle coro- 
net, and various ear-rings of striking character. 

The cases ranged on the south contain specimens in the " Finest Greek *' style, 
notably ear-rings jn the form of bulls' heads, in the round ; a pendant Victory under a 
solar disk ; Thetis on a dolphin, inspired by a coin of Tarentum ; a chain, with negro 
head ornaments ; a twisted bracelet, the centre havmg an affinity to a Runic pattern ; 
a ruby, or garnet-set chain, with lions* heads in the round, at the two ends ; a fine 
beaded chain from Capua ; a sceptre, having a terminal boss, formed by a Corinthian 
capital and an apple ; and rings with female heads and figures incised. All the above 
are in the purest gold, as are also sundry striking examples of " Late Greek ** manipu- 
lation. Lastly, the wall cases exhibit " Roman *' specimens, which include gold ear- 
rings shaped as amorini ; others as vases ; ornaments with garnets set therein ; large 

* A bulla was an ornament suspended from the neck, with the design, usually, to avert the evil eye. 



20 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [July, 

necklets with coins mounted as bullae (of such gold coins there are aurei of Postumus 
Pius, of Lucilla Augusta, of Philip the Arabian, of Sevcrus Alexander, and of Galba) ; 
further noteworthy objects being a bracelet with settings of plasma (the root of the 
emerald) and a bracelet of gold, plasma, and pearls. 

The centre of the "Gold Room *' is filled up by cases for gems, some so contrived 
that the camei, etc., when examined, are found to be placed so as to show their trans- 
parency. Among so many admirable examples of antique art, it is difficult to select 
any as being super-eminent, but the following may be considered as very choice and 
superb, viz: a large Medusa on amethyst, from the Strovni collection ; a large Hera- 
kles on chalcedony, in extreme relief ; another Herakles, full-face, in almost as high 
relief ; a Medusa on chalcedony, very fine indeed ; an Augustus, with aegis, on sar- 
donyx, the aegis being brown, the field dark brown, the head, etc., white, while a 
golden diadem, set with emeralds and a small cameo, encircle the Caesar's brow ; a full- 
faced Zeus on sardonyx, from Apuleia; and some modem engraved gems, worth 
examination, especially one, a head of Pallas, closely copied from a Thurium didrachm, 
and another, copied from the Dodonean Jove on the coins of Pyrrhus. Some antique 
pastes in intaglio repay attention as curiosities ; especially to be mentioned are a 
Venus and Adonis, a Bath of Venus, and Ariadne and Cupid. The archaic gems from 
Greek islands are quaint and rude, and in treatment and manipulative peculiarity 
resemble objects of a similar nature from Assyria. 

The celebrated Portland Vase, of blue glass, with white figures cut in relief 
thereon ; and the jar of alabaster, inscribed Xerxes, the great king, are so fully des- 
cribed in the Museum handbooks as to render any notice here unnecessary, further 
than the statement that they are objects of surpassing interest and beauty. 

WM. TASKER-NUGENT. 



FACTS ABOUT OLD PAPER MONEY. 

Continental currency issued by authority of the Congress of the United States, 
sells to-day at less than a cent on the dollar of face value. The $30 bill issued under 
resolution of May 10, 1775, can be bought now for twenty-five cents. The $2 bill of 
the same date is also worth twenty-five cents. In other words, the face value of the 
bill has no relation whatever to its value as a curiosity. Probably the nearest that any 
Continental currency comes to par, is in the case of the $4 and $5 bills printed under 
resolution of Congress at Yorktown, April 11, 1778. The %^ bill, with a boar and 
spear, brings $3, if in fine condition, and the $S bill, with a hand and brush, also ^3, if 
in good condition. Certain very small bills, owing to comparative rarity, bring more 
than some bills of very high denominations. A great many people have held on to the 
Continental currency, in the expectation that it would be redeemed, and every now 
and then somebody sends his collection to Washington, demanding payment, only to 
be met by a rebuff. The quantity of Continental money in the market is frequently 
augmented from the hoard of some departed veteran, whose father may have given full 
value for it in times long gone by, and who has kept it, sooner than part with it for a 
song, as a curiosity. The heirs, having a more practical view of the subject, are 
generally willing to let the stuff go at collectors* rates. 

State issues of paper money are of more value, as a rule, than the United States 
or Continental money, being much rarer, especially if issued in the Colonial period. 
A Connecticut five-shilling bill of 1764 is worth $2 ; a one shilling and threepence of 
the same date is worth the same; a twopence of 1777 is worth $1.50, and so forth. 
Delaware bills, many of which were printed by Franklin, are more common and less 
costly. Georgia issues are scarce and costly, a $20 bill, however, being worth just the 
same as a quarter of a dollar — $2. One of these, which represents a tree forcing a 
millstone upward by its growth, is interesting and suggestive, the motto also alluding 
to the growth of the colonies, notwithstanding the oppression of England. Maryland 



i888.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. ±i 

bills are not so rare. A claim for ;£340 against Massachusetts, issued under authority 
of that State in January, 1780, can be purchased for the moderate sum of $2. The 
treasurer ot the Commonwealth would, however, doubtless refuse to honor it if pre- 
sented. On the other hand, a Massachusetts bill for twopence, with a pillar and 
codfish design, is also worth $2, which illustrates how face value is ignored in Revolu- 
tionary currency. New York money of the Revolution brings a fair figure, a bill 
signed by Abraham BrinckerhofI for half a Spanish milled dollar, Sept. 2, 1775, being 
worth $2. Indeed, with the exception of a few five and ten pound issues, most New 
York money. Colonial and Revolutionary, is worth more than its face. Interesting 
issues are those of the New York water works, running from 1774 to 1776 inclusive. 
As curiosities, these bills are worth close to the original value. As to present values, 
the New York issues present a favorable contrast to those of most other original 
States. 

For inscription. North Carolina currency takes the prize. It is calculated to 
arouse mixed feelings to see a $10 bill, with the inscription "American Union Forever," 
going for fifty cents, while a $40 bill reminds Americans of the cost of championing 
*' Freedom of Speech and Liberty of the Press," by a scale of $39. A Virginia bill of 
$300, issued for army clothes, is worth $2, while $500 bills of the same Commonwealth, 
set afloat in 1780, bring only half a dollar apiece. A Virginia ^1000 bill of 1781 is 
rated at from $i to $1.50, and a $2000 bill of the same year but a later issue, is worth 
$1.50 to $2, Virginia appears to have gone in more heavily than any other State on 
bills of large denominations 

The worth of Confederate money as a curiosity, like that of Continental currency, 
bears no relation to its face value. The possessor of one of the very few Confederate 
silver half dollars, struck off about the beginning of the rebellion, rates it at $1000. 
On the other hand, a Confederate $500 bill with a picture of Stonewall Jackson is 
worth just twenty-five cents. A $100 bill with the head of Mrs. Jefferson Davis can 
be bought for fifty cents. There is not a Confederate bill in existence, whatever its 
face value, worth more than $1, None of the State issues of the Confederacy reach 
$1 in value, although five and ten cent shinplasters of Alabama, North Carolina and 
South Carolina bring fifteen cents apiece among collectors. In the dark days of the 
war, even the most enthusiastic Unionist could hardly have anticipated that within a 
quarter of a century five cents of United States fractional currency would be worth 
from fifty cents to $1, or from ten to twenty times the lawful value. Such, however, is 
the fact as to the series of 1862, while certain specimens of all the issues are largely 
in demand at high prices. — Nezu York Sun. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL. 

THE WESTERN MOUNDS. 



The Government has undertaken a work of the utmost consequence to every one 
interested in American archaeology and history. This is the purchase of the extensive 
ancient mounds and earthworks located in Ross, Highland and Adams counties, Ohio, 
which are the best preserved to be found east of the Rocky Mountains. Of their 
peculiar character, they are the most extensive in the world. The government is 
spurred to greater activity in its desire to control and preserve these splendid old 
works by two causes. One is that they are suffering sadly by reason of the cultivation 
of the country in which they are situated. Many mounds have been plowed down, 
and many of the walls enclosing ancient towns have been almost levelled to the ground, 
in whole or part. In some instances the natural wear of storm, of frost and snow and 
ice and many thaws, has done irreparable mischief. The work of preservation, if ever 
done, cannot longer be delayed. The second reason for energetic action is a rivalry in 
this work between the scientists of the Peabody Museum, Smithsonian Institute and 



22 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [July, 

the United States Geological Survey. Not long ago the Peabody Museum acquired 
the famous Serpent Mound, one of the best of all of Ohio's ancient works. The 
Museum authorities contemplate the establishment of a permanent park, in which this 
will be preserved. Government agents are now making surveys of the most important 
ancient works throughout Ohio, to determine the character and cost of the work 
necessary to enclose and preserve them, and for use in an elaborate report now under 
way. Valuable surveys have also been made in behalf of the United States Geological 
Survey. This is the first visit of a Government scientific corps to these works. Prof. 
Wright says they are the largest of the kind in the world, and are noted both in the 
scientific circles of Europe and in this country. 

REMAINS OF AN ANCIENT CITY. 

A DISPATCH from El Paso, Texas, to the 5/. Louis Globe-Defnocrat^ says that on a 
large ranch in Northwestern Chihuahua, belonging to Senator Hearst, of California, 
and Mr. Follansbee, of El Paso, have been found the remains of an ancient city, hewn 
and carved out of the solid rock. It lies in the fastnesses of the Sierra Madres, and 
the approach to it is difficult. There is no tradition existing regarding the city, any- 
where, but the remains show that the inhabitants of this pre-historic place were at least 
partly civilized. There are hundreds of rooms excavated in the solid rock on the hill 
sides, and the stone taken therefrom is used for buildings and walls outside. There 
are different tiers of rooms and stairways cut in the rock, leading from one to the other. 
In many places the rock is finely chiseled and polished. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 

A BRONZE CANADIAN MEDAL. 

In one of the earliest volumes of this Journal (Vol. II, No. 6, 1867) was a query, which 
remained unanswered. Would it be allowable to repeat it, as it refers to two old New England 
names } 

Obverse, On an altar two hands clasped, and grasping a burning torch ; Legend, 
" William Dummer Powell and Annie Murray; " Exergue, " Intermarried 3d October, 1775.'' 

Reverse, In a wreath of double knots, united by links, legend, " To celebrate the Fiftieth 
Anniversary, Upper Canada, 3d October, 1825." 

I would like to learn the origin and history of this medal, and the persons commemorated. 

Our correspondent will find a full description of this medal in the youmal for April, 1882, 
(Vol. XVI, p. 83.) Mr. Powell was Chief Justice of Upper Canada. 

PIECES RELATING TO AMERICA IN A RECENT ENGLISH SALE. 

At a late sale of coins in London, an American piece, in tin, very like the large Cent of 
1792, with G. W. Pt. on reverse at base, was sold; nothing was known of its history, and there 
were some doubts of its genuineness. In the same sale was a medal with the head of James II, 
relating to Wm. Phips, Governor of the Province of Massachusetts in 1692, who in 1684 went 
to England to procure means to recover the treasure from a Spanish vessel wrecked near the 
Bahamas; on his second attempt in 1687 he recovered treasure to the amount of ;^3oo,ooo, of 
which he received ;^i 6,000 as his share. 

STATUE DISCOVERED AT ATHENS. 

A SMALL brass statue was discovered recently near the Acropolis Museum, Athens. It is 
in a perfect state of preservation, and the figure bears a close resemblance to the Apollo of 
Canachos in the British Museum. This statue is the best workmanship in brass that has yet 
come to light in the course of the excavations at the Acropolis. 

SIOUX NAMES OF MONEY. 

The names for money in the language of the Ogallalla Sioux are interesting. Gold is 
mases-ska-zi, literally "yellow white iron *' ; silver is mases-ska-ska, or " white iron," and green- 
backs are minne-huapimases-ska, or " paper that talks white iron." 



1 888.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 23 

PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

AMERICAN NUMISMATIC AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

For the following, abstract of the Proceedings of this, the most prosperous 
Numismatic Society in America, we are indebted to Mr. H. R. Drowne. — Eds, 

The Annual Meeting of this Society was held on March 20, last, in the Society'* 
Room, President Parish presiding. The report of the Executive Committee showed a 
prosperous year, and growth in membership and interest. The Numismatic meetings 
have been well sustained, and interesting papers have been read, exhibitions made, or 
addresses to the members present on some topic allied to the objects of the Society, 
have been given : these have proved of great value in sustaining the active interest of 
all. The Librarian reported numerous accessions, and the number of volumes under 
his care now exceeds 3,300, exclusive of duplicates. The cabinet of medals has also 
been enriched by nearly 300 pieces, including some rare and valuable English Medals, 
and some progress has been made in forming a collection of Masonics. 

The election of officers resulted in the choice of Daniel Parish for President^ 
Andrew C. Zabriskie, Wm. Poillon, James Oliver and David L. Walter, as Vice Presi- 
dents, H. Russell Drowne, Secretary^ Benjamin Betts, Treasurer, Lyman H. Low, 
Librarian, Charles H. Wright, Curator of Numismatics, Dr. Josef Wiener, Curator of 
Archaeology, and Charles Prycr, Historiographer The Proceedings for the last two 
years are in press and will soon be ready for distribution. 

At the following meeting in May, Mr. Betts, the Treasurer, resigned in conse- 
quence of sickness, and his resignation was accepted with much regret. 



OBITUARY. 

MICHAEL MOORE. 

The venerable Michael Moore, who had been failing in health, died at his home 
at Trenton Falls, N. Y., May 28 last. Few men were better known in that part of 
the State. His natural capacities and his broad intelligence commanded the respect 
of all who were brought in contact with him, and literary men, artists and scholars 
found delight in his society. He was born in New York City about 1803, ^^^ ^^^ 
resided at Trenton Falls since 1828, having married there a daughter of the late John 
Sherman, grandson of Roger Sherman, one of the signers of the Declaration of 
Independence. 

He was a man of intelligence and well versed in the sciences. He was much 
interested in astronomy, and devoted considerable time to the telescopic study of the 
heavens. He had a valuable collection of ancient coins, and the gathering of them 
gave him much pleasure, and he was one of the oldest subscribers to t\iQ Journal, He 
also possessed several cabinets of rare fossils and handsome mineralogical specimens. 
For a number of years he was politically prominent in the town of Trenton and in the 
county, although he never held an elective office. He was postmaster at Trenton 
Falls for a number of years. His wife and several children survive him. 



A NEW USE FOR SILVER DOLLARS. 

Her Picture Inside a Silver Dollar. " I gave you a silver dollar for some 
cigars half an hour ago. Will you look over your money drawer and see if it has been 
passed out ^ ** It was in a Philadelphia cigar store. A well-dressed young fellow was 
the speaker. The dealer found that he had just eleven of the coins, and he spread 
them in a row on the counter. The young man took them up one by one, weighed 



24 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [July, 1888. 

each in turn in his hand, and an expression of vexation overspread his face as he laid 
the last down very carefully and murmured, ** I knew I could n't tell that way." Then 
he went at them again. This time he grasped the dollar firmly with one hand and 
pressed his nail upon the letter e in states. At the eleventh dollar there came a 
sudden change in the appearance of the coin. Half of it slid one way and half the 
other, and in the lower half, covered with a flat crystal, was the miniature of an 
extremely pretty girl. The young man heaved a sigh of relief, laid down a greenback 
in exchange and left the store. He was one of the numerous victims of a fad that has 
lately struck Philadelphia with all the vigor of oddity and expensiveness combined. 
The pocket pieces are made of two coins, hollowed out and fitted together with such 
exactness that they cannot be distinguished from a genuine coin. A picture of Wie 
owner's "fairest fair" is the correct thing to go inside, and the cost may be from $6 
to ^35 for the frame. 

EDITORIAL. 

It is the intention of the Publishing Committee to make the present volume of the Journal 
the best we have yet issued. In this number we continue the description of Masonic Medals, 
and begin descriptions of Medals struck by Allies of the United States in the Revolutionary 
War, or to commemorate historic events bearing more or less remotely upon that contest, which 
is illustrated by an artotype plate made from the Medals themselves. We shall also continue 
our series of papers on the Coins of India, for which we are so much indebted to Capt. Tufnell, 
and which will be illustrated by two more plates now in preparation. We are happy also to be 
able to promise our readers another interesting paper by one of the American missionaries in 
India, on the same general topic, and its author is a well known authority on such matters. 
Dr. Storer contributes a scholarly paper on the medals of St. Charles Borromeo, which will be 
continued and probably completed in our next number. Beside these papers, all of which will 
have value as adding to the little at present known. by American collectors on these different 
departments of Numismatics, we shall aim to give frequent installments of Mr. Tasker-Nugent's 
** Gleanings," and current items of intelligence on matters of interest to coin collectors. With 
these promises, we feel justified in asking our old friends to continue to sustain us in our efforts 
by prompt renewals of their subscriptions, and by enlarging our list of subscribers as far as 
may be in their power. 

Our friend and occasional contributor, Mr. Lyman H. Low, of New York, has lately left 
us, " strange countries for to see," and to attend some of the large Coin Sales on the Continent, 
soon to take place, one of which, in particular, has been announced in the advertising pages of 
the Journal, We don't expect him to discover another 1804 Dollar over there, as to the 
existence of any genuine issue of which, at the time, he continues skeptical ; but he is sure to 
bring home some valuable pieces for American cabinets, and we wish him a pleasant voyage, 
and a good time there, as well as a safe return. 

We regret that our account of Society proceedings is necessarily so brief in this number, 
and that a notice of Mr. Woodward's recent coin sale must be postponed to our next issue. 
The 1804 Dollar was purchased by Mr. J. Colvin Randall for $660. 



CURRENCY. 



Miss Clara (to Featherly, who is making an evening call) — Poor little Bobby swallowed 
a penny to-day, and weVe all been so much worried about it. Featherly (somewhat at a loss 
for words of encouragement) — Oh, I — er — wouldn't worry, Miss Clara, a penny is not much. 

"There's a $5 bill," said Dumley, looking at it dubiously, **that Tm afraid is bad. 
Some miserable scoundrel has passed it on me." ** Why don't you take it to a bank, Dumley, 
and find out if it's bad ? " " And have them stamp it * counterfeit ' if it is bad t Why, I would 
never be able to get rid of it in the world." 



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Vol. XXIII.— No. 2.] 



[Whole No. 122. 



AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS 

AND 

BULLETIN OF AMERICAN NUMISMATIC AND 
ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETIES. 

October, 1888. 




BOSTON: 

PUBUSHED BY THE BOSTON NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 

QUARTERLY. 



COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION. 

WILLIAM SUMNER APPLETON. 
SAMUEL ABBOTT GREEN. 
JEREMIAH COLBURN. 
WILLIAM T. R. MARVIN. 



SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED BY 

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283 WASHINGTON STREET, BOSTON, MASS. 

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An Communications to be addressed to Jeremiah Colburn, 18 Somerset Street, Boston, Mass. 



CONTENTS. 



Oriental Coins, with special reference to those 

of Southern India 25 

Medals relating to the Colonies of England 

in North America, Struck in Europe. . 31 

The Medals of St. Charles Borromeo, . . 35 

Canadian Jubilee Medal, .... 40 

Recent Spanish Medal, .... 40 

Masonic Medals, 41 

Gleanings : 

Shakespeare's allusions to Coins, . 44 



A New Cent of 1793, . . . . 
Obituary : 

Robert Morris, 

Robert Coulton Davis. . 
'•Black Doggs." . . . 
Notes and Queries: 

Presidential Medals, . . . . 

Foreign Medals relating to America, 

Editorial 

Currency, . . . • . 



45 

46 
47 
47 

48 
48 
48 
48 



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July ist, 1888. 



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18 Somerset Street^ Boston, Mass, 



We rarely quote what contemporaries say of the Journal, but must deviate from our rule to give 
the following from a recent number of the The Sunday School Itmes, 

The American Journal of Numismatics has probably done more than any other single 
agency to advance the interests of numismatic science in this country. To those who have no 
higher idea of numismatology than a more or less systematic hoarding and trading of coins, an 
investigation of such material as this Quarterly furnishes, would come with the freshness of a 
revelation. Few sciences bear directly or indirectly upon so many human interests, or throw 
light into so many dark corners, as this study of coins, medals, and tokens. It is the daughter 
of metallurgy no less than of fine art, the handmaid of history, economics, and archaeology. 
The American Journal is rich in its original matter, as well as in its selections from the 
writings of the highest authorities at home and abroad. It comes in fine dress, clearly printed 
on heavy paper, usually with a frontispiece illustration. With the July number, it enters upon 
the twenty-third volume. Published by the Boston Numismatic Society, at 18 Somerset Street, 
Boston, Mass. Price, $2 a year. 


















COINS OF INDIA. 



AM ER I C A N 

JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS, 

AND 

Bulletin of American Numismatic and Archaeological Societies. 
Vol. XXIII. BOSTON, OCTOBER, 1888. No. 2. 

ORIENTAL COINS. 
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THOSE OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

BV R. H. C. TUFNELL, M. S. C, F. Z. S. 

[Continued from Vol. XXI 11, p. 9.] 

In the first part of this paper I touched very briefly on the chief charac- 
teristics and distinguishing marks of those coins which have been struck by 
the indigenous races of Southern India. In the present part, I propose to 
speak with equal brevity, of those minted by foreign powers in this part 
of the peninsula, leaving more detailed accounts for a future paper. Among 
these powers may be mentioned the Roman, Mohammedan, Portuguese, 
Danish, French, Dutch and English, to each of whose issues, in turn, I 
propose briefly to allude. 

In treating of them, however, the first difficulty which presents itself 
is that of distinguishing those coins which have been actually struck on 
the spot from those which have found their way hither in the course of 
trade, and especially difficult is this in the case of Roman issues. Though 
at first Egypt was the medium of trade between' Rome and the Indies, we 
know that after the subjugation of that country by the Imperial troops, a very 
considerable direct trade sprung up between the two countries, and in conse- 
quence of this, the Roman issues found in Southern India, the portion of the 
peninsula which boasted of the ports of Musiris and Barace, have hitherto 
been attributed to a European mintage, and supposed to have been conveyed 
in Roman ships, to be bartered here for the ivory and ebony ' that adorned 
the boudoirs of the fair maids of Imperial Rome, and for the pepper and 
spices in which their hearts delighted. That such was the case with the large 
hoards of auret that from time to time have been unearthed is more than 
probable, for from time immemorial the native of Southern India has loved to 
bury his riches in the ground, and the merchants who carried down their 
goods from the interior for sale to the Roman ships at Musiris, doubtless on 
their return home, made mother earth their banker. The perfect state of 

I " Sola India nigrum fert ebenum."— Vir^i, 
VOL. XXlil. 4 



26 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [October, 

preservation, too, in which these coins have almost invariably been found, 
precludes the possibility of their ever having been much in circulation. Most, 
indeed, are so perfect that from their appearance they seem to have come 
direct from the Moneta on the Capitoline Hill to the shores of India, merely 
to have been buried here and unearthed centuries after, to tell of the vast 
extent of the enterprise and power of the first European nation that ever 
meditated the conquest of this land. Such, however, cannot be said with 
equal certainty of the stamp of coin to which I now allude, and of the exist- 
ence of which no record has, as far so I am aware, ever yet been made. 
These little copper pieces are found in and around Madura, and some years' 
hunting has proved to me beyond a doubt that they were at one period in 
pretty general use in that part. Hitherto they appear to have completely 
escaped the notice of collectors, and, consequently, no theory regarding the 
place of their mintage has been proposed. For the following reasons I 
incline to the opinion that they were struck on the spot and were not importa- 
tions from Rome. 

In the first place, during a recent visit to Madura and the surrounding 
villages in quest of specimens, I came across no less than seven of these 
coins, Roman beyond any doubt, but of a type which appears to me to be 
totally distinct from that found in Europe. These specimens were scattered 
through several parcels that I examined, and were not all together in one 
or two, as is usually the case when a number of issues have been dug up 
together. Nor was this by any means a solitary instance, for I have rarely 
paid a coin-hunting visit to these places without meeting with more or less 
specimens, and other collectors tell me that their experience has been the 
same. Moreover, they are not the kind of money that one would expect the 
rich Roman merchant to bring in payment for the luxuries of the East, but 
small insignificant copper coins, scarce the size of a quarter of a farthing, and 
closely resembling the early issues of the native mints. Then, again, though, 
as I have said, large hoards of aurei ' have from time to time been discovered, 
and solitary specimens of course ever and anon occur, I have never yet 
heard of the discovery in Southern India of any of those fine copper coins 
(known as first and second brass) so plentifully found among the Roman 
remains exhumed in various parts of Europe, and of all the specimens I have 
myself met with, not one has borne the faintest resemblance to them. Nor is 
this all. While aurei have been discovered in various places, and on one 
occasion a large number of the denarii of Augustus and Tiberius together, the 
stamp of coin I now refer to occurs, as far as I can learn, in and around 
Madura alone, and this surely points to the probability of the existence at one 
time of a Roman settlement at or near that place. And after all, what more 
natural than that, as trade increased and Eastern luxuries became more and 
more popular with the fair dames of Rome, small settlements of agents 
should be established to collect on the spot the produce of the country, and 
convey it to the ships of their employers on their periodical visits to the ports 
of call. True, no traces have been discovered of those fine Roman buildings 

I In 1851 a find of these coins was made near Canna- loads were discovered on that occasion, some few of 

nore on the Malabar coast, a description of which which are I believe, still in the possession of H. H. 

appeared in the Joumal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal the Maharajah of Travancore. 
of that year. It is said that no less than five cooly 



i888.3 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 47 

one sees and admires so much in Europe, but could one expect to find, in a 
small community of mercantile agents settled for a short period in the heart 
of a foreign and uncivilized nation, any evidence of their existence that would 
last as many centuries as have rolled by since Roman merchants traded in 
the East, unless it be such coins as I describe, struck specially for the 
purposes of trade with a pauper population ? Lx>oking then to the facts that 
all the coins of this series are well worn as though they had been in regular 
circulation, that they are of a type differing from those usual to the Imperial 
mints, that they are of so small a value as to be what one would expect to find 
in use when dealing with a people as poor as the early Hindus, that they are 
found almost exclusively in one locality, that they are constantly being found 
and not occurring in a glut at intermittent periods, — surely all these argu- 
ments point to the possible, if not indeed the probable, truth of the theory 
that they were of local mintage. 

On the obverse of all that I have met with, appears an emperor's head, 
but so worn that with one or two exceptions the features are well nigh oblit- 
erated. In one or two specimens a faint trace of an inscription appears 
running round the obverse, but hitherto I have not come across a single 
specimen in which more than one or two letters are distinguishable. The 
reverses vary considerably, but the commonest type seems to bear the figures 
of three Roman soldiers standing and holding gpears in their hands. Another 
bears a rectangular figure somewhat resembling a complete form of the design 
on the reverse of the Buddhist square coins found in the same locality, while 
most are too worn to allow of even a suggestion as to what their original 
design was intended to represent. On one specimen the few decipherable 
letters appear to form part of the name Theodosius, and the style of coin 
points to the probability of its having been issued during the decline of the 
Roman empire, possibly after the capital had been transferred to Constanti- 
nople. Another specimen in gold that I have seen, now in the collection of 
the Rev. James E. Tracy of Tirumangalam, closely resembles on the reverse 
an issue in the British Museum of Leo III, who ruled the Eastern Empire at 
the commencement of the eighth century. It is to be hoped that ere long 
further investigation may reveal specimens in better preservation, from which 
we may reach some decision concerning what at present can be little more 
than conjecture.' 

To pass from the period when the money of Rome was in circulation to 
the time when the Pathan rulers held sway, seems a somewhat excessive 
bound. Yet, as far as I am aware, during this interval, no money locally 
struck in a foreign name found currency here, though one occasionally comes 
across a Persian toman which circulated in Mysore, or a specimen of ** hook- 
money," or larin,^ minted probably on the shores of the Persian Gulf and 
conveyed hither in the course of trade, or as some suppose struck in the 
Maldives. The place of mintage and date of these strange pieces of money 
seem lost in obscurity. Usually they occur in the shape, as their name 
implies, of a fish-hook, and are formed of two pieces of silver wire welded 

I Finds of similar coins have also been made at d'argent quMIs appellent larins de valeur de huist sols 

Anarddhapara and Colombo recently. on ennuiron de notre monnoye, comme i*ai desia dit, 

» Fran9ois Pyrard, a Frenchman, who from 1602 to longues comme le doigt mais redoubles. Le roi les fait 

1607 was a captive in the Maldives, thus writes : ** Aux battre en son isle et y imprimer son nom en lettres 

Maldives on ne fait que des larins des pieces arabesques." 



28 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [October, 

together and doubled round into this shape. A rarer form is perfectly 
straight. ** Fish-hook " larins are found in larger numbers in Ceylon than in 
Southern India, but are of considerable rarity in both localities. 

We pass now to the times of the Pathans and Moghals. The earliest 
issues of these coins found in any quantities in Southern India date back to 
the time when Mohammed bin Taghlak ruled the destinies of Delhi, about the 
middle of the eighth century of the Hejrah era (A. D. 1324-51). This king, 
the nineteenth of his dynasty, at once **the most eloquent and accomplished" 
and the most cruel and merciless prince of his race or time, extended his 
conquests in every direction, and eventually incorporated into the kingdom of 
Delhi nearly the whole of the southernmost parts of India, and even at one 
time meditated the conquest of China. Over each portion of the more 
distant parts of his enlarged dominions separate rulers were set, the most 
southerly of all, that of Malabar, falling to the lot of Ahsan Shah, the father- 
in-law of the famous traveller Ibn Batutah ; while in the appointment of 
Hussain Gango, was laid the foundation of the Bahmani dynasty of the 
Dekhan, whose line extended well into the sixteenth century of the Christian 
era. So extensive became the kingdom of Delhi at this time, and so distant 
from the seat of the supreme government its outlying provinces, that the 
governors, over whom a merely nominal sovereignty could be exercised, soon 
cast off even the semblance of allegiance to their royal master, and promptly 
undertook, what to the Mohammedan mind represents the first act of an 
independent ruler, the issue of coins in their own name. At the same time, 
Mohammed bin Taghlak, undeterred by the fate of his Persian predecessor, 
Kai Khatu Khan, introduced a ** forced" currency, in which copper tankahs 
were made to pass current for silver coins of identical weight. The intro- 
duction of this system rendered Mohammed bin Taghlak so unpopular as to 
encourage each discontented sirdar in provincial charge to raise the standard 
of revolt." 

Of the Bahmani issues so few specimens occur in the south that the 
collector is not likely to come across any. They are generally thicker than 
those common to the Delhi and other Pathan mints, and usually have the 
word Bahmani in Arabic after the ruler s name. Such, however, is far from 
being the case with the contemporary coins in the more southerly province. 
Coins of Ahsan Shah (Figure 35) frequently occur, and he was followed by a 

I Ferishtah*s narrative of the issue of this currency way the copper currency became by degrees so rcdun- 
has been thus translated : — " The Sultan's means did dant that, all at once, it utterly lost credit and was 
not suffice to satisfy his desires ; to gain his ends, there- regarded as mere rubbish, while gold and silver became 
fore, he created a copper currency, ordering coins of even more precious than before and commerce was 
that metal to be struck in his mint after the manner of entirely deranged. When the Sultan saw that his 
gold and silver; he then ordained that this copper measure had failed, and that he could not, even by 
money should pass current as gold and silver, and so punishment, bring the whole population to obedience, 
should be used in all commercial transactions. The he issued a decree ordaining that every one who had a 
Hindus broup;ht large quantities of copper to the mint royal coin might bring it to the treasury and receive in 
and had it corned, and so made for themselves enormous exchange a gold or silver coin of the old stamp. He 
profits ; and purchasing goods and exporting them to thought by this means to restore his copper currency to 
other countries, received in exchange gold and silver credit, so that it might again be accepted in exchanges ; 
money. Goldsmiths also manufactured coins in their but the copper money which had been accumulating in 
own nouses and passed them in the bazaars. After people's houses and oeen thrown on one side as worth- 
some time things came to such a pass that at distant less, was immediately collected and brought to the 
places the Sultan's edict was not observed, and the treasury to be exchanged for ^old and silver coin; and 
people took the king's coins only at their intrinsic value the copper tokens still remamed as little current as 
\n copper, and speculators brought them thence to those before, while all the royal treasuries were emptied and 
parts of the country where the order remained in force general financial ruin fell upon the whole kingdom." 
and there exchanged them for gold and silver. In this 



i888.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 29 

line of rulers, all of whom appear to have issued money in their own names. 
For two reasons, however, I defer all notice of these for the present, and 
propose to devote a separate paper to their consideration ; firstly, because 1 
am in hopes that, before it appears, the series of these rare and hitherto 
unnoticed coins may be rendered far more complete than at present ; and 
secondly, because though hitherto unpublished, they are of the greatest inter- 
est alike to the historian and numismatist, and, consequently, deserve a far 
more exhaustive treatment than could be here afforded them. At first Ahsan 
Shah seems to have retained in use the Delhi mint issues, but soon there 
appears a stamp of coin apparently not met with in the north. (Figure 36.) 
This piece bears on one side the name of the king (Mohammed ibn Taghlak 
Shah), and on the reverse (Justice exalted). In make and general appear- 
ance this issue follows the characteristics usual to the small copper and billon 
issues of the Delhi and other Pathan mints, but differs therefrom in some 
minor particulars. His * forced* tankahs are frequently met with, even now. 
These thick brass coins, weighing approximately 140 grains, bear on the 
obverse, ** Struck as a legal *tanka' by the hopeful slave Mohammed Taghlak," 
and on the reverse round the margin the name of the mint town and year of 
date, and in the centre, ** Who obeys the king obeys the Merciful one." The 
commonest date on these coins is 730, though a few have 73 1 and fewer still 
732, a fact which, as Thomas points out, affords strong proof of the rapidly 
increasing unpopularity of the scheme. How complete was the success of 
Ahsan*s revolt and the consequent severance from the court of Delhi of the 
provinces over which he ruled is evidenced by the fact that no issues of later 
Pathans occur in the south, while the rebel coinage, as we shall see hereafter, 
is continued through a long succession of rulers. 

Nor do we find issues in any number of other Mohammedan princes (the 
Mysore usurpers of course excepted) till we come to the times of the later 
Moghals. A few stray issues naturally occur as one would expect when we 
remember that swarms of Hindu pilgrims from the north yearly flock to the 
temples of Tripati or Conjeveram or the sacred shrine of Ramesweram, there 
to present as money offerings any coins they may have in their possession, 
brought hither from the countries whence they came, and of no other use to 
them here. To attempt to touch on these, however, would of course lead 
one into a consideration of the whole monetary system of India, and be far 
beyond the scope of any single paper. 

The Moghals in their monetary dealings with the south appear to have 
followed, in point of size and weight, the Hindu system of pagoda and fanam, 
and issues of Mohammed Shah (A. D. 1719)' and Alemgir II (A. D. 1754) 
occur of the former type, and fanams of both these as well as of Ahmad Shah 
and Shah 'Alum. Other names also appear on fanams, notably that of 
Sikandar (Figure 37), these coins having on the reverse the date 1087 
(Hejrah), while others bear the name of a southern mint town, as for instance, 
those of Mohammed Shah struck at B^l^pur in the Mysore country. 

Before leaving the subject of the Mohammedan coins of the south, 1 
must briefly allude to those of the Nawdbs of the Karnatic. The gold coins 

I Conf, ''The Pagoda or Varaha Coins of Southern M.H., CLE. — For which see Journal Asiatic Society 
India" (Nos. 25 and 26), by Surgeon Major G. Bidie, 0/ Benguif i^y. 



30 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [October, 

of this dynasty have been noticed by Sir Walter Elliot in his contribution to 
the National Numismata Orientalia. He there says : ** The huns of Sa adut 
Ulla Kh^n, who succeeded Nawab D£wad Khan and died in 1731, are recog- 
nized by the Persian letters for illah on the granulated surface, which is 
replaced on those of his relative Safdar *Ali Kh£n by the letter ain. On 
his murder in 1741, the office of Naw£b was conferred by the Niz^m on 
another family, that of Anwar-ud-din Kh^n, but his son Mohammed 'Ali 
received his investiture direct from Delhi, with the high-sounding title of 
WaMjah Naw£b-ul-Hind in 1766." He also figures three gold coins, two of 
which follow the type of the Chendragheri pagoda' and bear on the granu- 
lated surface, the one an ain, and the other the word Wal&, while the third, 
retaining the latter inscription, has a rude figure of Hanuman on the reverse. 
There can, of course, be no doubt but that the two latter coins are issues of 
Mohammed 'Ali, and I cannot but think that the first also should more 
properly be attributed to him. than be assigned, as it is by Sir Walter Elliot, 
to his predecessor Safdar 'Ali Kh£n. The ain would certainly not help us to 
fix it, as it is the initial letter of the names of both, but whereas we have 
specimens in copper still retaining the ain, and bearing with it the word 
** Wal^j^h," we do not, so far as I aware, meet with coins bearing his prede- 
cessor's name in the same conjunction, and hence I think there is a good 
show of reason for placing it in the long reign of Mohammed 'Ali. No notice 
has, as far as I can learn, been taken hitherto of the copper issues of this 
king, though there exist long series of them, and one of considerable interest 
as showing the tendency of coins inscribed with legends in a foreign language 
to become debased and assimilated to the issues of the surrounding country. 
The copper coins struck in the capital, Arcot, are in three sizes, and are as 
well executed as those of the contemporaneous Moghals. On one side they 
bear the word wald with Hejrah date below, and on the other ** Struck at 
Arcot, year of the reign.'' Those apparently struck in the outlying provinces, 
however, are of far ruder make, and resemble the small Hindu copper issues, 
while the formation of the letters, as well as the form of the coin, varies very 
considerably. One type of these consists of thin flat coins, having on one 
side (which is usually slightly concave) the word W&1& in a rectangle, and on 
the reverse j&h in a ring of dots ; another is a thick coin having the whole 
title, Wdl&j&h on one side, with Naw&b below, and the date on the other, 
while another of the same type has the IVdldJdh on one side, and the Nawdb 
on the other, surmounted by the date. A third type, again, has the title 
written Wdld, above which is jdh, and this at the hands of the Hindu mint- 
men degenerated into a mere design, a parody on the Persian numerals 
adorning the reverse. 

A still more Hinduized edition retains a fair copy of the Wdldjdh, but 
with a sceptre supported by the sun and moon on the reverse. In the same 
way we find some issues in which the ain, to which I have alluded above, is 
reversed, while the imitation of a date appears below, the reverse being 
occupied by the cross lines so common on the early Hindu coins. Passing 
from these we find a coin, possibly struck by the officers of the Nawdb, 
bearing on one side the Wdldjah, somewhat debased, but with a perversion 

I Marsden, pi. 48, No. 1083. Bidie, No. 19. 



i888.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 31 

on the reverse of the Tamil letter n, which is written in a peculiar form, the 
converse possibly of what I have already described, — a rough attempt of a 
Mohammedan or other non-Tamil chief at striking a coin bearing the initial 
of the Naw^b's title in a foreign language. Others, again, are by no means 
uncommon which bear on one side the initial n properly formed, and on the 
reverse a fish or bird or beast, such as occurs on many coins of the Hindus, 
and especially those of Mysore prior to the Mohammedan usurpation, while 
others have a lingam on a bull's back. On several occasions and in different 
places natives have assured me that this n stands for the first letter of Naw£b, 
and regarding it in connection with the sequence I have tried to follow out 
above, I think there is fair reason to accept it. It may possibly have gone 
even further and have been the prototype of a series of coins bearing on one 
side Hindu figures and on the reverse a design which I cannot explain. 

[To be continued.] 



MEDALS RELATING TO THE COLONIES OF ENGLAND IN 
NORTH AMERICA, STRUCK IN EUROPE. * 

BY HON. GEORGE M. PARSONS, LL.D. 

[Concluded from Vol. xxiii, p. 7.] 

The surrender of Yorktown already mentioned, occurred on the 19th of 
October, 1781. This event practically ended the contest. The following 
year was consumed in negotiations for peace, which were concluded in 
November. Franklin, who was Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States 
at the Court of France, caused to be struck the medal known as the Libertas 
Americana. Figures 4 and 5. 

The obverse shows a beautiful head of Liberty in bold relief. On the 
shoulder is a staff which bears at the end the Phrygian cap. During the 
French Revolution, which followed in 1789, this cap became the emblem of 
republicanism. The same device was afterwards adopted for some of the 
early American copper coins ; it was never replaced by anything more beauti- 
ful. Above the head is the title libertas Americana, and below, the date of 
the Declaration of Independence. The reverse conveys a very adroit com- 
pliment to the French nation. The design and inscription were furnished by 
the Department from which issued the designs for all works of art of a similar 
character, but the idea was doubtless the suggestion of the politic diplomatist. 
The central figure is the infant Hercules in his cradle. He has strangled the 
serpents which attacked him, but he shrinks back from the assault of the lion, 
the emblem of British power ; Minerva, as the goddess of war, covers him 
with her shield, which is blazoned with the lilies of France. The lion while 
rampant, has been baffled by the interposed shield, and the significant 
position of his tail shows that his courage has gone out from him. The 
legend, non sine diis animosus infans [The infant is not bold without the 
gods for allies] , completes the compliment, although it was not needed to 
explain the device. Below are the dates of the two battles already referred 
to ; the first marks the beginning of the alliance with France, the treaty with 



32 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [October, 

the United States having been made immediately after the surrender of 
Burgoyne, and the second date recalls the crowning end of her friendly 
labors. 

The hyperbole of the compliment conveyed in the medal is unavoidable, 
while classical designs are employed. It must, moreover, be remembered 
that the medal was issued by a man who was distinguished as well for his 
common sense as for great abilities, and that to him it seemed a proper and 
grateful recognition of the friendly feeling which had been manifested by the 
F*rench nation towards the United States, and of the valuable services which 
had been rendered to them. 

The Independence of the United States was formally recognized by 
Holland on the 19th of April, 1782, seven years after the battle of Lexington, 
Then appeared a very interesting medal shown in Figures 6 and 7, which was 
struck in Holland. In the centre of the obverse is an altar, on the right of 
which is the goddess of war, who has joined hands with an Indian female on 
the left of the altar, and whose shield, blazoned with the stars, .shows that 
she represents the new American Republic; Minerva is in the act of crown- 
ing America with the cap of Liberty. The British lion is in chains, his head 
bowed to the ground under the foot of his triumphant foe ; his hind quarters 
are still upright, but it will be seen that the same device is used to show his 
cowed condition as is employed in the Libertas Americana medal. The in- 
scription is LIBERA SOROR SOLEMNI DECR(eTO) AGN(oSCENDa) 1 9 APR. MDCCLXXXII 

[A free sister, acknowledged by solemn decree, Apr. 19, 1782.] On the 
reverse is seen a mountain of rock, against whose precipitous face a unicorn, 
with a crown encircling his neck, has violently rushed. His horn has been 
broken off and he has fallen to the ground. The inscription is, tyrannis 
viRTUTE repulsa SUB GALLIC Auspiciis [Tyranny repulsed by bravery under 
the auspices of France.] Thus it is shown that the lion and the unicorn, 
the two supporters of the shield of England, have been humbled to the 
ground ** sub Galliae auspiciis T 

Two other medals, one struck in France the other in Holland, are of 
importance as illustrating a phase of the subject which has not yet been 
noticed. The latter, issued in 1782, shows on the obverse a female figure 
standing in front of a fortified town ; in her right hand she grasps the arrows 
of the United Provinces and a spear which bears on its point a Liberty cap ; 
in her left hand is the caduceus of Mercury, and at her feet is an overflowing 
cornucopia. The reverse, Figure 8, is more simple in its design. Out of a 
group of bales and boxes of merchandise rises a trident, from either side of 
which droops a flag ; in the background is visible a small merchant vessel. 
The inscription begins on the obverse, nederland verklaart America vrv, 
and ends, as will be seen, on the reverse, de algemeene wensch. [The Neth- 
erlands declares America to be free. It is the general wish.] 

The French medal was issued in 1783. The obverse shows Louis XVI 
sitting on his throne, and pointing to the American shield which a female in 
classical dress has hung upon a column standing at the foot of the throne, 
and surmounted by a Liberty cap. On the reverse. Figure 9, stands Minerva 
grasping with her right hand an upright spear, while with her left she holds 
out a wreath of four shields displaying the arms of France, England, Spain, 



1 888.] AMERICAN JOORKAL OF NUMISMATICS. 3j 

and Holland. At the feet of Minerva is her shield bearing the Gorgon's head. 
The inscription on the obverse is libertas Americana and on the reverse 
coMMUNi CONSENSU [American Liberty by common consent]. The signifi- 
cance of the former of these medals is to be found in the simple statement 
that it was the universal wish that the United States should be independent, 
and of the latter, with the British arms among the rest, that American inde- 
pendence was now acknowledged ** by common consent." 

The league of armed neutrality was made for the protection of commerce ; 
but during the negotiations which led to it, there was developed the existence 
of a feeling, in the main friendly to the United States, which was independent 
of the hostility to England caused by her encroachments on the rights of 
neutrals. As early as 1777 Frederick of Prussia said that he would be heartily 
glad to recognize the United States, but at the time his recognition would do 
them no good and might be detrimental to them. This was in answer to the 
request of a Commissioner appointed by the American States for permission 
to reside in Berlin in his official capacity. On one occasion, when the 
Empress of Russia was conversing with the British Minister on the subject of 
the American war, she told him that England " could in a moment restore 
peace by renouncing its colonies." Even in the Netherlands, whose govern- 
ment was wholly under British influence, and which at first thought only of 
her commerce, there was a vigorous germ of sympathy with the people who 
sought independence, which grew apace as time advanced until it developed 
into an avowed friendship. 

Thus the new Republic had but one enemy to contend with — the mother 
country. All the powers of Europe were hostile to England, either directly 
or indirectly, either actively or in their sympathy with her American Colonies. 
•* The stars in their courses fought against Sisera." 

Many other medals were issued between the formation of the league of 
armed neutrality and the close of the war, similar in character to those already 
described, but sufficient have been produced to show the relations of the 
United States to the principal powers of Europe. There remains to be 
noticed one other medal — a peace medal, issued in 1783 [Figures 10 and 1 1]. 
Its origin is unknown, but from its rude execution it may reasonably be 
inferred that it was designed and struck in America. From the variety of 
designs and inscriptions which are crowded upon the two sides of the medal, 
it seems as if the author proposed to write a poem in celebration of the Peace, 
but finally concluded to publish a medal. 

On the obverse there is seen in the background an engagement between 
a fort and a naval force, but aloft a cherub flies through the air, proclaiming 
with a trumpet fiat pax [Let there be peace], and ensibus ex martis lux 
PACis LAETA RESURGiT [From the clash of arms' the joyful light of Peace 
shines forth again]. In the foreground an armed warrior lies prostrate on 
the ground with a broken sword, and over him stands the goddess Peace, 
holding in her right hand an olive branch, and in the left a large cornucopia 
overflowing with abundance. The sun has come from behind a cloud and 
smiles upon the scene. Just above the date is the inscription ope vulcani 
[By the aid of Vulcan], the god of Industry. 

VOL. XXIII. c 



34 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [October, 

The designs of the reverse are of the same character. It is true that in 
the remote distance there are represented the attacks of the Spanish vessels 
of war on Port Mahon, the capital of Minorca, and on Gibraltar. The former 
was captured, but from the latter the Spaniards were repulsed with great loss 
of men and ships. But these events were of the past ; in the foreground, in 
the present, stand the goddess Pax again, and the beautiful representative of 
America, supporting with her left hand a staff surmounted with the cap of 
Liberty. The goddess has brought with her the olive branch and the horn of 
abundance, and grasping the right of America, confers upon her the blessings 
of Peace. In the field above, the radiant triangle symbolizes divine approval. 
The legend is sic hostes Concordia jungit amicos [Thus Concord unites as 
friends those who were enemies]. Several shields displaying the arms of 
powers lately hostile, but now once more at peace, are in the foreground. 
Below is a prosperous city on the sea from which all traces of war have 
disappeared. The inscription may be read in connection with that on the 
obverse, ope vulcani prudentia et fatis. [By industry, by the exercise of 
prudence, and by the decrees of the Fates,] all these happy results have been 
accomplished. 

This expression suggests the problem in the discussion of which the 
fallen angels found solace in their banishment,* a problem as old as the oldest 
systems of theology. The modern formula is that under Providence all 
human efforts succeed or fail. The ancients referred the decision in all cases 
to the Fates, who were superior to men and gods. Men might in their 
enterprises use all the power they possessed, employ every quality of energy, 
courage and cunning, with a persistent singleness of purpose, but there 
was always present the consciousness that the unavoidable condition of 
their success was the permission of the Fates, ** Si qua Fata sinanty The 
lapse of time, the advance of society, many changes of religious belief, have 
all failed to eradicate this feeling from the minds of men. The instincts 
of their nature lead them to act at all times as if it were possible for them 
to accomplish their designs, but they acknowledge that a superior Power 
controls the end. Fortunately the two ideas do not lead to any conflict 
in practice. However much the minds of men may be lost in wandering 
mazes, in the effort to reconcile ideas which they do not possess the power 
to reconcile, they never permit one idea to diminish the power of the other. 
The men of the American Revolution had a firm faith in an overruling 
Providence, but they were wise in their generation, prudent in council, bold 
in the field, shrewd and accomplished in diplomacy. The latter qualities 
seemed to ensure success, yet the feeling will still exist that they were not 
the only elements of success. 

The legend of the medal may well remain ope vui.cani prudentia et 

FATIS. 

[The plate referred to in the foregoing article will be found in the July number.] 

♦ " Others apart sat on a hill retrred 

In thoughts more elevate and reasoned high 
Of Providence, foreknowledge, will and fate 
Fix*d fate, freewill, foreknowledge absolute." 

Faradist Lost^ Book II. 558. 



i888.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 35 

THE MEDALS OF ST. CHARLES BORROMEO, 

CARDINAL, ARCHBISHOP OF MILAN. 
BY DR, H- R. STORER, 
* [Concluded from Vol. xxin, p. 15.] 

14. Obverse, Bust of the saint, to left. Inscription : carolvs borromevs 
mediol(ani). s(acrae). r(omanae). e(cclesiae). pbr (presbyter), car(dinalis). an 

(NOS). AG(eBAT). XXV 

Reverse, Rome seated, presenting a civic crown to St. Charles. Inscription : 
s(enatus). p(opulus). q(ue). r(omanus). civi. optime. MER-iTo. Gilt bronze. 58 mm. 
37. Durand omits the last but one of the dots. 

Maretick dt Rw-Alpon, Vcrzcichniss dessen Miinz- und Medaillen Sammlung. Vienna, 1S44-5, ^^» P* 289, 
No. 16,521. This is in my library. . . . Durami. Loc. cit., p. 28, No. 4. 

A mortuary medal, St. Charles having died in the twenty-fifth year of his cardi- 
nalate, in 1584. It was struck in his honor by the city of Rome. 

15. Obverse. Bust of the saint, to left, with "cardinal's hat" (biretta.^). In- 
scription : CAROLVS - BORROMOEVS (sic). 

Reverse, Bust of St. Phinp Neri to right, with "cardinal's hat" (biretta.^). 
Inscription : philippvs - nerivs. 66 mm. 42. 

Ibid, p. 28, No. I. 

Durand is in error in considering this the medal mentioned by Gaetani, the 
description of which will be given later, No. 24. The diphthong oe will be noticed ; 
in Gaetani's it is ae. 

16. Obverse, Bust of the saint, to left Inscription : b(eatus). car. bor. c. 
ar. mli. 

Reverse. Blank. Bronze. 
In the Gnecchi collection. 

17. Obverse, Bust of the saint, to left, with "cardinal's hat" (biretta?). In- 
scription : B. CAR. BOR. C - AR. MLI. 

Reverse, A crown. Inscription : canonicl regul(ares). s(anctae). m(ariae). 
pass(agliano.^). Bronze. Oval ; 53 x 38 mm. 

Gutekonst Catalogue, Frankfort on the Main, 1886, No. 713. This is in my library. 

18. Obverse, Bust of the saint. Inscription : s. car. bor. car. mli. 
Re^terse, Inscription : canonici, etc. Oval. 

Catalogue de vente des duplicata du cabinet de Berlin, 1863, No. 1828. . . . Durand, Loc. cit., p. 229. 

Were it not that professional catalogues would not be likely to interchange 
b(eatus) and s(anctus), I should imagine that these last two might be identical. 

19. Obverse, Bust of the saint, to left, with biretta, which Durand wrongly 
describes as the cardinal's hat. Inscription : s. car. bor. c-^ar. mli. 

Reverse, The crowned humilitas of St. Charles. Gilt bronze. Oval ; 48 x 38 
mm. 31 X 24. 

/hid, p. 28, No. 3, pi. Ill, fig. HI. 
This is figured by Durand. 

20. Obverse, Bust of the saint, to left, within a milled circle ; head uncovered, 
and with the aureole. Inscription : s. carol, bor -.car. arc 

Reverse, Inscription : s. caroli | corpore | templvm | translato | die. xxl 
septe(mbris) mdccll The words ad hoc are of course to be understood before 
templvm. Bronze. 30 mm. 20. 

I have impressions of this from the medal in Signor Gnecchi's collection. It is 
commemorative of the removal of St. Charles's remains to the Cathedral at Milan. 



36 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [October, 

21. Obverse, Bust of the saint, to right, with biretta and episcopal robes. 
Inscription : s. car. boromevs - card, archiep. medi. 

Reverse, The Blessed Virgin, with the Divine Child at her breast. Legend : 
mater divinae providentiae avxilivm christianorvm. White metal. Oval ; 
28 X 31 mm. 

In the collection of Rev. Joseph C. Carrier, C.S.C., pf St. Laurent College near 
Montreal, by whom impressions were courteously sent me. 

22. Obverse. Within a circle, surrounded by chased border, the bust of the 
saint, to left, with biretta, and hand upon breast. Inscription : s. carol vs. b(orrome- 
vs). card(inalis). (a titvlo) s(anctae). p(raxzdis). a(rchiepiscopvs). m(ediolani). 

Reverse, Within a similar circle and border, the legend et. exa-lt-avit. hv- 
MiLES. Two angels supporting the crowned hvmilitas of St. Charles. This reverse 
resembles that of No. 2, save that there are dots instead of three-cornered points. 
Bronze. 36 mm. 24. 

In the Gnecchi collection, whence I have received impressions. 

23. Obverse. Bust of the saint, to left, with aureole. Inscription : s. carol vs 

BOR - OMEVS 

Reverse, Bust of St. Francis of Sales, to right, bearded, with aureole. Inscrip- 
tion : .8. FRA-NciscE. DE. SALES. Bronzc gilt. Octagonal. 16 x 18. 
This is in my own collection. 

24. Obverse, Bust of the saint, to left, with biretta. Inscription : s. carolvs. - 

BORROMiEVS. 

Reverse, Bust of St. Philip Neri, to right, with biretta. Inscription : s. philip- 
pvs. - NERivs. 66 mm. 42. 

Gaetani, Loc. cit., pi. LXXXV, No. i. 

This is figured by Gaetani, and materially differs from No. 15, as described by 
Durand. 

25. Obverse, Bust of the saint, to right, with head bare. Inscription : s. caro- 
lvs BOROMEVS. 

Reverse, The Church of St. Charles at Milan, mdcccxliii. Bronze. 
In the Gnecchi collection. 

26. Obverse, Bust of the saint, irradiant, to left, in biretta, adoring before 
the crucifix. Inscription : s - car- boro 

Reverse, The crowned humilitas of St. Charles, and below it the three conjoined 
rings already described. To left a large, and to right a smaller scroll. Gilt bronze. 14. 
This is in my own collection. 

27. Obverse, Full figure of the saint, facing, and with aureole, upon his knees 
in adoration ; below him, to right and left, a kneeling angel ; above, on each side, a 
similar angel. Inscription : • s • ca • - • bo * 

Reverse, The crowned humilitas of St. Charles, supported upon each side by a 
hovering angel ; between them, in the centre, a heart, bisecting the first line of the 
following legend, which is given in full upon No. 5 : so(la). ga(udet) | •hvmili(tate)- 
I 'DEVS • Silver gilt, edges lined. 12. 

This is in my own collection. 

28. Obverse. Bust of the saint to left, with nude head. Inscription : s. charles 
"boromee gloire du sacerdoce (The first e in boromee has the acute accent.) 

Reverse, Bust of St. Vincent of Paul, facing, with head bare, to left. Inscrip- 
tion : s^ VINCENT DE PAUL MODELE DE CHARITE. Ycllow brass. Oval ; 20 X 23 mm. 
(The first e in modele has the grave and the e in charite the acute accent.) 

In the collection of Rev. P^re Carrier, C.S.C., by whom impressions have been 
sent me. 



i888.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 37 

29. Obverse, Bust of the saint, to left, in "cap" (biretta?) Inscription: s* 

CHARL • BOR. C(ARDINAL) * A(RCHEVEQUE) * DE MILAN 

Reverse, Bust of St. Francis of Assisi. Inscription : s • fran^gis * patri • des • 
CAPUC • Bronze. 

Minart Catalogue, Paris, 1880, No. 3684. This is in my library. 

30. Obverse. Bust of the saint, to left, with bare head and aureole, adoring Our 
Lord. Inscription : s. carole. ora. pro. nobis 

Reverse. The Holy Mount of Arona. Inscription : mons. s. caroli. in. arona. 
DEI. iEDiFicATio +. Bronzc. 40 mm. 25. 

In the collection of Signor Gnecchi, from whom I have received impressions. It 
was struck in commemoration of the birthplace of St. Charles. 

31. Obverse. Bust of the saint, to left, with nude head ; beneath, the crowned 
HUMiLiTAS of St. Charles. Inscription : sanctvs. carolvs. patronvs. caelestis. 

Reverse. templvm | a. solo, inchoatvm. | cella. imperialis | constitvta | 
mediolani I IN kal. ianvar. I AN. M.DCCC xxxviii. Silver. 44 m. 28. 

The inscription of the reverse is capable of a twofold translation. Either, " The 
Milan Cathedral was commenced by St. Charles alone ; its crypt became a royal shrine 
upon the reception of his remains:" or, "The Cathedral sprang (was begun) from 
lowliness (solum, the ground,) to royalty, upon the reception of his remains.** Gram- 
matically, the latter would appear the more correct. 

To commemorate, it would seem, the placing of the body of St. Charles within 
the casket which is now preserved within the crypt of the Milan Cathedral. For the 
description of this medal I am indebted to Signor Gnecchi. It was cut by Broggi, and 
is said to have been struck by the Swiss College at Milan (Schultze Cat, Frankfort on 
the Main, 1883, P- SO> No. 1228, in my library), to which the next medal but one in our 
series also belongs. 

32. Obverse. Bust of the saint, to left, with head bare ; beneath, the crowned 
HUMILITAS of St. Charles. Legend : norma, cleri. spes. gregis. 

Reverse. Legend, within two laurel branches, TDiH | EK AIOS | ESTI. Inscrip- 
tion : BARTOLOMAEO CAROLO ROMILLIO. ARCHIEPISCOPO. BronZC. 

I have the description of this medal from Signor Gnecchi. It will be noticed 
that the name of St. Charles does not appear. It might be thought to refer to the 
other Cardinal Borromeo, Federigo, whose medal is hereafter described, were it not 
that the features, as well as the armorial crest, are those of St. Charles. 

33. Obverse. Bust of the saint to left, with head bare, and aureole. No inscrip- 
tion. 

Reverse. Two joined hands, holding across. Inscription: collegivm. helvet- 
icvM. The points are three-cornered. Silver. 44 mm. 28. 

In the collection of Signor Gnecchi, who has sent me impressions. There is the 
same evidence, as to features, that this and the following medal are of St. Charles, as 
in the preceding. Besides, there is the aureole of canonization. 

34. Obverse. As the preceding. 

Reverse. The crowned humilitas of St. Charles. Silver. 44 mm. 28. 
In the Gnecchi collection, whence I have received impressions. 

35. Obverse. Laureated head of the Emperor Karl VI, to right ; below, to left, 
richter. Inscription: caes(ar)' avg(vstvs)' car(olvs)* vr r(omanorvm)' imp(era- 
tor)- s(emper)' a(vgvstvs)* ge(rmaniae)* hi(spaniae)* hv(ngariae)- bo(hemiae)- rex * 
ar(chidvx)- a(vstriae)* d(vx)* bvr(gvndiae)- 

Reverse. Front of the Votive Church at Vienna. Legend: qvod popvlvs- 
peste liberatvs. Exergue : divo carolo borom : | ex voto | mdccxvi ; beneath, 
WAROV. Silver. 55 mm. 36. 

Pfeiffer and Ruland. Loc. cit., edition of 1882, p. 120, No. 353. 



38 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [October, 

The date of the above is elsewhere stated as 171 5 (Montenuovo Cat., 1882, parts 
7-8, p. 100, No. 1442, in my library). The engraver of this medal, Daniel Warou of 
Stockholm, removed to Dresden in 1684 or 1685. and in 171 3 to Vienna, He died in 
1730 (Schlickeysen-Pallmann, Miinz-Abkiirzungen, Berlin, 1882, 8° pp. loi, 357; in my 
library). Struck in commemoration of the erection at Vienna of the Church in honor 
of St. Charles, upon the cessation of the plague. 

36. Obverse, Laureated head of the same emperor, to right ; beneath, richter. 
Inscription : imp(erialis)* caes(ar)- carolvs* vi* avg(vstvs)' p(ater)- fel(ix)' p(rin- 
CEPs)* p(edemontii)- 

Reverse, A wreath of broad leaves. Within, d(eo or domino.^) •o(ptimo)* 

M(AXIMO)* I OB gives* I IN PESTE SERVATOS | DICATAE | D(IVO)* CAROLO BOR " | BASILI- 

CAE pr(imvm)- lap(idem)* | ex voto pos(vit)' I MDccxvi. Silver; tin. 42 mm. 27. 

Ibid. p. 120, No. 355. 

Also of the Vienna Church ; laying the corner stone. 

37. Obverse, Mailed bust of the emperor, etc. 
Reverse, As the preceding. Tin. 28 mm. 
Much smaller than the preceding. 

Ibid, p. 185, No. 356a. . . . Montenuovo Cat., 1882, parts 7-8, p. loi, No. 1444; already cited. 

This, also by Richter, was struck upon the same occasion as the last. 

38. Obverse, As the last. 

Reverse, The lines are wider apart, and from the fifth line the inscription reads 

D(IVO)' CAROLO BORROMAEO I BASILICAE PRIMVM LAPIDEM | EX VOTO POSVIT* | MDCCXVI' 

Kundmann, Die Heimsuchungen Gottes iiber das Herzogthum Schlesien, 1774, p. 189. . . . Pfeiffer znd 
Ruland. Loc cit., p. 120, No. 356. 

Also of the Votive Church at Vienna, upon the same occasion. 

39. Obverse, Laureated head of the emperor, to left ; beneath, small R. In- 
scription : CARGLVS* VI •-CAESAR* AVG * 

Reverse. As the preceding. 

Ibid. p. 120, No. 354. 

Struck for the same purpose as the four preceding. 

40. Obverse, The Votive Church at Vienna. 

Reverse, Inscription : aedes* | b(eati) • carol* bor* | vindob(onae) • | renov 
(ata)* Silver, ii mm. 

Montenuovo Cat., 1882, parts 9-14, p. 156, No. 2350; already cited. 

Upon the restoration of the Votive Church in 1806. 

41. Obverse, The same Church at Vienna. 

Reverse, Inscription : In honoreM | sanCtI CaroLI, etc. Brass. 36 mm. 

Ibid, p. 168, No. 2574. 

Other members of the Borromeo family have been commemorated by medals. 
Such are 

\a, Barbara Borromeo, the wife of Camillo Gonzaga, Count of Novellara. She 
was born at nearly the same date with St. Charles, was married at seventeen in 1555, 
and died in 1572. 

Obverse, Female bust, to right. Inscription : Barbara, gonz(aga). borr(omea). 

COM(es). NOVELL(aRAE). ANN(o). XVII. 

Reverse, The two summits of Mt. Pindus crowned with vases emitting flames. 
To the left, Pegasus cleaving the sky. Legend : non. vlli. noxia. tento. 

Litta, Famiglie Celebri d'ltalia, Milan, 1819, p. 53. . .'. Armand, \joc cit., II, p. 202. 

This was evidently a nuptial medal. For a long time I was in doubt as to the 
relationship that this lady bore to St. Charles. The Rev. Alban Butler* speaks of 

* Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs and other Principal Saints, II, p. 611. 



i888.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 39 

"Camilla, married to Caesar Gonzaga, Prince of Malfetto." This was apparently the 
sister of St. Charles. The Gonzaga family, itself celebrated, has its own quite com- 
plete medallic history. It was the custom of the successive heads of these great 
houses to strike medals not merely commemorative of themselves, but of their wives. 
I know of medals of no less than thirty-seven lords and ladies who were members of 
the Gonzaga family by birth, and of quite a number additionally of the latter who 
entered it by marriage : as Margherita Malatesta, the wife of Francesco Gonzaga I ; 
Isabella d'Este, wife of Francesco II; Margherita Paleologo, wife of Federigo II ; 
Eleonore d'Autriche, wife of Guglielmo I ; Paola Beccaria, wife of Corrado ; Isabella 
Capua, wife of Ferrante ; Antonia de* Balzi, wife of Gianfrancesco ; and Barbara Bor- 
romeo, wife of Camillo. Now, though Cesare Gonzaga, the son of Ferrante, and 
Prince of Malfetto, had a medal struck for himself,* there existed none of his wife, 
if he were married. It seemed therefore, at first, not unlikely that Father Butler 
might have transformed Camillo, the husband of Barbara (Borromeo) Gonzaga into the 
Camilla whom he gives as the wife of Cesare Gonzaga, especially since this lady does 
not seem to have been commemorated by the usual medal. I have since, however, 
been able to trace the full genealogy. Father Butler was correct, and Barbara proves 
to have been but the second cousin of St. Charles. She was granddaughter of Ludo- 
vico Borromeo, and daughter of the Camillo who was Chamberlain and Councillor of 
the Emperor Charles V, and Governor of Novocomo and afterwards of Pavia.t 

2a. Ohferse. Within a circle, bust to left, with biretta, moustache and small 
pointed beard ; beneath, iv. f. (Giovanni Virmara fecit.) Inscription : federicvs. 

S(ANCTAE). R(OMANAE). E(CCLESIAE). CARDINALIS. BORROMEVS. ARCn(lEPISCOPVS). MED 

(lOLANi). The points are three-cornered. 

Reverse, Within a circle, three signet rings, tied by a broad band, which also 
holds a pen, a brush, and a sculptor's chisel. Legend, above, upon a scroll : colle- 
GissE. ivvAT. 115 mm. 70. 

Gaetam, Loc. cit., II, p. 16, pi. CIV, No. 2. 

The three rings mentioned above are supposed, like the emblems beneath them, 
to represent Literature, Painting and Sculpture, of all of which this Cardinal Federigo 
Borromeo was a patron, as well as also an adept. They evidently constitute the same 
armorial crest as is found upon Nos. 10, 1 1, and 25 of the medals of St. Charles. 

Cardinal Federigo was bom in 1564 and died in 163 1, having been Archbishop of 
Milan for thirty-seven years. He was created cardinal when only twenty-three. He 
was the youngest son of Giulio Cesare Borromeo and Margherita Trivulzio, and was 
first cousin to St. Charles.^ His medal is figured by Gaetani. 

3/1. Obverse, Within a circle, bust to left, in armor and throat band, with 
flowing hair; beneath, i. v. f. (Giovanni Virmara fecit.) Inscription: .com(es). vital. 

BORROM. 

Reverse, Within a basket, a crouching camel, to left, loaded with armor. Legend : 
.NEC. -labor. iSTE. GRAVAT. The points on both obverse and reverse are three-cor- 
nered. 90 mm. 58. 

Gaetani, Loc. cit., II, p. 63, pi. CXIV, No. i. 

Count Vitalliano Borromeo of Milan, was Prefect-in-chief of Artillery, Imperial 
Procurator, and Councillor of State. In 1660 he was President of the Milanese 
Academy "De* Faticosi." In 1671 he was living at his villa at the Borromean Islands, 
and died in 1690. He was the son of Carlo Borromeo, Count of Arona.§ His life was 
written by Gualdo Priorato, and he is not to be confounded with a previous Vitalliano 
Borromeo, of whom Bartolomeo Scala was biographer. 

4/1. Obverse, Female bust, to left, Inscription : cloelia. grilla. e. dvcibvs. 

MONTIS. DRACONIS. COMES. BORROMEA. MATRONA CL(ARISSIMA). 

* Arm and. Loc. cit., I, p. 229. } /hi J, p. 143. 

t Der Historischen Reinarques,etc.,aufdasM.DCCVii % Ibid, p. 150. 
jahr, Hamburg, 1708, p. 124. 



40 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [October, 

Reverse, Minerva offering a laurel wreath to a crowned and sitting female, the 
city of Genoa. The former has helmet, shield and spear, and the emblems of learning ; 
the latter, a peacock and a cornucopia overflowing with coin. Legend : gloria genv- 
ENSiVM. Exergue: ciD.iD.cc.Liir (1753). 90mm. 58. 

Gaetani. Loc. cit., II, p. 405, pi. CC, No. i. 

Cloelia Grilla, of the Duchy of Mondragone, was wife of Count Giovanni Borro- 
meo at the middle of the eighteenth century. She was a person of singular learning, 
speaking seven languages fluently, excelling in mathematical and mechanical studies, 
and in every way worthy of her union with the illustrious family of which St. Charles 
had been the most conspicuous ornament. 



CANADIAN JUBILEE MEDAL. 

A Canadian Jubilee Medal struck in honor of Queen Victoria's Semi- 
centennial has lately been shown us. The dies were made by P. W. Ellis & 
Co. of Toronto. The obverse has on the field the Canadian emblem of a 
beaver upon a maple leaf, over it, on a ribbon scroll Canada's ; below, on 
another ribbon, curving upwards, and the ends falling, tribute ; on a tablet, 
GOD save the queen An ornamental line surrounds the field, at the top is a 
garland of oak leaves, mingled with Canadian flowers ; below, on the left, the 
die cutter's name, and on the right Toronto. Reverse, Two ornamental 
tablets, enclosing portraits of the queen facing ; the one on the left has a 
youthful bust with 1837 below; that on the right, an older bust with her 
widow's veil, and 1887. Over and between these tablets a royal crown with 
maple sprigs in the background : below and between them a cluster of roses, 
under which a ribbon curving upwards, with victoria, regina and beneath, 
thistle flowers, leaves, and shamrocks. Struck in various metals. Size 28, 
The workmanship is not specially creditable, though it compares favorably 
with some of the English medals struck for the same event. 



RECENT SPANISH MEDAL. 



La Illustracion Espanola y Americana of February 28, 1888, contains a 
well engraved illustration of a medal commemorative of the Spanish Expedi- 
tion to the Isthmus of Darien, undertaken, in 1866, at the expense of His 
Excellency the Marquis de Campos. The original medal, struck in bronze, is 
the work of Senor Castells, junior. It seems that in the year mentioned, a 
Spanish Commission, composed of seamen, literary men and artists, visited 
the works of the interoceanic canal at Panama, thanks to the generosity of 
Seiior de Campos ; and subsequently at the engraving works of Senor Cas- 
tells, junior, at Barcelona, the medal under notice was produced. The 
obverse presents a portrait bust of de Campos, with these legends round the 
field and bust : navegacion universal ; union de los mares, and quien bien 
todo se le revela, which I may roughly render thus : ** To him who watches 
well, all shall be revealed." Immediately beneath the bust are the armorial 
bearings of the marquis. On the reverse is a representation of the Steamer 
Magallafies, the expeditionary vessel, in the act of arriving at the embouchure 



i888.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 41 

of the canal as shown in detail ; the genii of Europe and America, with the 
dove of peace and palm of triumph appear on the field above these dates, 
lOTH MARCH, i6th MAY, 1 886, Corresponding with the days of the arrival and 
departure of the Commission ; and in exergue appears the following inscrip- 
tion : PRIMERA EXPEDICION ESPANOLA AL ISTMO DE PANAMA, INICIADA Y COSTE- 

ADA POR EL MARQUES DE CAMPOS. I should add that the bust of de Campos 
is habited in the morning costume of these days, and depicts a bald-headed 
man wearing large, flowing whiskers. The size of the medal is 63 mm., about 
equivalent to 39 of the American scale. La Ilustracion considers this medal 
to be engraved with notable perfection, and to be a happy commemorative 
emblem. 

WM. TASKER-NUGENT. 



MASONIC MEDALS. 

[Continued from Vol. xxiii, p. i6.] 



DCCLXII. Obverse, A view of Shanklin '* Chine" and waterfall, filling 
the entire field. Legend, separated by a circle from the field, chine lodge 
N- 1884 SHANKLIN above, and below, filling out the circle, b- alfred green- 
ham, w. m. a pentalpha on the left, and the square and compasses on the 
observer s right, separate the divisions of the legend. Reverse, The arms of 
Wor. Bro. Beach, on an ornamented field, and surrounded by a border formed 
by a circle intersected by a square figure : these arms, in an engraving sent 
me by Bro. Hughan, appear to be Quarterly: i. Vair, argent and gules, (not 
azure, as usual, whether by design or error of the draughtsman in the engrav- 
ing, I do not know) in dexter chief, in a canton azure, a pile or: 2. Gules, a 
fess wavy or, between three fleurs-de-lis argent, two in chief and one in base. 
3, as I. 4. Argent, a chevron gules between three crescents, color not shown, 
probably gules. Crests, On the dexter chief, a demi-lion rampant holding 
a small escutcheon, the field of which seems to be or, with a border the tinc- 
ture of which I cannot make out, if it is indicated. On the sinister chief, a 
stag s head couped. Both crests seem to be gorged with coronets, but it is 
not possible to make them out clearly. I am by no means sure of the blazon, 
as the details are very minute. Motto, On a ribbon below the shield, tout 
en BON heure [All in good time]. On the field at the dexter side of the 
shield is the letter W and on the sinister the letter B, both in Old English, 
alluding no doubt to the initials of the Provincial G. M. Legend, w. b- 
w. w. B. BEACH, p. G. M. HANTS & ISLE OF WIGHT. ; at the bottom, filling out the 
circle, and separated at either side from the legend by a pentalpha, sept? 9^ 
1886 One was struck in gold, a very few in silver, and others in bronze and 
white metal. Size as engraved, 24.' 

DCCLXin. Obverse, Veiled and crowned bust of Victoria on an ellip- 
tical medallion within two branches of laurel ; at the base, where the stems 
cross, a cypher of the letters V I R (Victoria, Imperatrix Regina, or Empress 
and Queen.) At the top a star of five points, beneath a crown which is 

I This was struck in commeiporation* of the opening Shanklin, on the Isle of Wight, which was opened by 
of a Masonic Exhibition held by the Lodge named, at the Provincial Grand Master whose arms it bears. 

VOL. XXIII. 6 



4i AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [October, 

attached to a ribbon by a ring and a clasp with 183 7-1 887, the dates of 
accession and of the jubilee. Reverse, On a similar tablet or medallion, the 
three feathers springing from a coronet, with the motto ich dien, on a ribbon ; 
(the well known badge of the Prince of Wales, the present Grand Master of 
English Freemasons.) Legend, separated by a line from the field, albert 
EDWARD PRINCE OF WALES G. M. and below. Completing the ellipse, june 21, 
1887. Silver. Size as engraved,' width 24; length from top of star to end 
of cypher, 32 nearly. 

DCCLXIV. Obverse, A pentalpha, or open star of five points, formed 
by interlaced lines ; on its centre, a cypher of V I R [for Victoria, Empress 
and Queen] ; on the left point of the star a shield bearing a lion rampant 
within a tressure flory ; crest, an earl's coronet : below the shield on a ribbon, 
the motto essayez [Try]. On the right point of the star is another shield 
bearing three swords in pile, their points to the base ; in dexter chief a canton 
with a small escutcheon bearing a device too small to be certainly distin- 
guished, but which I take to be the ** Badge of Ulster" ; in chief a label for 
** difference" ; crest, an eagle, with its wings expanded; motto, below the 
shield, on a ribbon, aymez loyaulte [Love loyalty] ; between the lower points 
of the star a rose with two leaves. The tinctures are not indicated in either 
blazon. The field is burnished. Legend, separated from the field by a 
circle, and placed on a raised border which is in ** dead finish," provincial 
GRAND LODGE NORTH & EAST YORKSHIRE a rosettc at the bottom. Reverse, 
The square and compasses enclosing a medallion on which is a veiled and 
crowned bust of her Majesty Queen Victoria, nearly facing, surrounded by a 
slightly raised circle on which is the legend victoria r & i ascended the 
THRONE JUNE ; at the bottom, finishing the circle, 1837. Behind the head of 
the compasses is a ribbon or scroll, the ends of which are bent downward, 
inscribed god save the queen. At the bottom, in very small letters, on the 
left of the square, kenning and on the right, London Legend, separated 
from the field by a circle, and placed on a border similar to that on the 
obverse, jubilee meeting 14 july 1887 at york ; at the bottom, filling out 
the circle, a sprig of olive and wheat crossed and tied with a ribbon. Struck 
in various metals. Size 24. The device sufficiently explains the medal and 
the occasion on which it was struck.* 

DCCLXV. Obverse, An eight-pointed star, on which is a garter bear- 
ing the word cent enary and enclosing a statue of Shakespeare standing 
facing, beside a pillar. On the top of the garter, dividing the legend, the 
square and compasses, and at the bottom an hour-glass, with an ornamental 
leaf on either side. Reverse, Plain, for engraving a member s name. Gold. 
Size 28. This appears to be struck from a die, and I describe it from a 
drawing forwarded by Bro. W. J. Hughan. The medal is suspended by a 
ring from a ribbon with three clasps of wheat and olive leaves.^ 

Caledonian Lodge No. 134 has a Centenary jewel, apparently struck, and consist- 
ing of a pentalpha or interlaced star of five points, of white enamel ; on this is a circle 

1 This Medal, struck by English Freemasons to com- those of the Provincial Grand Master presiding, but I 
memorate the Queen's Jubilee, I describe from an do not know whose are the others. 

engraving sent me by Bro. Hughan. 3 This is a Centenary Medal of Shakespeare Lodge, 

2 For impressions of this medal I am indebted to No. 99, under the Grand Lodge of England, which was 
Bro. Hughan. The arms on one shield I presume are warranted Feb. 14, 1757. 



i888.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 43 

of gold with the legend pax concordia virtus [Peace, Harmony, Virtue] at the top, 
and the dates 1764 and 1864 below. Within the circle, the square and compasses 
crossed, of gold ; on the arms of the former tempus fugit ; a flaming sword erect in 
the centre, of gold. The remainder of the field is removed. This is suspended to a 
clasp, on which is Caledonian, by a sky-blue ribbon with two thistles and leaves of 
gold, crossed at the bottom: on the ribbon a lozenge with 134, the number of the 
Lodge. Length of one side of the star, as drawn, 28.' 

The governing body in England of the "Antient and Primitive Rite" have a 
" Medal of Merit," which, though apparently struck, is rather a jewel or badge than 
a medal, but which, as it is often alluded to as a medal, it may be well to mention. 
It is in the form of a six-pointed star ; the points show two facets at a slight angle 
with each other on the obverse ; on the centre is a star formed by a double triangle, 
enclosing the triple tau over a cypher of the letters APR, the initials of the name of 
the rite. Around and upon the sides of one of the central triangles, salutem disponit 
DEUS which may be rendered, [God provides for my welfare.] The reverse is blank or 
engraved with the name of the recipient, and the words From the \ Ancient and Primi- 
tive I Rite of Masonry \for distinguished conduct ; the date of presentation below. It 
is attached by a ring and sky-blue ribbon to a clasp. Bronze, and perhaps other 
metals. Size, as drawn, between the opposite points, 22.* 

DCCLXVL Obverse, An inscription on the field in five lines, royal | 
masonic I INSTITUTION | FOR GIRLS | 1 879 bclow which in very small letters, 
KENNING Legend, separated from the field by a circular line 91- anniversary 
festival ; at the bottom, completing the circle, an ornament, composed of a 
lozenge with a dot outside each angle. Reverse, A lion rampant, on a crest 
wreath. No legend. A swivel and ring, with ribbon of dark blue, suspends 
it from a clasp of twisted wire. Silver. Size 19. Scarce.^ 

DCCLXVIL Obverse, On a quatrefoil a shield, parti per fess embat- 
tled, vert and argent. In chief a baton (?) and banner in saltire ; the banner 
appears to be azure, and to bear a cross of St. Andrew ; a crown in middle 
chief: in base a lion rampant holding an arrow, between three crescents 
gules. This description is made from an engraving, and the charges as 
drawn are not sufficiently clear to be described with strict accuracy. Between 
the shield and the four arches of the quatrefoil are small crosses with three 
rose leaves on either side. Legend, On the edge of the quatrefoil, royal 
MASONIC institution FOR GIRLS. On the lower arch, — 1886 — There are 
points projecting from each angle, as if the quatrefoil were placed upon a 
square. From the engraving it might be inferred that the border was purple. 
Reverse, Plain for engraving. Suspended by a ring and ribbon to a clasp on 
which is steward. Gilt metal. 'Size as drawn, 25. A ** Steward's badge " 
for the year. 

DCCLXVIIL Obverse, A group of four figures, each wearing the 
''Master workman's cap," and having a halo about his head. They hold 
various Masonic working-tools, — gavel, mallet, square and chisel. One has 
a long rod. They stand within an ornamental border, suggesting a Gothic 

1 For a. drawing and description of this jewel, I am probably originated in France about 1838; in America 
indebted to Bro. Hughan. I do not number it, as it dates from 1856, and in England from 1873. 
strictly speaking it is a badge not a medal, though struck. 3 The inscription sufficiently explains the medal; 

2 I describe this from a drawing sent me by Bro. further information in reference to these medals is given 
Hughan. The badges are made by Lowenstark of Lon- in Note 30j» in my volume. This description is from a 
don. This Rite, one of the most modern innovations medal kindly shown me by Mr. Lyman 11. Low of New 
on ancient Masonry, originally claimed 95 degrees. It York. 



44 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [October, 

arch, and represent the ** four crowned martyrs," who were in early times the 
patron saints of the Operative Guilds of Europe, and especially of the German 
Steinmetzen. There is an interesting tradition attached, too long to be given 
here, and alluded to in the Halliwell MS. so called, one of the earliest, if not 
the earliest known Masonic document. Legend, in ancient English letters, 
QUATUOR . coRONATi • CORRES • PONDENCE. Circle Separated from the field by 
an ellipse : on the left of the group, London ; above, . lodge • below n*? 2076 
with a line beneath, and on the right, 28. 11. 84 (for Nov. 28, 1884, the date 
of foundation). Reverse, Four celestial crowns, arranged with one at the top 
and bottom, and the other two between : kenning in very small letters at the 
bottom ; the field on which are the crowns is polished, and surrounded by a 
raised band of dead metal. At the top a celestial crown serves as a loop to 
hold a ring, by which it is worn suspended to a ribbon. The edge of the 
medal is usually engraved with the owner's name. Bronze. Size 20 x 1 5 
nearly, exclusive of the loop. Scarce. This is a medal struck by the English 
Lodge Quatuor Coronati, which, aside from Masonic work, occupies itself in 
historic research in Masonry.' 

^ W. T. R. MARVIN. 

[To be continued.] 



GLEANINGS. 



SHAKESPEARE'S ALLUSIONS TO COINS. 

(Continued.) 

Henry the Fifth. Act 4, Sc. x. 

" Kg, Hen : — Indeed the French may lay twenty French Crowns to one they will beat 
us, for they have them on their shoulders ; but it is no English treason to clip French Crowns ; 
and to-morrow, the King himself will be a clipper." 

A witty handling this, of the double meaning attaching to the word Crown, i, e, 
the coin which was so called; and the crown of a man's head ; thus referring both to 
the wager of twenty to one in money, and to the numerical superiority of the Gallic 
army at Agincourt over the forces of King Harry. So much relative to the first 
portion of the quotation. Then, as to the second and concluding part ; to cut, or clip 
with shears, and so depreciate coins of the realm of England was a treasonable practice 
when Shakespeare flourished, there being numerous regulations extant against clip- 
ping, but to clip, or to sweat, French gold, whatever might have been the legal rule in 
the reign of Henry the Fifth, who claimed to be King of France as well as of England, 
seems, from the dramatist's expression, to have been no offence against the law of 
England in his day ; hence he makes the King declare, in respect of Frenchmen's 
heads, typified always by French crowns, that Henry himself intended to depreciate 
their value by the shearing or clipping process. The entire sentence is replete with 
pretty play upon words. 

Second Part of King Henry the Fourth. Act 3, Sc. a. 

" Bullcalf, — Good Master Corporate Bardolph stand my friend ; and here's four Harry 
ten shillings in French Crowns for you." 

, As nearly as I can make out the calculation from the sparse authorities I am 
able to consult, Bullcalf must have handed over to Bardolph six Escus Couronni as an 
equivalent to the four ten shilling pieces the donor mentioned, these being current at 
ten shillings each. No Angels (nor ten shilling pieces) were issued by the Henrys 

1 For an impression of this interesting and eminently students. The Lodge was founded by Bros. Gould, 
appropriate niedal, I am indebted to Bro. Hughan. Woodford (now deceased), Hughan, and others well 
The membership embraces many distinguished Masonic known to Masonic antiquaries. 



i888.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 4S 

reigning anterior to the Richmond, Edward the Fourth being the first king to strike 
and circulate coins of that denomination. 

King Richard the Second. Act i, Sc. i. 

" Bolingbroke, — Look what I speak, my life shall prove it true ; 
That Mowbray hath received eight thousand nobks 
In name of lendings for your highness' soldiers, 
The which he hath detained for lewd employments." 

Nobles, those coins far famed in mediaeval days, world-renowned for their high 
standard of gold and excellence of execution, were first issued about A. D. 1344, by 
Edward the Third, to be current at six shillings and eight pence ; and, with some 
variations, the series was continued by succeeding sovereigns up to and including 
Henry the Eighth. The original design, viz : on the obverse the reigning monarch, in 
war panoply, bearing his regal shield of arms, and represented as standing up in a 
ship ; on the reverse the rich cross fleurie, with its surrounding heraldic lions, lilies 
and crowns, is so familiar to collectors and students as to need no detailed description 
here ; but I may mention that I have before me, as I write this note, a brilliant speci- 
men of Edward the Third's fourth gold issue, circa 1350-60, in which the extreme 
purity of the metal, and sound Gothic feeling in the types, form a most pleasing combi- 
nation of values. 

N. B. — ^Varieties were known under the titles of " George " Nobles and " Rose " 
Nobles. 

Third Part of King Henry the Sixth. Act a, Sc. 5. 

"iSiw. — 111 blows the wind that profits nobody.' 
This man, whom hand to hand I slew in fight, 
May be possessed with some store of crowns." 

The following list shows the various English Crowns, both gold and silver, 
current in Shakespeare's day. 

Gold. — Henry VIII, issues of 34th to 37th year of reign. Edward VI, issues of 
1st, 3d and 5th year of reign. Mary, Half Angel, current for five shillings. Elizabeth, 
Quarter Sovereign or Crown. James I, Quarter Sovereign, also a British Crown and 
a Thistle Crown. 

Silver. — Edward VI, 1551 and circa, Mary, none, Elizabeth, Milled Crown, 
1601-2. James I, Milled Crown, 1603-4. 



LTo be continued.] 



William Tasker-Nugent. 



A NEW CENT OF 1793. 

Some years after the publication of the description of the Cents of 1793, in the. 
yonrnal (April, 1869), I received from a dealer a lot of about seventy-five poor speci- 
mens, among which I found two, the obverses of which were from a die differing from 
any I had before known. Ever since, I have sought for another, hoping to find one 
sufficiently well preserved to admit of description, but without success until quite 
recently, when a good specimen belonging to Mr. Henry Phelps of Washington, D. C, 
was brought to my notice by Mr. W. H. Hays of that city. 

This Cent differs but slightly from some of the others, but it may readily be 
identified by the leaves under the bust. It closely resembles No. 5 of Levick's plate 
in the yonrnal referred to above (which is the same as Frossard's No. 5), having small 
letters and date. The stem of the leaves starts slightly to the left of the top of the 
figure 9, curving a little to the right. The leaf at the left is heavier than the middle 
leaf, that at the right lighter. No curl is perceptible between the hair and the leaves 
as in other similar dies, and the points of the leaves are about equally distant from the 

I A variation this of the commonly received version, " Tis an ill-wind which blows nobody good.** 



•46 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [October, 

hair at the left, and the curve of the bust at the right. The reverse is from the die 
*' C " of Levick's plate, and this Cent might be properly placed as No. 5-a. with 
reverse C. 

This "die-difference" constitutes the variety referred to by Frossard in his 
"Monograph," p. 36. A curious and interesting point in connection with this piece, 
is the finding in one lot of two specimens of a variety then unknown, and still so rare 
that the many years that have since elapsed, have brought to light but one more 
example. 

While upon this subject, it may not be amiss to state in regard to obverse 6 of 
F'rossard's plate, which piece was critically examined by Mr. Levick and myself when 
preparing the descriptions in the youmal (April, 1869), that no doubt was then enter- 
tained as to its identity with No. 7 (of both Levick and Frossard) ; the apparent 
difference being caused by a bruise, which had turned the stem of the leaf at the left, 
so that it seemed to start from the central stem, instead of from the branch below. I 
have made a careful re-examination and comparison, from a copy of that Cent I took at 
that time, and see no reason to change the opinion then formed regarding it, especially 
as it differs no where else from No. 7, even in the slightest particular. 

S. S. CROSBY. 



OBITUARY. 

Since the last number of the youmal appeared, two occasional contributors to 
our pages, and friends who have aided us for many years in sustaining the Magazine, 
have passed away — Dr. Morris of La Grange, Ky., and Mr. R. Coulton Davis of 
Philadelphia. 

ROBERT MORRIS. 

Robert Morris, or as he was better known as a writer and lecturer, '* Rob. 
Morris," was born in Massachusetts, Aug. 31, 1818. He began life as a clergyman, 
but soon left the ministry and went into the Insurance business in Mississippi. In 
1846 he was Principal of Mount Sylvan Academy, near Oxford, Miss., and about ten 
years later was President of Oldham College at La Grange, Ken. His love of travel 
prevented him from remaining long in one place, and as early as 1851 he began his 
career as a Masonic Lecturer, visiting the various bodies of different grades of that 
Order, throughout this country, in England, and on the Continent, and extending 
his journey more than once into the Holy Land, where in 1868 he established a Lodge 
of Instruction, which five years later received a Charter and became No. 293 upon the 
Canadian Register. He was its first Master, and held in this country many prominent 
offices in Masonry. Possessed of a keen and somewhat sarcastic wit, and being an 
exceedingly graceful and fluent speaker, he achieved much success as a lecturer. His 
writings, especially on Masonic mattens, are voluminous, as he was a constant contrib- 
utor to the publications of the Fraternity. His best known production no doubt, is a 
poem entitled " We meet upon the Level and part. upon the Square," portions of which 
have for years been quoted by the craft, and occasionally incorporated into its ritual. 
In i860 he received the literary honor of Doctor of Laws from the Masonic University 
of Kentucky, which succumbed during the civil war. He was interested in natural 
science, acquired considerable reputation as a botanist and geologist, and was a 
member of the American Association of Science and of the Ohio Academy of Science. 
His numismatic labors are familiar to most of our readers and need not be enumerated. 
Aside from magazine articles, his " Coins of the Twelve Caesars " and most of the 
work in "Coins of the Grand Masters of the Order of Malta," are best known. He 
was an Honorary or Corresponding Member of most of the American Numismatic 
Societies, and of the New London Historical Society. His health has long been 
failing, and when a few years ago some of his brethren at a gathering in New York 
decorated him with a "laurel crown" and the title of "Masonic Poet Laureate," 



i888.} AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 47 

following the precedent of a similar honor conferred upon the Poet Burns, his weak- 
ness was painfully evident to others, though probably not admitted by himself. Two 
years ago he began an annotated work on the life and poems of this poet, of whom he 
was a great admirer. For this purpose he visited the birthplace of Burns several 
times, and collected numerous books on his life and writings, besides old volumes of 
his works. His labor in this direction was comprehensive, and at the time of his 
death was unfinished. His disease gradually increased, though he was unwilling to 
desist from his favorite pursuits, until paralysis ensued, and he died July 31, last, 
leaving a widow and several children. 

^ W. T. R. M. 

ROBERT COULTON DAVIS. 

Robert Coulton Davis, of Philadelphia, Penn., deceased August 25, 1888, last, 
at the age of sixty-five. He was well and widely known for his labors in Numismatics, 
and especially by his work on the " Pattern and Experimental Issues of the United 
States Mint," first printed in a series of articles in our contemporary, the "Coin 
Collectors' Journal." He was an active member of the Numismatic and Antiquarian 
Society of Philadelphia, and of the American Philosophical Society. An enthusiastic 
collector, he possessed a large and very fine cabinet of coins, which is believed to be 
unusually rich in those " Pattern Pieces," etc., to which he had given so much atten- 
tion. His series of letters and autographs of the Signers of the Declaration of 
Independence was remarkably full and complete, ranking eleventh in value among all 
similar collections. His collection of portraits and engravings of Washington was 
also large and curious, numbering several hundred, which were supplemented by 
many letters of the " Father of his country." Mr. Davis was born in Philadelphia, and 
was educated at the Moravian Seminary at Nazareth. Soon after completing his 
education he entered the store of Charles Ellis, in his native city, and some time after 
engaged in business for himself ; he was believed to have been the longest established 
druggist in Philadelphia, and was a gentleman highly respected by all who knew him. 

He leaves a widow and three sons. 

J. c. 



'* BLACK DOGGS." 

In response to my inquiry in the Journal of April last, upon the coins once 
known as "Black Doggs," I have received a letter from Rev. W. L. Chaffin of North 
Easton, Mass., which is of interest, and brings the date of the use of this currency 
down to August, 1756. The portion of the letter relating to this subject is as follows : 

" I have in my possession the original of the following, which you may also 
see in my History of Easton^ Mass.y p. 153. ' Received of the Rev<* M*: George Farrar 
of Easton, Two Double Loons, one Joanna, Thirteen Dollars, One pistorene, half a 
pistorene. Four English Shillings, Two black Dogs, and Three halves, which I promise 
to pay this day for the s4 Farrar to Isaac Medberry in Scituate, in the Colony of 
Rhode Island. 

' Tim° Williams. 
"'Easton, August ye 9*^ 1756.' 

" I made several inquiries about Black Dogs, but yours is the first gleam of light 
I have had. w. l. chaffin." 

From this it appears that " black dogs " were used in halves as well as entire, 

perhaps the only instance of activity in dogs after being separated into fractional 
parts. Here the fragments seem to have circulated as well as the integers. 

S. S. CROSBY. 



48 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [October? 1888. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. 

PRESIDENTIAL MEDALS. 

Numismatists will be interested in an article in the September number of Scribner's 
Magazine on " Presidential Campaign Medals," written by Gustave Kobb^. It reveals a com- 
plete numismatic political record from 1828 to our own time. Many of the illustrations, we 
think, accompanying the article, will be found of value ; and the descriptive matter will possibly 
aid collectors in tracing some coveted prize. Mr. Kobb^ says in his introduction, " American 
numismatists have the advantage over their brethren of other countries, for the political institu- 
tions peculiar to the United States have originated a branch of numismatic art not represented 
in the numismatics of any other nation." 

FOREIGN MEDALS RELATING TO AMEIRICA. 

The late C. Wyllys Betts left a work nearly ready for publication, upon foreign medals 
relating to America, struck before the peace which concluded the Revolution. It will, we are 
informed, be a very complete and interesting work on the subject, to which the author has 
given much attention, and will no doubt be a standard work of reference. We believe it is 
soon to be issued as a Memorial Volume by members of his family. Mr. Betts was, as is well 
known to many of our readers, a thorough and careful student, and a most devoted and accom- 
plished numismatist, and certainly nothing more grateful to his friends could have been done 
than the publication of so appropriate a monument to his memory. 



EDITORIAL. 

The dealers in coins are active this fall. Dr. Woodward, in spite of his illness, has 
already held four sales in August and September, one in particular of interest to collectors, 
from the large number of ancient coins and of pattern pieces which it contained. The plates 
prepared by Bierstadt in New York, are very artistic in their execution, and the contrast 
between them and the heliotypes which he formerly used, is very noticeable and shows a 
great advance. He has two more catalogues in press. Mr. Frossard has a choice cabinet 
which he is cataloguing, the ownership of which is not yet announced, though we suspect it 
is from a Canadian source ; Mr. Low has a large and valuable gold collection, soon to be 
offered, gathered by Dr. Ely, embracing several rarities, and our Philadelphia friends, it is 
whispered, are busy on a sale to be hereafter announced. 

We notice that Mr. Low has brought back from his trip across the water some rare and 
valuable Medals and Decorations, of England and the Continent, of which he has sent us an 
attractive catalogue. It may not be generally known that the sale of these decorations by the 
person on whom they were originally conferred is forbidden, and if discovered, the soldier 
forfeits his right to a pension. This makes it difficult to obtain the recent issues, and those 
offered are generally supposed to have been sold by the family, after the death of the recipient. 

Dr. Storer is continuing his series of descriptions of Medals illustrative of Sanitation 
and those pertaining to the branches of science allied to Medicine, to which we have already 
referred. The Sanitarian for August carries the series to 696 ; the class now under considera- 
tion is that of Famine pieces, and he has brought to light many that have escaped the notice of 
previous investigators. 

Our reports of proceedings, coin sales, and some other articles already in type for this 
number, are necessarily deferred. A small increase in our list of subscribers would enable us 
to occasionally add a few pages to the Magazine. Will our readers aid us in this endeavor ? 



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AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS 



AND 



BULLETIN OF AMERICAN NUMISMATIC AND 
ARCH.+:OI,0(;iCAL SOCIETIES. 

January, 1889. 




BOSTON: 

PUBLISHED BY THE BOSTON NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 

UARTERL K. 



COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION. 

WILLIAM SUMNER APPLETON. 
SAMUEL ABBOTT GREEN. 
JEREMIAH COLBURN. 
WILLIAM T. R. MARVIN. 



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CONTENTS. 



Oriental Coins, with special reference to those 

of Southern India, 49 

Fractional Currency, 55 

The Medals, Jetons, and Tokens illustrative 

of the Science of Medicine, • • • 59 

Bucharest College Medals, .... 61 

Archaeological : 

Mound Building, 62 

Masonic Medals, 63 

Proceedings of Societies: 

Boston Numismatic Society, ... 68 

American Numis. and Arch. Society, . 68 

Medals relating to St. Charles Borromeo, . 68 



Gleanings : 

Shakespeare's Allusions to Coins, 
Obituary : 

Mr. George A. Leavitt, .... 
Notes and Queries: 

Marriage Medals, 

Medals issued by Le Regiment de la Calotte, 
Coin Sales: 

Haines Collection, 

The Ely Collection, 

Hart Collection, 

Editorial, 

Currency, 



69 
70 

70 
70 



71 
71 
71 
72 



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January I St, 1889. i8 Somerset Street, Boston, Mass, 

We rarely quote what contemporaries say of the Journal,, but must deviate from our rule to give 
the following from a recent number of the The Sunday School limes. 

The American yournal of Numismatics has probably done more than any other single 
agency to advance the interests of numismatic science in this country. To those who have no 
higher idea of numismatology than a more or less systematic hoarding and trading of coins, an 
investigation of such material as this Quarterly furnishes, would come with the freshness of a 
revelation. Few sciences bear directly or indirectly upon so many human interests, or throw 
light into so many dark corners, as this study of coins, medals, and tokens. It is the daughter 
of metallurgy no less than of fine art, the handmaid of history, economics, and archaeology. 
The American Journal is rich in its original matter, as well as in its selections from the 
writings of the highest authorities at home and abroad.' It comes in fine dress, clearly printed 
on heavy paper, usually with a frontispiece illustration. With the July number, it enters upon 
the twenty-third volume. Published by the Boston Numismatic Society, at i8 Somerset Street, 
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AM ER IC AN 

JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS, 

AND 

Bulletin of American Numismatic and Archaeological Societies. 
Vol. XXIII. BOSTON, JANUARY, 1889. No. 3. 

ORIENTAL COINS. 
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THOSE OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

BY R. H. a TUFNELL, M. S. C, F. Z. S. 

[Continaed from Vol. xxiii, p. 31.] 

We must now pass to a short consideration of the types of European 
coins minted in Southern India, far the most numerous of which, with the 
exception of those of the English (to be afterwards considered) , were struck 
by the Portuguese. An instructive little handbook (in four fasciculi) of 
these coins was published in Bombay in 1883 by Dr. uerson da Cunha, but 
this is now out of print and no longer procurable, except by chance. In this 
interesting work the following is given as the extent of the Portuguese power 
in India when at its height: — 

"When their star was in the ascendant, and consequently they, in the zenith of their 
energy and vitality, the Portxiguese held dominion over the east coast of Africa, the Persian 
Gulf, the Malabar Coast, Ceylon, the Malay Peninsula to the confines of China. The quinas 
then floated over the following fortified towns: Ormus, Diu, Damao, Goa, fiassein, Chaul, 
Hanowar, Mangalore, Cannanore, Cranganore, Cochin, Calaiate, Colombo, Malacca, Temate, 
Tidore, Amboina, Macao, Solor and Timor. Out of these towns, eight had established in them 
mints which issued money more or less regularly in gold, silver, copper, and tutenag, but two 
of them in the last two metals only, until the forcible abolition through their capture by the 
Dutch. The following were the mint marks of six of these towns : — 

B Bassein. D, or D-0 .... Diu. 

C-LO Ceylon.* G, or G-A .... Goa. 

D Damao. M, or M-A .... Malacca. 

" No mark of the Chaul and Cochin mints has yet been made out, although the Archivo 
Portuguez Orientctl contains authentic documents relating to their foundation and their opera- 
tions, besides preserving for posterity interesting decrees and proclamations, referring to 
various coinages and changes in the value of money." 

I Mr. H. C. P. Bell, C. C. S., to whom I am greatly that " no coins are known to have been struck by the 
indebted for information regarding the coins of the Portuguese in or for Ceylon." Mr .Bell's cabinet con- 
Dutch in Ceylon in the folk>wing pages, informs me tains two bearing the Ceylon mint mark (C-Lo). 
that Rhys Davids (loc dt, p. j6) is in error in asserting 

VOL. xxni. 7 



so AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [January, 

Of the issues of these mint towns by far the commonest met with are 
naturally those struck at Goa, which from almost the first appearance of the 
Portuguese in this country has been the capital of their possessions (com- 
monly known as ** India- Portugueza"). As far back as the commencement 
of the sixteenth century, we find the Portuguese settled in Cochin, but with 
an eye on Goa as the object of their ambition. This town was at that time 
under the suzerainty of the kings of Bijapur, but no sooner did the great 
Alfonso de Albuquerque arrive to assume the governorship of the Portuguese 
Indies, than he decided to seize it, and on the loth February, 1510, entering 
the harbor with his fleet and surprising the garrison, he made himself master 
of the town. Hearing shortly afterwards of the temporary absence of the 
governor, the King of Bijapur retook it and garrisoned it with a strong force 
of Mohammedans. These, however, held it but for a short time, for on 
Albuquerque's return in the following November he recovered it, and it has 
remained the capital of the Portuguese possessions in India ever since. No 
better governor of a newly annexed dependency could probably have been 
found than Albuquerque, for he at once set out to work to enlarge and fortify 
the place, ** he established laws and tribunals, encouraged commerce, favored 
marriages . between the European settlers and the natives, and caused a mint 
to be erected and money to be coined in the name of Emmanuel, King of 
Portugal." From this time for upwards of a century the story of the Portu- 
guese in India is one of gradually increasing power, while in like ratio the 
capital grew in importance, till in 1557 we find it raised to the dignity of an 
archbishopric. At the commencement of the seventeenth century the records 
are said to prove that in the city alone there were no less than 150,000 
persons professing the Christian religion. Meanwhile, however, another 
power had been growing in the East in the Dutch, who in 1603 blockaded 
Goa, but failed to take it. At the same time, by withdrawing a large share of 
the trade which the Portuguese had hitherto enjoyed, they considerably 
weakened their position, and from this time dates the commencement of the 
wane of their power. Within the next forty years Ceylon, Malacca and the 
Moluccas were lost, and so rapid was their fall that Tavernier tells us that 
when he visited the locality in 1648 many of the inhabitants, who on the 
occasion of his first visit (1642) boasted of incomes of 2,000 crowns, were 
beggars when he went the second time. Henceforward, little by little, point 
after point, was lost, the Dutch and English gradually increasing in power at 
the expense of the Portuguese, and then the latter by degrees driving out the 
former, till by the middle of the eighteenth century the only mint towns left 
to Portugal were Goa and Diu. Of these, the latter continued operations till 
1864, and the former till the signing of the monetary convention of the 
Anglo- Portuguese treaty on the i8th of March, 1880. By this convention 
the former coinage of the Portuguese in India became obsolete, and the 
English rupee and anna system was made the only legal tender throughout 
the Portuguese territories. All their coins were to be struck by the authority 
of the Government of Portuguese India, but were to be coined on their 
behalf by the Government of British India and by no other agency. The 
series consists of rupees, half rupees, quarter rupees, and one-eighth rupee 
in silver, each bearing on one side the effigy of the King of Portugal, with 
the legend Ludovicus /, Portugalia et Algarbiorum Rex, or such other effigy 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 51 

and legend as the government may from time to time desire, and on the 
other side the value of the coin, the year of the Christian era, and the 
words India Portugtuza. The copper coins are similarly stamped, and 
of the value of half tanga, quarter tanga, eighth tanga and realy corres- 
ponding, respectively, to the half anna, pice, half pice, and pie of the British 
system. 

To turn now to the issues in use prior to the signing of the convention, 
we find a vast number of coins struck in gold, silver, copper, and tutenag,' a 
new stamp usually marking the rule of each successive governor. These 
coins generally bear on one side the coat of arms of Portugal, so frequently 
seen over the entrance porches of the Goanese churches in St. Thome and 
elsewhere, surmounted by a crown and having in the field one or more of the 
letters mentioned above, indicative of the place of mintage. The gold coins 
I have seen bear on the obverse this design and on the reverse usually the 
cross of the Order of Christ or of St. Thomas, with the value in the two upper 
corners, and year of mintage in the two lower. (Figure 38.) The later 
silver coins (Rupias and Pardaos) usually bear the same coat of arms and 
mint mark, but on the reverse the head of the reigning monarch with the 
value of the coin (Figure 39), while the earlier issues follow the same type 
as the gold. A few early issues, and in one or two instances later ones also, 
bear the cross, while some few of very recent mintage have on one side the 
effigy of the king surrounded by the usual inscription, and on the other the 
words RUPiA GOA or merely rupia in a wreath of leaves. The copper coins 
(of which I figure two as fairly characteristic of the series, viz : a tanga of 
D. Pedro V and a piece of 15 reis of the same king. Figures 40 and 41) are 
so multitudinous in number and in form of design that even in a far more 
extensive paper than the present it would be hopeless to attempt to describe 
them at all in detail, nor is such my object here, but rather to call attention to 
the more prominent marks on the common coins, so as to assist the tyro in 
their identification, and where possible to point out those authorities from 
which more detailed accounts can be obtained. As in the coins in the more 
precious metals, the coat of arms of the country usually finds a place on one 
side of the copper issues and on the other sometimes a cross with the nume- 
rals of the date in the four corners, and occasionally St. Catharine's^ wheel, 
while in the more modern issues the value of the piece appears (Figures 40 
and 41). 

It is worthy of note that in no instance do the I ndo- Portuguese coins 
bear any inscription or word in a native language, a custom followed, as we 
shall presently see, by every other nation more or less (except the Danes), 
who struck money for circulation in India. It will be observed further, that a 
large number of Portuguese coins, especially those in the baser metals, bear 
initial letters or abbreviations which cannot fail to be somewhat perplexing to 
the beginner. I have already given those which stand for the mint towns 

1 A base metal said to correspond with the "gong ** the patroness of the city; a church or rather a chapel 
metal of China. was immediately raised in her honor, which still exists, 

2 As it was on the 25th of November, 1510, when it and in which evervyear her festival and the anniversary 
(Goa) became subjected for the second time to the For- of the victory of the Portuguese are celebrated with the 
tuguese sway, and as that dzy is dedicated in the Roman greatest solemnity by the Franciscan friars. — De KIo- 
caiendar to the memory of'^the celebrated virgin and gucn*s Historical Sketch of Goa. 

martyr of Alexandria, St. Catharine, she was chosen for 



52 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [January, 

and now append a list of other abbreviations of common occurrence, taken 
chiefly from the readings of Dr. Da Cunha. 

A.P. or AP for Portuguese Asia. BCCO. for Bazarucco. 

R.P. or P.R. for Portugaliae Rex. S. TOME for St. Thome, a coin worth 4 rupees. 

P. ET. AR. for Portugaliae et Algarbiorum Rex. X. or x for Xerafin, a coin of 300 reis. 

F. II for Filippe II. M. T. for Meia Tanga. 

I. V for John V. T. or T. T. for One Tanga. 

I. H. S. V. for In hoc signo vinces. Numeral alone, for the value of the coin in reis. 

The following are the relative values of the various Portuguese coins 
that have found currency in India: — 

30 Reis == 1 Meia Tanga. 2 Meia Pardaos = i Pardao. 

60 Reis = I Tanga. 2 Pardaos = i Rupia. 

2i Tangas = i Meia Pardao. 

In addition to the coins I have already mentioned, the Venetian sequin 
(the Sdnar-kasu of the natives) was also current in Goa and the neighboring 
parts. This thin gold coin (Figure 42) is still found in considerable numbers 
in the south, though not in great variety, the only names of Doges as yet 
recorded being those of Giovanni Cornaro, Pietro Grimani, Alvisio Mocenigo, 
Paolo Reinieri and Luigi Manin. This coin is almost exactly similar to one 
struck by the Roman Senate in the twelfth century and now in the British 
Museum, which is thus described: obv. s. petrus senator vrbis St. Peter 
delivering a banner to a kneeling senator; rev. roma caput mundi s. p. q. r. 
the Saviour in aureola, holding a book. In weight they vary from 51 to 55 
grains. Exactly similar pieces also occur in copper ; but I question whether 
they are coins at all, it being more probable that they are merely imitations, 
struck as ornaments to be worn by native women : for the gold coins, of 
which they are faithful copies, are held in some veneration by the natives of 
the south, who have connected some curiously interesting legends with them. 

The issues of the Dutch mint at Tranquebar are also fairly common, and 
consist chiefly of four-cash pieces in copper and far more rarely of ten cash 
in silver and copper. All bear on one side the initial or monogram of the 
reigning monarch, and on the other in the earlier coins the monogram of the 
Company, as shown in Figure 43, with two figures of the date on either side, 
and in the later issues X or IV KAS ' as the case might be, with the date 
below (Figure 44), the change taking place about the commencement of the 
present century, when for a time Tranquebar ceased to be in Danish hands. 
It was, however, restored in 18 14, and from that date the new reverse may 
very probably have been brought into use. The coins most commonly met 
with are those of Christian VI, Christian VII, and Frederic VI, the latest 
specimen in my collection bearing date 1843, only two years after which the 
English purchased Tranquebar, Serampore and Porto Novo, and the Danish 
power, whose missionaries had been among the first to labor among the 
natives of Southern India, ceased to exist in the Peninsula. 

A little further to the north again- we find considerable numbers of the 
issues of the French mint of Pondicherry, or as it was usually called Pudd- 

I Since the above appeared in Vfpe, the Rev. J. E. add to my own collection a silver issue weighing 35 grs. 
Tracy has sent me two new varieties of Tranquebar with Frederic VI's monogram on one side and on the 
coins (Figures 66 and 67), and I have also been able to other 2, FANO. 1816. 



1889] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 53 

cheri. As early as 1604 a French East India Company had been started, and 
this was succeeded by several others, all the surviving ones of which, together 
with those of Senegal, the West Indies, and China, were united in 17 19. 
When we consider how extensive were the operations of the French forces in 
Southern India, and how wide the extent of country over which those opera- 
tions were carried out, we cannot fail to be surprised at the small number of 
varieties of French coins struck in India. While the plodding merchants of 
the English East India Company were trading, building factories, and carry- 
ing out extensive mercantile transactions with the natives, leaving to their 
armies the defence of their rights and the extension of their territorial power, 
France on the other hand seems to have concentrated her whole energy in 
the operations of her forces, and to have paid comparatively little attention to 
the more peaceful avocations of her Company. Hence, while we find a large 
variety of issues of the English mints set up in various places as they fell 
under her power, and once even in Pondicherry (?), the French capital itself, 
during a temporary occupation, we find the coins struck by the French to 
have been comparatively few in number and meagre in variety of design. All 
appear to have borne on the obverse either the cock or fleur-de-lis, and on 
the reverse either the date, the word Puducheri in Tamil, or a design some- 
what resembling that found on the coins of Travancore. The silver coins 
(Figures 45 and 46) occur in two sizes, the one weighing approximately 65 
grains, and the other about 23. These bear either the cock or several fleurs- 
de-lis on the obverse, and on the reverse the design I have already alluded 
to, though what it is intended to represent I have never been able to ascer- 
tain. The earlier copper issues are of thick copper, and bear on one side the 
date only and on the other usually five fleurs-de lis. The latter are in two 
sizes, the largest of which is represented in Figure 47, and bear either the 
cock or a single fleur-de-lis, and on the reverse the mint town (Puducheri) 
in Tamil. The next smaller size exactly corresponds with the fleur-de-lis 
type just described, and weighs about 30 grains, while the smallest of all 
bears the unintelligible sign on one side and the name of the usual mint town 
on the other. This same design may also have been used by the Dutch, as 
we find one series of coins with it on one side, and on the other the mint 
town (Negapatam), in Tamil. Owing to the want of official records on the 
subject, it is in some instances well nigh impossible to know to what mint or 
to what nation to apply some of these small copper pieces. Two such are 
Figures 48 and 49. The former of these bears on one side plainly enoueh the 
word Puducheri in Tamil, but, as is often the case, only one or two letters 
of the name on the reverse are complete. It may not improbably read Nagap- 
pattanam (Negapatam), but this would hardly help us to decide to what 
power to assign it. The French, as far as we know, never held Negapatam, 
though on the other hand history proves that in 1693 the Dutch were masters 
of both places, and held them till the signing of the Treaty of Ryswick.' It 
may be that during this period the coin I now figure was struck, though it 
must be confessed that its appearance and state of preservation go far to 
contradict this theory. The other coin to which I allude (Figure 49) bears 
on one side the word Sri ** holy," and on the reverse Kampani in Tamil, 

I Conf. " Revue Beige de Numismatique," ann^e 1887. 



54 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [January 

and may not improbably be one of the wretched little pieces which disgraced 
the English mints in India at the commencement of this or the latter part of 
the last century. 

Before passing on to speak of the issues struck at different times by the 
English in India, we must glance hurriedly at those of the Dutch, whose 
power at one time was very considerable in the southern portions of the 
Peninsula. 

The chief operations of their East India Company were of course carried 
out in the island of Ceylon, but the number of their coins still found in the 
adjacent portions of the main-land plainly enough prove how considerable 
were their dealings with it, while the inscriptions on some show that they 
were actually struck here. From the time of their first appearance in Indian 
waters, the chief aim and object of the Dutch appears to have been to become 
masters of Ceylon. At the very commencement of the seventeenth century, 
partly by alliances with the Sinhalese, partly by the constant warfare that 
they waged with the Portuguese who had already taken and fortified the 
capital Colombo, they left no means untried to gain their end. It was not, 
however, till the middle of that century, when a Sinhalese army completely 
routed the Portuguese forces, that they obtained a firm foothold in the island. 

This victory, coupled with their alliance with the victors, turned the 
tables in their favor, and from this time we find their power steadily increas- 
ing, till their final conquest of the Portuguese in 1656 made them complete 
masters of Ceylon, the natives (to whose coinage I alluded in the first part) 
thenceforward sinking into utter nonentities, a position which they have ably 
maintained ever since. 

The early issues of the Dutch were of intensely coarse make, without 
definite shape and of the rudest possible design. Figure 50 is a fair specimen 
of their earlier productions. This series consisted of 2, i, I, i, and k stiver 
pieces. They were stamped with the value of the coin, the initials ST. (the 
T or both letters inverted) being used as an abbreviation of the full word 
stivers (or as it was then spelt stuiver) . This style of coin was succeeded by 
one bearing the monogram of the Company, formed by the three letters 
V.O.C. (Vereinigte Ostindische Compagnie) in which the O and the C are 
superscribed each on one side line of the V. This monogram will very soon 
become a familiar sight to the coin collector in the south, from the fact of its 
almost invariably occurring on the small thin copper issues, a quarter stiver 
in value, known as ** duits,*' or ** challis,*' which are still met with in great 
quantities both in Ceylon and all over the extreme south of India (Figure 51); 
indeed, according to Sir Walter Elliot, ** the copper money now current in 
Cochin consists entirely " of them. The V.O.C. half stiver of 1644, struck at 
Batavia, is also occasionally met with in Ceylon. It is a thin coin about the 
size of a ** challi," having the ** i ST " above the monogram, and on the re- 
verse the field occupied by a sword around which runs the inscription batavia 
ANNO 1644. 

Under the monogram invariably appears the year of issue, and from the 
list given in De Munten van Nederlandsch Indie of Messrs. Netscher and 
Vander Chijs, these appear to range from 1726 to 1798. The side bearing 
the monogram is always the same, with the exception of the mint mark (a star 
or other small device) which surmounts it, and of course the year of mintage ; 



i889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 55 

but on the reverse the coats-of-arms vary considerably. In those of Holland 
we find the whole shield occupied by a lion rampant facing left ; for Zeeland 
a demi-lion rampant alone appears, and beneath it three waving lines, repre- 
senting the sea, sometimes on a plain field, at others having the legend 
** Luctor et emergo " circumscribed. Another series, that of Gelderland, with 
the usual monogram obverse, bears two rampant lions facing each other 
(combatant?) within a divided shield, the inscription around these being *' In 
Deo est spes nostra," a motto which also occurs around the ship on some 
specimens of the silver 6 stiver pieces. The Utrecht series again extending 
from 1 744 to 1 794 has a plain divided shield supported by a lion rampant on 
either side, while that of Friesland, with dates varying from 1731 to 1792 has 
two lions "passant guardant," but neither of these bears any motto. Challis 
also occur bearing the arms of Zeeland and Gelderland, the obverse of which 
have the names of the State, zeelandia or d. gel-rae, instead of the arms of 
those provinces, the former being occasionally surmounted by a castle sup- 
ported by two stars. Half challis are comparatively rare, and are usually 
only of two varieties, some bearing the plain arms, but unsupported, others 
the shield with lion rampant. Both in the whole and half challis the coat-of- 
arms is invariably surmounted by a crown, which, however, varies considerably 
and rather apparently with the dates than with the form of arms. Before 
leaving this series of curious thin coins, I may mention specimens occasionally 
met with, bearing on one side the usual monogram with the words java indite 
or BATAV or NEDERL-iNDiE ott the reverse, and under it the date. 

[To be continued.] 



FRACTIONAL CURRENCY. 



Mr. H. Russell Drowne read the following paper on Fractional Currency at one of the 
** Numismatic Meetings " of the American Numismatic and Archaeological Society. It con- 
tains so much information on the subject in a condensed form, that we take pleasure in placing 
it before our readers. Eds. 

The issue of fractional currency by the United States Government was caused 
by the great scarcity of silver coin, and the want of any other reliable substitute. 

By currency we mean standard of payment, whether of coins, circulating notes 
or any other commodity ; in fact anything that freely circulates as a common accept- 
able medium of exchange in any country, even though it ceases to possess any value 
on passing into another, may be regarded as currency. 

Previous to the "Act of Congress" authorizing the issue of the United States 
Fractional Currency, the country had been flooded with paper money familiarly called 
" shin-plaster currency," issued by banks, corporations and private individuals. In 
many cases very little was known as to the responsibility of the parties, and oftentimes 
absolutely worthless notes circulated because they looked good. Postage stamps were 
also used ; these were either passed singly or in amounts varying from ten cents to one 
dollar, enclosed in small envelopes. They soon became sticky, dirty and torn, and 
were a great nuisance. 

The taking of this matter in hand by the Government, was not only very oppor- 
tune, but proved very beneficial. It established the currency on a firm basis, caused 
the suppression of all the paper money which had previously been issued for circula- 
tion without proper authority, and enabled the Government to raise nearly three 



S6 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [January, 

hundred and seventy millions of dollars. Besides these advantages, it put in the hands 
of the people a medium of exchange in which all had perfect confidence. 

The "Act of Congress " of July 17, 1862, authorized the issue of postage stamps 
in exchange for United States notes ; under this act the "Postage Currency" was in- 
troduced. Mr. Spinner was the originator of the desigjn for the new paper money. 
Procuring stamps from the Post Office Department, with the understanding that they 
would be redeemed with new ones, he cut bond paper of the required size and pasted 
thereon the then current postage stamps, to the amounts respectively of 5, 10, 25 and 
50 cents. Congress authorized the issue of currency similar to his pasted notes, and 
80 the idea was followed, as we see, quite literally, and the edges similarly perforated. 
The notes also bore the name of " Postage Currency " and the words " Receivable for 
postage stamps." The new money was gotten up m the most expeditious way possi- 
ble. The American Bank Note Company furnished the paper and engraved and 
printed the backs of the notes, and on them appears their cypher ** A. B. N. Co." The 
faces were engraved and printed by the National Bank Note Company, who controlled 
the old contract for the 1861 issue of postage stamps which appear thereon. It was 
usual to award Government work of this character to two parties, and there was an 
Act of Congress to that effect, thus making one serve as a check on the other. These 
were printed in sheets, and the perforation used for convenience in separating the 
notes. The demand for the currency, however, became so great that in order to save 
time in supplying them, the perforation was afterwards omitted (the perforated notes 
stuck together so, they could not be counted in bunches), and the remainder, such as 
were not issued in sheets, were cut up with shears until the separating machines came 
into use. 

The currency, when first issued, was so sought after in New York City, that 
permits were issued to responsible parties, reading as follows : 

United States Treasury. 

New York, Nov. 13, 1862. 

This will entitle the holder to receive in exchange for United States Notes Dollars in 

Postage Currency each Monday and Thursday at 12 o^clock until further notice. 

JOHN J. CISCO, 

Ass't Treas'r U, S. 

This not only tended to increase the distribution, but kept it out of the hands of 
speculators. 

After the contracts for printing had all run out, the plates were delivered to the 
Government, and they subsequently erased the cipher "A. B. N. Co." on the reverse, 
and printed some additional notes with both perforated and cut edges. 

Of the First Issue we consequently have four sets ; that is, the four notes 
perforated, with and without the monogram " A. B. N. Co.*' ; also the same with cut 
edges, with and without the monogram. This issue began Aug. 21, 1862, and ceased 
May 27, 1863, during which time over twenty million dollars were put into circulation. 

The Second Issue was the first to bear the name of " Fractional Currency," and 
was issued in lieu of " Postage Currency " under Act of Congress, March 3, 1863. 
The same values, 5, 10, 25, and 50 cents were continued, but all were of the same 
design, with head of Washington, and, although the notes were scarcely any better 
looking than the " First Issue," still the engraving was much finer. Of this issue we 
have three sets ; the first without any gilt letters and figures on back, the second with 
the letters and figures, and the third printed on paper with silk fibre, commonly called 
split-paper notes. 

The object of these letters and figures, which appear in great variety on the 
reverse of a portion of the second issue, was to indicate the year of the issue, the num- 
ber of the plate and (by the letter) the location of the note on the plate. This was 
continued on a part of the third issue, the year being indicated by "64" and "65." 
It was, however, soon abandoned ; but on the later issues the number of the plate and 
the letter indicating the location of the note on the plate appear more prominently on 



f889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 57 

the obverse. These combinations were used as checks by the Treasury Department 
for the better regulation of the work. 

Several varieties and experiments of the Second Issue exist, of which some are 
unique. Thus we find 25c. (back not dated) with "Treas. Dpt.*' surrounded by a line 
border in gilt on the face of the note ; also 50c. obverse blank, nothing printed but 
gold ring, while the reverse is as usual ; also the same note but with the gilt printing 
reversed : that is, the ring which should be on the obverse is on the back of the note, 
and still another variety blank on both sides, with only the gilt printing. There are 
also several others of minor interest. I have prepared a list enumerating these as 
well as all the varieties of the later issues. This issue began Oct. 10, 1863, and 
ceased Feb. 23, 1867. Over twenty-three million dollars were circulated. 

The Third Issue comprised 3c. Washington, 5c. Clark, loc. Washington, 15c. 
Grant and Sherman (issued only as an essay), 25c. Fessenden, 50c. Liberty, and 50c. 
Spinner. The 3c. Washington are with and without a dark background behind the 
head, and the 50c. Spinner have the fifty cents on back, at each end, and with a differ- 
ent design in the centre. There are three different sets, first, green backs ; second, 
red backs ; and third, autograph signature, red backs. These appear respectively not 
dated, dated on back, and on heavy fibre paper dated, niaking quite a number of varie- 
ties. In the autograph signatures we have both Jeffries' and Allison's names in place 
of Colby's as Register, as well as New's in place of Spinner's as Treasurer. The notes 
of the third issue for circulation were all with the green backs. A number of both 
kinds were signed by Treasurer and Register merely for use as specimens. 

The Act of March 3, 1865, provided for the coinage of the three cent nickel, and 
prohibited the further use of fractional currency of a denomination less than five cents ; 
the Act of May 16, 1866, which provided for the coinage of the five cent nickel, 
prohibited the issue of fractional notes less than ten cents. The fifteen cent notes 
with vignettes of Generals Grant and Sherman were prepared early in 1866 ; the use 
of portraits of living persons on notes or bonds of the United States was prohibited 
by an Act of Congress of April 7, 1866; they consequently appear only as proofs, and 
the issue of this denomination was abandoned until several years later. These appear 
with both green and red backs and with different lithograph and autograph signatures, 
making altogether six varieties, all of which are quite scarce. The third issue began 
Dec. 5, 1864, and ceased April 16, 1869, over eighty-six million dollars being circulated. 

The Fourth Issue follows with loc. and 15c. heads of Liberty, 25c. Washington, 
50c. Lincoln, and later 50c. Stanton, and are much odore attractive in design. They 
first appeared on plain watermarked paper, but later, paper with silk fibre was used 
and a smaller size treasury seal also introduced, so that we have altogether four sets. 
These are as follows : plain white paper and white paper with pinkish silk threads ; 
also blueish paper with blue silk fibre, and smaller size treasury seal on the same 
paper. This issue began July 14, 1869, and ceased Feb. 16, 1875 J ^^ ^^ over one 
hundred and seventy-six million dollars were circulated, which was by far the largest 
amount. 

The Fifth Issue first appeared with loc. Meredith and 50c. Dexter with green 
seals. Later the loc. Meredith was issued with a red seal, together with 25c. Walker 
and 50c. Crawford. Both the loc. and 25c. appear with long and short keys in the 
treasury seal, and the 50c. Crawford with autograph of John C. New across the face 
of the note. A variety also appears with the autograph of New written twice across 
the face of the note, which is claimed to be unique. This issue began Feb. 26, 1874, 
and ceased Feb. 15, 1876, during which time nearly sixty-three million dollars were 
circulated. 

The issue of fractional currency ceased, as the appropriation for printing the 
same had become exhausted. The Act of April 17, 1876, " to provide for a deficiency in 
the printing and engraving bureau, etc.," provided for the issue of fractional silver 
coin in redemption and substitution of the fractional currency, "until the whole 
amount of fractional currency outstanding shall be redeemed." Altogether a grand 
total of $368,724,079^0 was issued, of which amount $15,355,999^5^ remained out- 
VOL. xxiii. 8 



SS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [January, 

standing June 30, 1884 Of this sum only about one million dollars can be accounted 
for, which leaves quite a profit to the Government from notes which have either been 
destroyed or lost. 

On the various issues we find the names of the following gentlemen who were 
in office as indicated: — F. E. Spinner was Treasurer of the United States from 
March 16, 1861, to June 30, 1875, and John C. New from June 30, 1875, ^^ July 7, 
1876. S. B. Colby was Register of the Treasury from August 11, 1864, to Sept. 21, 
1867; N. L. Jeffries from Oct. 5, 1867, to March 15, 1869, and John Allison from 
April 3, 1869 to March 23, 1878. These dates call attention to the fact that some of 
the Third Issue notes bearing on back dates "64" and "65," as well as the Grant and 
Sherman 15c. essays, must have been old stock on hand when they received the signa- 
tures of Mr. Allison. This sanie remark will also apply to a 50c. head of Spinner 
bearing autograph signature of John C. New as Treasurer of the United States. Mr. 
S. C. Clark, whose face appears on the sc. third issue, was Chief of the Bureau of 
Engraving and Printing, and Wm. Pitt Fessenden, whose portrait is on the 25c., was 
Secretary of the Treasury from 1864 to 1865. 

As regards the art of engraving as exhibited on the fractional currency, but little 
can be said ; they were all issued within so brief a period and such expert artists were 
employed that all display about equal merit. The work was quite widely distributed, 
for on some notes appear prominently the names of the American Bank Note Com- 
pany, N. Y., National Bank Note Company, N. Y., Columbia Bank Note Company, 
Washington, D. C, and Joseph B. Carpenter, Philadelphia, Pa. ; others have Engraved 
and Printed at the Treasury Department, but nevertheless the writer is informed that 
for engraving the 50c. Liberty, Third Issue, one of those so designated, the Treasury 
Department paid the American Bank Note Company fifteen hundred dollars. Really 
quite a round sum for that small amount of work. I have recently seen a proof from 
a design for the "Postage Currency" which was not adopted. It is somewhat larger 
than the First Issue and has a picture of the 1 863 Half Dollar in the centre of the note. 
The obverse and reverse were all printed in black, and in general appearance it was 
much inferior to the adopted design. The 50c. Lincoln, engraved by Mr. Charles 
Burt, is generally regarded as the finest example of portraiture in the entire line, and 
in fact it has been referred to as one of the finest engraved portraits of Lincoln. Two 
portraits were engraved for this note ; the first was without the beard and much better 
looking, but was condemned and preference given to the later picture, which was 
considered more accurate. 

The fractional currency unfortunately was largely counterfeited, and it was prin- 
cipally this fact that necessitated the frequent changes. The First Issue in particular 
fell an easy prey to the counterfeiters ; so to avoid this, an entirely different style of 
engraving was employed in the second, and the gold band adopted as a preventive, 
but even this was soon imitated. It is said that counterfeits of the 50c. Lincoln, 
Fourth Issue, appeared almost as soon as the genuine notes, and were so deceptive that 
the issue was abandoned, consequently but few went into general circulation. In the 
last issues the silk-mixed paper proved more efficacious, and counterfeits were seldom 
seen. Notwithstanding this and other slight disadvantages, I think a great many 
regretted the disappearance of the paper currency and the substitution of silver coin 
in its place ; for silver cannot be regarded as equally convenient, as it involves so much 
more bulk and weight. In sending small amounts by mail we also miss the paper 
money ; for the only substitute now available is the postal note, the use of which 
involves considerable inconvenience, although its recent introduction supplies a want 
which has long been felt. 

In closing, I think we can safely draw the conclusion that fractional currency, 
although called into existence by the necessity of the times, was certainly one of the 
most successful substitutes ever employed in the United States as a medium of 
exchange. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 59 

THE MEDALS, JETONS, AND TOKENS ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE 

SCIENCE OF MEDICINE. 

BY DR. HORATIO R. STORER, NEWPORT, R. I. 

As I have intimated in previous communications to the youmal, upon the 
medals of Goethe* and St. Charles Borromeo.f both of whom deserve honorable 
remembrance by physicians, — the one from his direct connection with the profession, 
and the other for his devoted labors during an epidemic of plague at Milan, — I have 
long been relieving the tedium of partial invalidism by endeavoring to ascertain what 
has been done through numismatics towards illuminating medical history. The 
material that I have thus far gathered together is largely fragmentary, as there have 
been but few workers in this department. Possibly enough is in hand, however, to 
already form an intelligible mosaic, imperfect at present, but capable of progressive 
improvement in the future, and meanwhile both of interesting and aiding those who 
have similar tastes. As I have said of recent publications of my own in the same 
direction, upon the medals of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, % and Sanitation, § the 
present must be considered as merely a first list, to be hereafter further developed. 
Towards this end I ask therefore the cooperation of all collectors of medical medals, 
in our own and other countries, and for information thus afforded me I shall be glad 
to give due credit. 

The only systematic catalogues of personal medical medals, and they have been 
in connection with the medals of other scientists as well, that as yet have been 
attempted, have been by Moehsen || and Rudolphi ^ of Berlin, Kluyskens ** of Ghent, 
Von Duisburgtt of Dantzig, and Riippell JJ of Frankfort -on-the-Main, in the sequence 
stated, all of which I have. As will subsequently be seen, these lists are far from 
perfect. I can find nothing upon the subject in the English language, and I fail to 
learn that a single one of the few American medical medals that as yet exist, has been 
placed upon the professional numismatic record. That I have not retained the nume- 
ration employed by Duisburg and continued by Riippell, has been in consequence of 
having discovered so many medals that were unknown to these authorities, that it has 
become far simpler to begin the list anew. 

In the present series of papers I shall endeavor to consider medical medals, 
including jetons so-called or memorial pieces (monnaies de souvenir) §§ and tokens, in 
accordance with their several nationalities, and shall begin of course with our own 
hemisphere, upon whose "medicals" collectively I have already mentioned that noth- 
ing whatsoever has as yet been written. 

Before describing the medical medals of the United States, I shall present those 
of British America, the West Indies, and South America ; for the twofold reason that 
so far as I yet know there are but few of them, and that I am anxious to elicit further 

* Toamal of Numismatics, Oct., 1887 and Jan., 1888. sacrent leur souvenir. 2 vols. Gand, 1859, 8°; Nu 

t Ibid., July and Oct., 1888. mismatique medicale Beige (in Livre Jubilairc public 

t New England Medical Monthly, Nov. and Dec, par La Soci^t^ de M<5decine de Gand, 1885, 8°) ; Nu- 

1886. mismatique Linn^enne (Revue de la numismatique Belge,^ 

% The Sanitarian, New York, May, July, August, v Series, t. VI); Numismatique Vesalienne {loc.cU.)\ 

Oct., 1887, Feb., April, July, August, November, 1808. Numismatique Jenn^rienne [loc. cit,). 

y J. C. W. Moehoen. Beschreibung einer Berlinis- tt Carl Ludwig von Duisburg. Rudolphi recentioris 

chen Medaillen-Sammlung, die vorziiglich aus Gedacht- aevi numismata, etc., emend, et auxit. Dantisci, 1862, 

ni»-Miinzen bertihmter Aerzte bestehet. 2 vols. Berlin 8°; Supplementum (I), 1863; Supplementum II, Geda- 

and Leipzig/ 1773-81. 4*^. num, 1868. 

T Carl Asmund Rudolphi. Index Numismatum in || Eduard Riippell. Beitrag zur Kenntniss der nu- 

Tirorum de rebus medicis aut physicis meritorum memo- mismatischen Ennnerungen an Aerzte und Naturfors- 

riam percussorum. Berlin, 1823 (ist edition) ; 1825 cher. Wien, 1876 {Numismatische Zeitschrift^ Band 

(2d ed.) ; Recentioris aevi numismata virorum de rebus VI) ; Medaillen auf Aerzte und Naturforscher (loc, cii,^ 

medicis et physicis meritorum servantia. 1829 (3d ed.). Band VIII). 

*• Hippol)rte Kluvskens. Des Hommes c^l^bres §§ Kluyskens. Des Hommes, etc., I, p. 133. 
dans les Sciences et les Arts, et des M^dailles qui con- 



6o AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [January, 

information regarding them, at the earliest possible moment. In the direction of the 
latter two classes I have failed to obtain any aid from the recent and exhaustive 
" Bibliograf fa Numismitica Espaftola," Madrid, 1886, of Rada y Delgado, published by 
the Spanish Government, which is in my library. 

Let me say in passing, as I have elsewhere stated, that I am aware of but two 
collections of medical medals in this country besides my own, those of Dr. Wm. Lee 
of Washington, now owned by the U. S. Government, and upon deposit at the. 
Surgeon-General's Office, and 01 Dr. Geo. J. Fisher of Sing Sing, N. Y. To Drs. Lee 
and Fisher and to Surgeon J. S. Billings, U. S. A., I am under obligation for their 
courtesy in furnishing me with lists of these collections, and to the first of them for 
allowing me to examine a manuscript of his upon the general subject, especially 
describing the famous controversy between Dr. Richard Mead of London and others 
as to whether certain ancient coins of Smyrna were or were not struck in honor of 
medical men ; a question which, a hundred and fifty years ago, convulsed British 
professional and numismatic circles. 

In view of the intrinsic importance of the present investigation, the comparative 
great rarity of medical medals, — for in almost every instance but few copies have been 
struck, and their already very high cost, which will be sure to enhance as professional 
interest in them increases, — attention should be given to acquire them for the libraries 
of our universities, and of the chief medical schools, and particularly for the National 
Cabinet at the U. S. Surgeon-General's Office. There have been already in modern 
times medical medals that are known to have existed, biit of which all trace is now 
lost. In other instances, specimens are unique. Under private ownership the risks 
of loss, through theft, carelessness, or fire, are far too great. 

Professional reputations are transmitted to posterity by ordinarily the most 
unstable tenure. Nothing restores our great teachers to memory and to the gratitude 
of those who succeed them, so completely as their visible and tangible portraits upon 
enduring bronze. I shall be glad if these papers of mine shall prove of assistance 
towards inducing Government to continue to build up the national collection of medi- 
cal medals that has so well been commenced at Washington by Drs. Lee and Billings. 

These researches will be simplified if I follow in regard to the medals of each 
country a systematic classification, such as the following : 

A. Personal medals. B. Those of medical colleges, hospitals and professional 
societies. C. Those commemorative of medical events. D. Those signalizing epi- 
demic disease. E. Medico-Ecclesiastical medals. F. The tokens of pharmacists, 
dentists and irregular practitioners. 

I. THE MEDICAL MEDALS AND TOKENS OF CANADA. 
A. Personal Medals. 

Dr. Andrew Ferdinand Holmes of Montreal (1797-1860). Professor in McGill 
University. 

I. Obverse, Bust of Hippocrates, to left. Beneath, c. f. carter sculp. In- 
scription, at right : inxiOEPATHS 

Reverse, Within two branches of laurel, tied by ribbon, facultas | MEDiciNiE ] 
DONAViT. Above, the arms of the University ; a crowned shield having three birds to 
left, two above the other, with a ribbon beneath inscribed universitas m gill montb 
REGio (Montreal). Inscription : in memoriam ANDREiE f. holmes m. d. ll.d. Edges 
beaded. Gold, bronze. 28. 

Leroux in his description has ippocrathe and MEDECiNiE, though correct in his 
figure. McLachlan neglects to mention the material and size of the medal. McLach- 
lan, Canadian Numismatics. American Journal of Numismatics , April, 1881, p. 81, 
CLXVI ; Ibid,, Montreal, 1886, p. 43 : Leroux, Le M6daillier du Canada, 1888, p. 113. 
No. 668, fig. . It is greatly to be regretted that the two contemporary authors 
above quoted make no current references whatever to each other's labors. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 61 

Dr. Holmes was Dean of the Medical Faculty of McGill University for many 
years, and in 1864 his colleagues founded this medal as an award to the student grad- 
uating with the greatest honor. I owe beautiful photographs of the medal to my 
friend Prof. R. Palmer Howard, now Dean of the medical department of the University. 
It was unknown to the most recent authorities upon medical medals, Von Duisburg 
and Ruppell. A copy is in the Lee Collection, at the U. S. Surgeon-Generars Office 
. at Washington. 

A very similar obverse to that of the present medal is that of the two that were 
struck by the Society de M6decine of Lyons in 1789.* It is also, with slight additions, 
quite like the sixth of the medals in honor of Berzelius upon the fiftieth anniversary 
of the Medical Society of Stockholm.! In all of these are the bust and name of 
Hippocrates, and in the last of them, as in the Holmes medal, there are Greek capitals. 
The bust and the name in Greek capitals are also upon the seal of the New York 
Academy of Medicine, with a Latin legend added. 

Dr. Wm. Sutherland of Montreal ( -1875). Professor of Chemistry in McGill 
University. 

2. Obverse. Portrait head to left, with tuft of hair below chin. Beneath, c. f. 
CARTER sc. Inscription : guilielmus Sutherland m. d. | (rosette) ob(iit). mdccclxxv 
(rosette.) 

Reverse, Within maple branches tied by ribbon, universitas | m^gill | 1 

PRiEMiUM I IN I facultate | MEDiciNiE Abovc, the arms of the College, as heretofore 
described. Inscription : ad scientias chemicas excolendas cath. Sutherland inst. 
In exergue, an oblong star. Edges lined. Gold, bronze. 26. 42 mm. 

McLachlan does not mention the material. Leroux has on obverse of his figure 
suttherland, and on reverse medicine, though correct in both instances in his des- 
cription : in the latter he has a comma after the name, omits the dot after the ob, and 
has FACULTATiE, though correct in his figures, and he omits the engraver's name in both 
figures and description. McLachlan, American /oumal of Numismatics^ April, 1881, 
p. 82 ; Ibid.f Montreal, 1886, p. 43 ; Leroux, loc. cit., p. 295, No. 1845, fig. 

As the inscription states, this is the McGill medal for excellence by medical 
students in theoretic and practical chemistry, of which department my personal 
friend. Dr. Sutherland, long occupied the chair, and it was established in his memory 
by his widow. It seems to be the only instance of such numismatic memorial founda- 
tion, under the precise circumstances, as yet existing in America, and it affords an 
example well worthy of being followed. Memorial windows in churches, and marble 
tablets, are quite common, but they are fragile, and in the instance of a deceased 
physician they fail of carrying the lesson of his life to many of those upon whom its 
influence would be most decided, whereas a medal endures tor countless generations. 
The Sutherland medal has one great advantage over that to Dr. Holmes. It bears to 
posterity the features of the individual in whose memory it was struck. In such 
instances the medal not merely perpetuates the name, but it presents to the observer 
the very man himself. It has the added excellence of stating the date of Dr. Suther- 
land's decease. 

This medal is in the Lee Collection at Washington. It was unknown to Duis- 
burg and Ruppell. Prof. Howard has kindly sent me most excellent photographs. 

[To be continaed.] 



BUCHAREST COLLEGE MEDALS. 

In Leakeys *• Researches in Greece," 18 14, appears the following curio respecting the College of 
•• Bukorest." *• One singularity in this establishment is that the Masters receive prizes as well as the 
Scholars. At the examination which took place on July 15, 1871, the prizes were adjudged as follows : — 
To Constantine Vardal^hus, the head master, a valuable gold snuff-box ; to each of the masters a gold 
watch ; and to the ushers silver watches. To the scholars, oval silver medals, having on one side a figure 
of Apollo, and on the reverse, in the rim, AYKEION BOYKOPESTION ; in the middle, APETH2 
ENEKA TTAT IIAIABIAS.'*^ w. t. n. 

•Jos. Neumann. Beschreibung der bekanntesten t Riippell, /<v. «i^., 1876, p. 75. 
kupfermiinzen. 6 vols. Prague, 1836-72. No, 30,922-3. 



62 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [January, 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL. 
MOUND BUILDING. 

Mr. Gerard Fowke has been exploring the Ohio mounds under the direction of the 
National Bureau of Ethnology. In a paper prepared for " Science," he describes his examina- 
tion of one mound in Pike County, in order to ascertain, if possible, the exact method of its 
construction. 

The mound was built upon the site of a house, which had probably been occupied by 
those whose skeletons were found. The roof had been supported by side posts, and at intervals 
by additional inner posts. The outer posts were arranged in pairs a few inches apart, then an 
interval of about three feet, then two more, and so on. They were all about eight inches in 
diameter, and extended from two and a half to three feet into the ground, except one a few feet 
from the centre, which went down fully five feet. All the holes were filled with the loose dark 
dirt which results from decay of wood ; a few contained fragments of charcoal, burned bones 
or stone, but no ashes ; nor was the surrounding earth at all burned. 

Around the outside a trench from three to four feet wide and from eighteen to twenty 
inches deep had been dug, to carry away the water which fell from the roof. Near the middle 
of this house, which measured about forty feet from side to side, a large fire had been kept 
burning for several hours, the ashes being removed from time to time. The ash-bed was 
elliptical in form, measuring about thirteen feet from east to west and five from north to south. 
Under the centre of it was a hole, ten inches across and a foot deep, filled with clean white 
ashes, in which was a little charcoal packed very hard. At the western end, on the south side 
(or farthest from the centre of the house), was a mass of burned animal bones, ashes and 
charcoal. This was continuous with the ash-bed, though apparently not a part of it. The 
bones were in small pieces, and were, no doubt, the remains of a funeral feast or offering. 

After the fire died down, rude tools were used to dig a grave at the middle of the house. 
It measured ten feet in length from east to west, by a little more than six in breadth. The 
sides were straight, slanting inward, with rounded corners. The bottom was nearly level, 
fourteen inches deep, but slightly lower at the centre. Over the bottom ashes had been thinly 
• sprinkled, and on these a single thickness of bark had been laid. The sides had been lined 
with wood or bark from two to four inches thick. When this was done, two bodies were placed 
side by side in the grave, both extended at full length on th^ back, with heads directly west. 
One, judging from the bones and condition of the teeth, was a woman of considerable age. 
She was placed in the middle of the grave. Her right arm lay along the side, the left hand 
being under the pelvic bones of the other skeleton. This was apparently of a man not much, 
if any, past maturity. The right arm lay across the stomach, the left across the hips. This 
skeleton was five feet ten inches in length ; the other, five feet four inches. 

The space between the first skeleton and the south side of the grave was covered with the 
ashes that had been removed from the fire. Beginning at the feet in a thin layer — a mere 
streak — they gradually increased in thickness toward the head, where they were fully six inches 
thick. The head was embedded in them. They extended to the end of the grave, reaching 
across its entire width, and coming almost, but not quite, in contact with the other head. A 
considerable amount of the burned bones lay in the southwestern corner of the grave, and the 
ashes along this part curved up over the side until they merged into what remained of the ash- 
bed. This had extended to the west slightly beyond the end of the grave. 

As the earth removed from the grave had been thrown out on every side, the bodies were 
in a hole that was nearly two feet deep. The next step was to cover them. There was no 
sign of bark, cloth, or any other protecting material above them. They were covered with a 
black, sandy earth, which must have been brought from the creek not far distant. This was 
piled over them while wet, or at least damp enough to pack firmly, as it required the pick to 
loosen it, and, besides, was steeper on the sides than dry dirt would have been. It reached 
just beyond the grave on every side, and was about five and a half feet high, or as high as it 
could be conveniently piled. 

So far, all was plain enough ; but now another question presented itself that puzzled me 
not a little ; and that was, what became of the house ? That there had been one, the arrange- 
ment of the numerous post-holes plainly showed ; but the large earth-mound above the tiunulus 
or grave was perfectly solid above the original surface, giving not the slightest evidence that 
the posts or any part of the house had ever reached up into it. I incline to the opinion that 
the great fire near the middle of the house had been made from the timbers composing it ; that 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 63 

the upper timbers had been torn down, and the posts cut off at the surface, the whole being a 
kind of votive offering to the dead/ At any rate, it is plain that a house stood there until the 
time the mound was built ; but it was not there afterwards. 

For the purpose of covering the grave, sand was brought from a ridge a short distance 
away. There was no stratification either horizontal or curving. Earth had been piled up first 
around the black mass forming the grave-mound, and then different parties had deposited their 
loads at convenient places, until the mound assumed its final conical arrangement. The lentic- 
ular masses through almost the whole mound showed that the earth had been carried in skins 
or small baskets. The completed mound was thirteen feet high and about one hundred feet in 
diameter. 

Two and a half feet above the original surface was an extended skeleton, head west. It 
lay just east of the black earth over the grave. Sixteen feet south of the grave, on the original 
surface, and within the outer row of post-holes, were two skeletons extended, heads nearly west. 
It would seem that the flesh was removed before burial, as the bones were covered with a dull- 
red substance, which showed a waxy texture when worked with a knife-blade. No relics of any 
description were found with any of the skeletons ; but a fine copper bracelet was picked up in a 
position that showed it was dropped accidentally. 



MASONIC MEDALS. 

(Continued.) 

DCCLXIX. Obverse, A woman seated on a low platform between two 
children standing ; the one on her right holds a book, the one on the left, to 
whom she turns her head, is apparently reciting; behind her, on her left, 
another child is examining a globe, and others are on her right in the back 
ground : in the distance are pillars and arches : on the edge of the platform 
FOUNDED and below is 1850. Legend, west . Lancashire • masonic • educa- 
tional • institution the square and compasses at the bottom. Reverse, 
Plain. Suspended by a ring and ribbon to a clasp on which is 1885. White 
metal. Size as engraved 24.' 

I will give here a more perfect description of DCLXXXV, one of which 
has recently been shown me. Obverse, The square and compasses enclosing 
the letter G. The arm of the square on observer's left is much longer than 
the other: the device fills the field. No legend. Reverse, On a mosaic 
pavement are two pillars of masonry, with bases and capitals square and plain, 
supporting an arch; the keystone is just falling into place, being sustained 
by a small bar, the handle of which extends upwards to the left : directly 
under the keystone is a cable-tow, twisted in the form of a figure 8 on its 
side, from which is suspended the letter G ; below, on the pavement, is an 
ashlar with a pyramidal top ; between the letter and the stone on the centre 
of the planchet is a round dot, perhaps designed in connection with the 
raised edge of the medal to represent ** a point within a circle." On the left 
pillar is C and on the right W ; these letters are large in proportion to the 
device, extending from the base to the capital. I have not ascertained their 
meaning. The pillars are at the rear of the pavement, which extends into 
the foreground, as if the top of a step. There is no legend. Copper, thin 
planchet.* Size 20. 

I This medal, which I describe from an engraving 2 But for the form of the ashlar, which is the common 

sent me by Bro. Ilnghan, was struck for use at the An- one on French medals, I should think this of English 

naal Masonic Ball of the Institution named, held in origin. It seems to belong to the same class of tokens 

Liverpool, January 9, 1885, and an engraving is given in as DCCXX. In the Lawrence (formerly the Poillon) 

the London Freemason of January 17 following. Collection. 



64 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [January, 

I find that DCLXXXVI is a "jewel,*' and engraved, not struck. The device I 
give for reference merely, though it properly does not belong in this list. Obverse, 
On a shield is a '*foul anchor ;" at its bottom a sextant ; over the shield as if a crest, 
a globe, with the meridian lines and parallels engraved. Legend, on a circle enclosing 
the shield, palatine lodge centenary jewel ; below, on a small tablet, the square 
and compasses under which on an ellipse 1757 5 ^ loop or band proceeds from the 
circle and surrounds this tablet. At the top is another small shield with a star of five 
points, with a ring to suspend to a ribbon and clasp above. The reverse is engraved. 

I have lately received from Bro. Hughan a full description of the special 
Centenary Medal of Union Lodge, Margate, previously mentioned under 
DCLXXXVII, which is as follows: Obverse, On a field of blue enamel a 
horse prancing, or nearly erect, and in silver. Legend, On a circle around 
the field, union is strength above, and centenary below, separated from 
the name by small five-pointed stars ; a rope border surrounds the medal and 
at the bottom is a ribbon crossed, on which Margate on the end to the left, 
and 1863 on that to the right. Reverse, Plain for engraving.' A square and 
compasses at the top attach it to a ribbon and double clasp, the upper bar 
bearing the name union lodge and the lower, cxxvii. Size as drawn 19 nearly. 

While mentioning British Medals, I will insert a more complete descrip- 
tion of CCCCXC, a drawing of v^hich has lately been sent me by Bro. W. J. 
Hughan, from an original which belonged to the late John Whyte Melville, 
P. G. M., Scotland. The jewel, while not strictly a medal, v^as struck from 
dies. It represents St. Andrew standing, facing, with his cross ; the latter is 
attached at the top and bottom by the ends of its bars to the arms of squares : 
the upper square is suspended at its angle from a thistle, wrhich with extended 
leaves is attached to a green ribbon, hanging from a bar. On the reverse of 
the cross, running downwards from the top of the bar at the left, is centenary 
OF THE, and reading upwards on the other bar, grand lodge : on the base of 
the figure, 1836, and on the square, john w. melville esq. The length, as 
drawn is 28. Gold. I understand these are presented to the various Grand 
Masters as they succeed to that position in the Grand Lodge of Scotland. 

The following piece I suppose is engraved, but from its curious and interesting 
historical character I deviate from my rule to mention only struck pieces, to include 
it here. It seems to bear a certain relation to the Royal Arch Degree, and dates from 
1802 or possibly earlier. 

Obverse, A building in process of erection ; a ladder extends from the bottom of 
the medal on the observer's right to the top of the building, on which a workman, 
carrying building materials, is ascending ; another looks over the top of the wall, and 
a third is assisting to raise a stone which is guided by a rope held by the Master- work- 
man below : on the right stands another workman at a bench, holding a square, while 
near him is the architect, pointing with a staff to the man at the top of the ladder. 
In the field under the ground on which the architect stands are a gavel, rule, trowel, 
etc. Legend, one of the nine worthies 6 ; between nine and worthies are three 
marks, perhaps the "hall-marks." The legend is on a band running around the 
lower part of the "Medal ; an ornamental border, with a hand holding a rope, forms the 
top. Reverse, A temple in process of erection, two unfinished arches in front and a 
third in the back-ground in which a workman is adjusting the keystone, and who is 
sustained by a rope which is held by a hand at the top as on the obverse ; the floor of 
the temple is a mosaic pavement, approached by three steps, with two small pillars at 

t The drawing from which this description is made the Lodge in 1880, Bro. Albert T. Chexfield» and has 
was executed for Bro. Hughan by the Wor. Master of been kindly loaned to me by the former. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 65 

their top ; on that on the right a square with the angle upwards, and on the other the 
compasses extended on an arc : various Masonic working tools on either side of the 
pillars ; a star of five points and the square and compasses on a book under the arch 
in the rear. In the field on the right is a plumb surmounted by the sun with eight 
points, and on the left a level surmounted by the crescent moon. Legend, on a band 
arranged as on the obverse, sit lux et lux fuit (Let there be light, etc.) Silver. 
Size as engraved, 34. ^ 

DCCLXX. Obverse, The arms of the *' Ancient Masons," (quarterly, 
the lion, ox, etc., as frequently described,) the colors indicated by heraldic 
lines, with two cherubim as supporters, the ark of the covenant as the crest, 
and a motto in pseudo- Hebrew characters on the ribbon below. Legend, 

THE GRAND LODGE OF FREE AND ACCEPTED MASONS, ACCORDING TO THE OLD 

CONSTITUTIONS. Under the shield, kirk f. in small letters. Reverse, Plain. 
Bronze. Size as engraved, 25 nearly. This medal, of which only two impres- 
sions are known, appears to have been struck from a die made by Kirk in 
1775, for the seal of the Grand Lodge (Athole). An engraving is given 
in the History of the Royal Union Lodge of Cheltenham.' 

In the same History is engraved a curious brass medal, showing the "united 
labors of the three legendary Grand Masters at the building of the ever memorable 
temple,*' which, however, I do not understand to be struck. Another, of silver, gold 
and enamel, with the same design, of which the brass piece just mentioned, owned by 
the Royal Union Lodge, is perhaps the original, is also described by Hughan in his 
Appendix to the History cited, where may also be found an illustration of the jewel 
worn by the officers of the same Lodge, which was possibly struck.* 

Enoch Lodge, London, has a Centenary jewel in the form of a star of six points, 
which is of silver, set with brilliants, and on the centre an American aloe in gold 
surrounded by a garter of blue enamel, with the name and number of the Lodge and 
date of Centenary, 1855, in gold letters. The aloe or century plant has its leaves and 
flowers in colored enamels. The reverse is plain for engraving. While partly formed, 
I judge, from dies, it is not a medal, and I do not number it. 

St. George's Lodge, No. 140, of Greenwich, has a Centenary Medal or Badge, 
which appears to be partly if not entirely from dies. As I am not certainly informed 
on this point I describe it without numbering. Obverse, St. George in combat with 
the dragon. Legend, on a circle surrounding, st. George's lodge 140 above, and 
CENTENARY bclow, separated by points from the upper part of the legend. Reverse, 
Plain for engraving. A square and compasses at the top, attached to a ribbon by 
which it is suspended from a clasp, on which estb 1765. Gold. Size as drawn, 24. 

Still another Centenary Medal of the same character is one of the Lodge of 
Unity. Obverse, The square and compasses enclosing 71. Legend above, lodge of 
UNITY, and below 1747. Reverse, An angel, facing, portions of his wings showing 
behind ; he is haloed and a small cross hangs from his neck ; he holds in front of his 
breast a shield on which are what I take to be two roses in pale. Legend, villa 
LOWisTOFT soFFOCHE ; around the border there seems to be a tressure or series of five 
arches. Silver and silver gilt. Size as drawn, about 18.* 

1 This is a Jewel of the " Nine Worthies ** or Excel- William James Hughan, etc.** The engraving is given 
lent Masters, of which only nine were made, and were in Appendix, p. xi. 

worn by the Nine Excellent Masters of the Athole 3 See pages vii et seq.^ of the Appendix to "The 

Grand Lodge. The ownership of seven is known, but Royal Union Lodge,*' cited above, an advance copy of 

two have been lost. They differ in the legends of the which I have just received from Bro. Hughan. 

obverse, and one has no legend. An engraving and 4 This medal is worn as a member's jewel by the 

full particulars are given in Hughan*s Origin of the Lodge named, but is not recognized by the Grand Lodge 

English Rite, pp. 96 and 97. of England, which as I have elsewhere stated, prescribes 

2 See " The Royal Union Lodge, No. 246, Chelten- the form and pattern of the Centenary Medals which 
ham, 1813-1888. A Sketch of its History, etc., by may be worn by its subordinates. For drawings of this 
George Norman, P. M., .... with an introduction by and the preceding I am indebted to Bro. Hughan. 



66 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [January, 

The English Royal Arch Chapters have Centenary Medals, which I understand 
are partly struck and partly cut out. They are in the form of a star of six points, 
composed of two equilateral triangles interlaced, surmounted by a circle which bears 
the name of the Chapter and its date of institution*: in the centre is a serpent devour- 
ing its tail, interlaced with two twisted cable-tows also interlaced, in the form of two 
8's on their side. It is worn suspended by a ribbon from a clasp. ^ 

These embrace all the English Medals struck from dies, of which I have obtained 
descriptions. Mr. Hughan and Mr. Shackles, to whbse assistance I have so often 
been indebted, have information of the existence of a few others, which I shall hope 
to give before concluding these addenda. Most of the older English Masonics, as 
already mentioned, are engraved or cut out from a silver planchet, but these are not 
properly medals, though often of great historic interest to the collector of Masonics. 

Of similar character to the English badges mentioned above, is the following : 
Obverse, A gilt star of seven points, apparently struck, within a heptagon of silvfer ; 
on its centre, a small heptagon, with gilt border, and gilt Z on blue enamel ground. 
Reverse, Plain. This is probably a bijou of some French " Chapitrale " body, and 
was in the Crepy Collection. 

DCCLXIX. Obverse, The square and compasses, surrounded by an 
ellipse, outside of which the legend, embleme • : • du • : • devoir [Emblem 
of attention to labor]. At the bottom, • : • 301 1 • : • which is perhaps a date 
under some of the whimsical French Masonic Calendars. Reverse, Within a 
wreath of olive, tied at the bottom by a ribbon, the inscription in four lines, 
BLOis I AN I DE GRACE 1808. Loop at top, unpierced. Copper. Elliptical. 
Size 16 X 20 nearly. Poorly executed, perhaps dijeton de presence* 

DCCLXX. Obverse, The square and compasses ; from the left angle 
of their junction springs a sprig of acacia, and from the right, parallel with 
one arm of the square, passes a sword, the hilt above ; within the square and 
compasses is a raised circle with beaded border, across which is a small tablet 
with the word verite [Truth], and above the circle a small five-pointed star. 
Legend, l.*. des vrais zeles o.*. de chalons s. s. and four five-pointed stars 
at the bottom [Lodge of Truly Zealous Brethren, Orient of Chalons sur- 
Saone]. Reverse, Inscription in six lines, chercher | la science, | prati- 
QUER I LA VERTU, | voiLA TOUTE LA | MA90NNERIE [To Seek after knowledge, 
to practice virtue, this is all of Masonry]. The top has a loop and ring 
inserted without piercing the medal, and the edge at the bottom has a vase 
or antique lamp incused, (?) as a mint mark. Silver. Size i6 nearly. 

DCCLXXL Obverse, The square and compasses. Legend in two 
circular lines, the outer, rues fontenelle 7. & du g? croissant 7 ; at bottom, 
filling out the circle, • havre • the inner circle, c. g. reiffinger Reverse, 
Legend above, porcelaines cristaux and below, • faiences verreries • sur- 
rounding the inscription in five lines all but the first and third curving. 

DfePOT I DE DAMES JEANNE | & | DE BOUTEILLES | TOILES CIREES ThlS is simply 

a French store card of parties who used the Masonic emblems for advertising 
purposes, and needs no further comment. Brass, gilt, twelve-sided. Size 15. 

DCCLXXn. Obverse, Similar to the obverse of CXVI, but instead of 
Libert^, etc., on the tablet under the letters B and J, is the inscription in four 
lines, GRAINS dieu | sers ton pays I SECOURS I l'indigence [Fear God, serve 

I Described from a plate sent me by Bro. Haghan. 2 Blois is about one hundred miles southwest of Paris. 
As engraved its size is 28 between opposite points, I have not ascertained the name of the Lodge by whidi 
but I presume the jewel worn is somewhat smaller. it was struck. 



1889] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 67 

your country, relieve poverty]. On the left is a rule in place of the square ; 
over the tablet, the radiant All-seeing eye instead of G. Reverse, Apparently 
from the same die as the reverse of CXVI. This is probably a later medal of 
the Lodge of United Artists of Limoges, France, than that already described. 
Bronze. Size 17. 

DCCLXXIIL Obverse, An oval shield with floreated border, the field 
of which is engraved with horizontal lines, as if to denote azure, and bears 
various Masonic working tools of quaint form ; at the top are the compasses 
extended, on their right limb a square ; its upper bar is horizontal and the 
other perpendicular to the right ; below it a level at the left and a plumb at 
the right, beneath which on the shield a small character, perhaps an F, but 
not distinct ; above, resting on the shield, is a small crown, over which and 
hanging on either side a mantling, the folds of which on the sides of the 
shield suggest scimitars. Legend above, constantia mercure (sic) lumen 
[By their constancy they have merited light], and below, .4. s jean d'ecosse 
o. MiRBALAis [Scottish Lodge of St. John, Orient of Mirbalais]. The piece 
described is pierced at the end of the legend. Reverse, An oval shield 
similar to that on the obverse, but without the border; it rests on the 
ground ; it is lined for azure as the other, and has three five-pointed stars, 
two over one, and a large crown on the top of the shield. There are support- 
ers, the dexter a greyhound salient and turning his head to the left ; the 
sinister, another seated, his hind quarters behind the shield, his head turning 
to the left : over the latter a sprig of acacia extends from behind the shield. 
No legend. Silver. Size 16.' 

DCCLXXIV. Obverse, A star of twelve points, on the end of each a 
small knob or bead ; between the points as many other points of formal wavy 
rays. On the centre is a circle, size 14, with the legend, grand ministre 
coNSTiTUANT DE l'ordre ; a triangle or delta at the bottom ; within the circle 
the Hebrew letters, Aleph, Lamed, He and Jod. Reverse, Blank. A small 
ring at top for suspension. Apparently of silver. Size from point to point, 
25.' 

DCCLXXV. Obverse, Within a wreath of olive branches crossed at the 
bottom but not tied, a cipher of script letters, which I read L D P P and if 
this is correct, take it to signify Loge du Point Parfait. Reverse, Bust of 
Bonaparte to right, in uniform; the coat has a wide collar turned over. In 
very small letters under the bust, at the left, gatteaux Legend, vigilat ut 
QUIESCANT [He watches that they may rest]. In exergue, in two lines, 
BONAPARTE PREM. | CONSUL. A border of dots on both sides. Edge milled. 
Bronze, and perhaps other metals. Size 19 nearly.' ^ j ^ marvin. 

I This is a very curious medal, apparently of the last Paris, but I have not certainly learned its location or 

century, judging from the style of its execution, and the date. It, however, was probably one of the ephemeral 

form of the letters. I find no town of that name men- affairs which did so much damage to French Masonry 

tioned in the Gazetteers, the nearest similar name being in the closing years of the last and the beginning of the 

an old Department of France, Mirebalais, now com- present century, 
prised in the Department of Vienne. A town of the 3 I place this among Masonics simply on my reading 



name is also founa in Hayti, but I think this must be of of the cipher : the Lodge was located m Paris (see Note 

French origin. It must be rare. I have seen only that 435), a " '' ~ ~ ^'^ " "*"" "*~" "' r _. .•_ 

in Mr. Poillon's now the Lawrence Collection. XVIII 

2 I presume this badge, which is struck on a star- is in 

shapea planchet, belongs to some Masonic body in lon*s. 



French origin. It must be rare. I have seen only that 435), and was working as late as the time of Louis 

in Mr. Poillon*s now the Lawrence Collection. XVIII, if I am correct in my attribution. The medal 

2 I presume this badge, which is struck on a star- is in the Lawrence Collection, formerly Mr. Poil- 



68 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [January, 

PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

BOSTON NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 

A MEETING of the Boston Numismatic Society was held at i8 Somerset Street, 
on Friday, Dec. 14th, at 3.30 P. M., Vice President Henry Davenport in the chair. 
Mr. Crosby was chosen Secretary /n? tern, 

A beautiful bronze Medal was received, presented by A. A. Folsom, Esq., in 
commemoration of the Centennial of the "Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company." 
The thanks of the Society were ordered. Dr. Hall exhibited one of the three known 
specimens of the " Fugio" having the word united above the "we are one," on the 
reverse, and the word states below, also other rare pieces.- The exhibition evoked 
an interesting discussion on the coins shown. 

A committee consisting of Dr. S. A. Green and Mr. H. Davenport, was appointed 
to nominate officers for the ensuing year. Adjourned. 

AMERICAN NUMISMATIC AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

The prosperity of this Society continues. The new departure, inaugurated about 
three years ago, by which in addition to the regular meetings of the members, 
"Numismatic Meetings" are also held, at which papers on various subjects bearing 
on the purposes of the Society are read, has done much to promote interest in its 
work, and the printed papers have been valuable contributions to numismatic litera- 
ture, as many of them have been issued in the Annual Proceedings. The additions 
to its membership reported at each meeting show that the community recognize the 
work that is going on, and the financial condition is most satisfactory. At the last 
Annual Meeting Mr. Drowne reported a total membership of upwards of 270. Ten 
Numismatic Meetings were held last year, beside seven other meetings of the Society 
for the transaction of business. These gatherings, with their accompanying papers 
and exhibitions of medals and coins relating to the special topics under discussion, 
might well be followed by some of the smaller Societies, whose members include, no 
doubt, gentlemen competent to furnish papers on their special " hobbies," which would 
bring out neglected points, or discoveries, thus saving them from oblivion. The 
accessions to the Society's Cabinet last year, were 264 pieces. The Library is now 
one of the most complete, if not the first in magnitude, in the country, on the science, 
several rare illustrated works relating to coins, etc., having been added within the 
year, and its Collection is a very interesting one. We are indebted to Mr. H. 
Russell Drowne, its Secretary, for information concerning its work. 



MEDALS RELATING TO ST. CHARLES BORROMEO. 

In Dr. Storer's article on Medals struck in honor of St. Charles Borromeo, at 
page 13 of the July issue, mention is made of the use of three signet rings interlocked, 
which appear on Nos. 10, 1 1 and 25, and which Dr. Storer rightly concludes were not 
the general family crest. Heraldically speaking, these interlaced rings are not a crest^ 
but a device, and in this sense were used, I believe, in the first instance by Cosmo 
de'Medici, about 1470 (.?). See " Le Impresi di M. Giovio," (Paulus lovius, Bishop of 
Nocera), Edit. 1559, and Mrs. Bury Palliser's "Historic Badges and Devices." Cosmo 
used three interlaced rings, each set with a diamond, forming a play upon the word 
"diamante," by turning it into "Dio amando." Possibly, also, Litta's grand work on 
illustrious Italian families may have some reference to the use of this device by the 
house of Borromeo. William Taskbr-Nugent. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 69 

GLEANINGS. 

SHAKESPEARE'S ALLUSIONS TO COINS. 

[Concluded.] 

and part of King Henry IV. Act. a, Sc. i. 

Hostess : — *• A hundred mark is a long one for a lone poor woman to bear." 

Here Falsta£f's Dame Partlett alludes to the amount of the fat Knight's debt to 
her, for the recovery of which she had just brought her action against him. 

I confess I am considerably puzzled in my attempt to make out the exact equiva- 
lent, in Elizabethan or Jacoban current coin, which would balance this amount of " a 
hundred mark." The mark, in England, according to good authority, was " a money 
of account,'' valued by the Normans at 13s. and 4d. On the other hand, a French 
Royal Edict, published soon after Shakespeare's death, makes the equivalent to the 
silver mark^ when in English Shillings, 25 livres 4 sols ; when in current French 
coin, from 22 livres 18 sols to 25 livres 4 sols ; when in Netherlands money, 20 livres 
4 sols ; when in Spanish and Italian money, 25 livres 14 sols. And the equivalent to 
the mark in gold, when in French coin, 372 livres ; in Spanish coin, 357 livres ; in 
Italian coin, 348 livres. 

I can oflfer no solution of the problem, but hazard a conjecture that 13s. and 4d. 
is the most probable factor, thus making Sir John's liability, in current coin, say 
;£'66 13 4. Perhaps some one among the readers of t\\Q Journal may be able to supply 
a more definite conclusion. 

The Merchant of Venice. Act a, Sc. 8. 

*• Salario. — The dog Jew did utter in the streets — 
O my Christian ducats ! 
A sealed bag, two sealed bags of ducats, 
Of double ducats, stolen from me by my daughter." 

Here Shylock is described as lamenting, in semi-crazed condition, the flight of 
Jessica, rendered more poignant by her theft (conveyance, Falstaff would have said) of 
her father's gold and jewels. 

Venetian ducats were struck in both of the precious metals ; but the double ducat, 
if I mistake not, was not a coin of that Republic. At any rate, I can cite double 
ducats, golden pieces of Ferdinand and Isabella, struck for use in Flanders and Q) 
Spain. These interesting coins show on the obv. the crowned heads of the joint sove- 
reign rulers, facing each other, with this legend, quos deus conjunxit homo non 
SEPAR. [Those whom God has joined, let no man separate] ; allusive equally to the 
married monarchs, to the union of the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon, and to the 
ties between Spain and the Low Countries. The reverses vary in detail. I quote 
one where the field is occupied by a nimbus-crowned eagle, bearing a shield blazoned 
with the arms of Spain, and, I think, Flanders, and having for motto, sub umbra ala- 
rum TUAR. [Under the shadow of Thy wings]. Altogether, these double ducats are 
charming historically, for the portraits displayed ; heraldically, for their elaborate 
insignia ; and generally, for the inventive qualities of the designs. 

The Quarterly Review for the year 1843, has an article apropos of Cardwell and 
Akerman on Coins, full of sympathy with the medal-lover, and replete with pointed 
passages. Nothing, surely, can be more in touch with Numismatists, than the follow- 
ing excerpts : — 

"He looks upon his Coins as silent monitors, teaching many things." "Let 
him look for a minute on these few reverses of Roman large brass. He sees Valor 
standing fully armed ; Honor robed and chapletted ; Happiness crowned with oblivis- 
cent poppies ; Concord with tended hand, and the horn of plenty in her bosom ; Hope 
tripping lightly, and smiling on a flower-bud. Peace offering the olive branch ; For- 
tune resting on a rudder ; Military Faith stretching forth his consecrated standard ; 
Abundance emptying her cornucopia ; Security leaning on a column ; Modesty veiled 
and sitting ; Piety taking her gift to the altar ; Fruitfulness in the midst of her nurse- 



70 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [January, 

lings; Equity adjusting her scales ; Victory with wings, coronal, and trumpet; Eter- 
nity holding the globe and risen phoenix, or better still, seated on a starry sphere ; 
Liberty with cap and staff ; National Prosperity sailing, as a good ship, before the 
favoring gale ; and Public Faith (look to this, Columbia !*) with joined hands, clasping 
between them the palms of success and the caduceus of health." w. x. n. 



OBITUARY. 

Coin buyers will regret to learn of the death which has occurred so recently, 
of Mr. George A. Leavitt, of New York, the senior member of the well known 
firm of auctioneers. To the frequenters of the earlier sales he seemed the friend rather 
than the mere business acquaintance, and lovers of the antique, whether of ancient 
coins, medieval missals, scarce prints, curious pottery, rare black-letter books, armor 
and weapons of the "Knights of old chivalric day,*' — in short of antiquarian treasures 
of whatever kind, found a most attractive place in his chambers. He gathered around 
him at the outset connoisseurs who made his catalogues valuable and interesting, and 
they have always maintained this high reputation. The writer's earliest recollection 
of a visit to New York is associated with the old Trade Sales of the booksellers, over 
which Mr. Leavitt long and happily presided, protecting the interests of buyer and 
seller alike, — for he seemed to have an instinctive knowledge of the value of the 
books offered. As memory recalls those days, he sees again the familiar faces of the 
leading publishers as they watched his hammer, or chaffed each other and told stories 
in their lunch hour between their contests. Hardly one of them remains to-day, and 
the " Annual Book Sale " is no longer what it was. Not less marked in character in 
later years, were the coin sales, where Cogan and Mickley and others now gone, 
battled for some rare coin or medal. Among them all Mr. Leavitt was ever a welcome 
guest. His memory will long remain a pleasant one. w. t. r. m. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Can some of your readers give a descriptive account of the meaning of the small devices on French 
coins, associated with the mint mark. Many of the French mints have letters distinguishing them. A 
capital A, for instance, is well known as signifying that a coin was struck in Paris. Associated with this, 
however, I find various objects — an antique lamp, an anchor, a caduceus, a hand, a cock, a fleur-de-lis, 
etc. Are these Mint Master's marks, or what do they denote P An account of these would be interesting 
and valuable. Norfolk. 

What is this medal? Obverse, Clasped hands ; over them harmonie curving, and below zeulen- 
RODA (the name of a town in Germany, in Reussgreitz) . Below is an ornamental dash. Reverse, The 
front of a large building : no legend. I have thought it probably a Masonic, but find no Lodge with that 
title, mentioned as existing in the place named. w. T. R. m. 

MARRIAGE MEDALS. 

In the year 1790, a set of French Deists, who went by the name of Tkeophilanthropes, was founded, 
and was suppressed in 1801. In the Manual of these Theos, under the head of marriage, and in connec- 
tion with the ceremony pursued, it is mentioned that ** to these formalities may be added the presentation 
of the ring from the bridegroom to the bride, the Medal of Union given by the bridegroom to the bride^ or 
other ceremonies of that kmd, according to the usages of the country." 

I am quite in ignorance respecting this so-called Medal of Union ; I therefore end with this question. 
Who knows anything about such a piece ? w. T. N. 

MEDALS ISSUED BY LE REGIMENT DE LA CALOTTE. 

In D'lsraeli's ** Curiosities of Literature," mention is made of this regiment of skull-caps, formed, at 
the close of the reign of Louis le Grand, by an oflficer and wit, who, to cure violent headaches, was recom- 
mended to wear a skull-cap of lead, and whose companion wits formed themselves into a regiment, 
composed only of persons distinguished by extravagances in words or in deeds. They elected a general ; 
they had their arms blazoned and struck medaUy besides issuing *• brevets" and *• letters patentes." 
Who has seen any of these medals, or a description thereof? w. T. n. 

* Query. Does he allude to the repudiation of Mississippi State Bonds ? 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 71 



COIN SALES. 

Mr. W. E. Woodward bas held several sales of Coins, Medals, Books, and Stamps since our 
last notice, and has, we know, two or three more in preparation, one of a choice collection ot archaeolo- 
gical relics, to be sold in January. We regret that owing to the state of his health at present and the 
pressure of business, he has been prevented from completing for us priced catalogues. 

HAINES COLLECTION. 

The Collection of Ferguson Haines, catalogued by the Messrs. Chapman, was sold by Davis & 
Harvey, Philadelphia, October 17 and 18. (1652) Shilling. N E rev. XII, well and evenly struck, $52 ; 
1652, Shilling, Oak tree, v. f., 6; do., uncir., weakly struck, 5.75 ; do., do, 5; do., 2.50; do.. 475; 
do., 4; do., 3.50; do., 3.75; do., 12. Sixpence. 3; do., 2.50. Threepence, 3.75: do., 2.60 (2). Two- 
pence, 2.60; do., 2.75. 1652, Pine tree Shilling, 6.75; do., 6; do., 4.25; do., 5; do., 7; do., 4; do., 
3.50; do., 4 (3). Sixpence, 3. Threepence, 4.50; do., 3.10. etc. A false copper Penny, N. E., 50c. 
Lord Baltimore Sixpence, v. f., 16. Louis XIV, Gloriam Regni, 5 Sous, ex. f., 15.50; Louis XV, 1720, 
rev. Imp. Chrs. Regn. Vine, 5 Livre, 13; Louis XV, 1767, copper, Francoises, Sou, 2.50; Chalmers 
Shilling, 1783, fine, 4.25; do., 3.25; Threepence, 8.50; Baltimore Town piece, Standish Barry, v. f., 
16.50; Immune Columbia, 1785, 10; Immunis Columbia, 1787. f., 4; do, 3.62; Washington Half Dol- 
lar, 1792, e., 19; 1821, Quarter Eagle, p., 21.50; Carolina, 1834, 5 dollars. 5; Proof Set, 1858, 7 pieces, 
46.50; Dollar, 1704, V. g., 44; do., g., 38.50; 1836, c. gobrecht in fields p., 61 ; do., c. gobrecht<i/ 
baUy 8; 1838, Liberty seated, 13 stars, 27; do., do., poor, 54 50; '39. v. f., 31.50; do., v. f., 26; do., 
V. g-. 20; '51, p., 52.50; '52, uncir., 46.50: '55. P-» 27.50; '56, p., 12.50; '58, p., 43. Half Dollars, 



1794,5; do., 4; do., 4; do., 3.60; do., 3.25; '96, 15 stars, fine, 61; do., 16 stars, v. g., 62.50; '97, 
16 stars, i6; i8oi, f., 4.10; '02, fine. 750; do., good, 4; '15, 5.38; New Orleans Mint, 1838, ex. rare, 
31.50; '52, V. f., 3.25 ; do., 3.60; do., ex. f., 4.12. Quarter Dollars, 1796, ex. f., 27; 1804, v. g., 3.62. 
*15, V. f., 3; '19, f., 4.50; '22, uncir., 5.75 ; '23 over '22, 32; do., 27; '53, with arrow heads and rays, 
2.IO. Dimes, 1796, f., 8.35; '97, 7.50; do., 8; '98, v. g., 5; i8oi, v. g., 4.35; '04, f., 37. Half Dimes, 
1792, Liberty. Parent, etc., f., 6.75 ; '94, v. g., 3.62 ; do.. 3 ; do., 2.87 ; '96, 3.25 : '97, 3.25 ; 1801, 3.75 ; 
'02, V. g., 61.50; do., obv. V. g., rev. poor, 40; '05, v. g. 14.25 ; '46, f., 4.25 ; *6o, stars on obverse, 4. 
Three Cent pieces. 1851, uncir., .50; '54, do., .60; '55, do., i.io; '56. do., .95; '63, p., 1.15; '65, unc, 
.90; '69, .90. U. S. Cents, 17^3, chain, fair, 4.25 ; do., 5.62 ; do., 6.75 ; do., stars and vine edge, poor; 

V. g., 7.25 ; '97, f., 6.25 ; '99, g., 22 ; 1803, v. f., 16; 



.90; '69, .90. U. S. Cents, 1703, chain, fair, 4.25 ; 
Q.25 ; '93, Liberty cap, f., 35 ; 95, Jefferson head, v 
'04, f., 11.25; 'o7» f» ^o; ''3. uncir., 6.75. HalfC 



.25; '07. f., lo; '13, uncir., 6.75. Half Cents, 1793, ex. f., 10.50; '9?, ex. f., 8.50; '96, v. 
21.25; do., rare and fine, 35 ; 1841, poor. 10; '43, do., 8.50; '47, do., 6; '52, do., 6. We should judge 
that the sale was a very successful one. 

the ELY COLLECTION. 

The Collection of United States Gold Coins belonginc^ to the Rev. Foster Ely, D. D., was sold by 
Bangs & Co., New York, November 17, 1888. Catalogue by the Scott Stamp and Coin Co. We give 
the prices realized for the roost attractive pieces. £Vi^/«.— 1795, 15 stars (5 facing), small eagle, v. g., 
>^3-75 ; '96, 16 stars (8 facing), v. g., 17.50; '97, 16 stars (6 facing), large eagle, v. g., ii ; '98, 13 stars 
(4 facing), fine, v. r.. 32; '99, 13 stars (5 facing), v. g., 10.50; 1800, fine, 11.25 ; '01, v. f., 10.50; none 
coined in 1802 ; '03, v. g., 10.75 1 'o4» uncirculated, 33 ; none coined from 1804 to 1838 ; '38, head to left, 
g., 11.50. Half Eagles. -^17% t 15 stars (5 facing), 9; do., large eagle, very rare, fine, 15.50; '96, smaU 
eagle, rare, v. f., 20.50; '97, 15 stars (5 facing), v. rare, fine, 35.50; do., 16 stars (5 wcing), do., do.. 



55 ; do., large eagle,' ex. fare, 'fine, 44'; '98. T3 stars (5 facing), small eagle, v. r., 51 ; do., large eagle, 
6.10; 1799, ^' ^-> 7-5<^? 1^00, f., 5.50; none coined in 1801 ; '02, v. f., 6.50; '03, v. f., 6.50; '04, v. f., 
6.10; '05, f., 5.60; '06 (5 stars focing), v. g., 5.50; '07, v. if., 5.60; do., *• 5 D." rev., v. f., 6.10; '08, 



f., 5.50; '09, f., 5.60; '10, f., 5.60; 'II, f., 5.70; '12, f.. 5.60; '13, another type, v. f., 5.50; '14, f., 
7.10; '18, 6.40; '19, undr., v. r., 51 ; '20, v. f., 22; '23, 10.25 ? '24, v. f. and rare, 41 ; '26, 10.25; '28, 
V. f., rare. 45 ; '29. uncir., 36; do., another type, uncir., rare, 75; '31, f., 20.50; '33, f.. r., 12.50; '34, 
f., 6.20; do., new type, 5.10. Quarter Eagles, — 1796, no stars, f., 20; '96, 16 stars, 26; '97, 13 stars 
(6 facing), v. g., rare, 31-50; '^* (7 stars lacing,) 13.50; 1802, v. f., 4.50; '04. f., 5 ; '05, 3.30; '06, (5 
stars faang), v. r., 22 ; do., (6 stars facing), 11.50; '07, 4.20; '08, 3.60; '21, fine and rare, 17 ; '24, 9.50; 
'25, very fine and scarce, 17 ; '26, very fine and extremely rare (cost $75), 50 ; '27, v. f., 8 ; do., do., 8 ; 
'29, uncir., 7.50; '30, do., 5.7J; '31, 3.50; '32, 3.30; '33, 3.10; '34, 5.50; do., new type, 2.60. The 
above set of quarter eagles is said to be complete. Gold Dollars from 1849 to 1856, from 1.50 to 2.70; 
from 1856 to 1887, mostly proofs, ranging from 1.30 to 3.70, except the following: 1863, 12.25; '^4» 
13-50; '65, 10.25; '66, 5.10; '67, 8; '75. 14.75; '76* 5-10- ^^^ Patterns. ^1^7%, 10 dollars, 20; do., 
5 dollars, 10; do., 10 dollars, 19 ; do., 5 dollars, 9.75 ; •* but two sets of these pieces struck in gold." 

HART COLLECTION. 

Mr. Frossard has just closed his Eighty-ninth Sale, which took place at Leavitt's, New York, 
Dec. 26-28th. There were about 1700 lots, and among them were Ancient Coins of Greece, Rome, and 
Judea. Of these last the collection contained a larger variety and more in number than we remember 
ever to have seen brought together in an American sale, and many of them were of great historic interest. 
Among the Greek pieces was a Decadrachm of Syracuse, signed by Evaenetus, the pupil of Kimon, 
(weight 639 grains) which brought $60 ; beside the ancient coins mentioned were medieval and modem 
coins, etc A very rare and interesting piece was a Franco- American jeton of silver, struck in 1723 by 



72 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [January, 1889- 

the French India Company, which brought $40. Two other of the Franco-American pieces of Louis, 
1756, described by Mr. Parsons in the Journal of Numismatics, Vol. XIX, brought $60 and $62; the 
Oswego piece of 1758, sold for $17. There were several rare Indian chief medab, which brought excel- 
lent prices, from $12 to $31. Even an electrotype Indian medal of recent date sold for $5. Some Indian 
wampum, 51 beads, the first we have noticed for a long time, brought $2.50. The collection was also 
especially rich in Canadian issues. A set of four pieces, brass tokens of the Hudson Bay Company, 
extremely rare, sold for $27. The curious satirical token *• Vexator Canadensis," for which the catalogue 

?*ves the first acceptable explanation we have ever seen, brought $4. The Bank of Montreal Fenny 
oken, 1838, $51; one of '39, 53; and a third, slightly differing, 40.50; the Owen Ropery Token, 
42.25 ; a set of Montreal Bridge tokens, 45 ; another set of 70 pieces of the Bouquet or Sous series, 70; 
there were very many Communion tokens, mostly Canadian, which brought good prices, from $1 upwards. 
Among the Jewish coins, an Aureus of Vespasian brought 30.50. Some old British gold also sold well, 
as did the Medieval coins of English kings, a Pavillion of Edward the Black Prince bringing $33, and a 
Hardi of the same, $20. These are but a few of the prices obtained, as the lateness of the sale forbids 
us from giving it the careful attention we should like. The catalogue is interspersed with valuable 
historic notes, and was prepared by Mr. Frossard. We have not footed up the amounts received, but 
the collection must have brought, as we estimate, nearly $4,500. An attractive series of six fine artotype 
plates of the more interesting pieces, with priced catalogue, is offered by Mr. Frossard for $2 00. We 
advise our readers who care to preserve representations of rare historic coins, to secure a copy. We 
notice that the Avalonia token, in fine condition, which, the compiler says, has been ** ridiculously 
claimed by a fanciful contributor to a historical magazine to be a Newfoundland token," brought 30 cts. ! 
We have no wish to revive the ire of our dormant critic, whose speculative history was so effectually 
disposed of by Mr. McLachlan, but the price received shows he certainly could not have attended the 
sale, or else he has abandoned his theory. 



EDITORIAL. 

We regret that the publishers of our contemporary, the Coin Collector's Journal, announce that 
they have found it necessary to discontinue it. The magazine ceases with the close of 1888. It has 
reached thirteen volumes and 156 numbers; and has been particularly valuable for the large number of 
cuts of coins and medals of interest, which have enriched its pages. Its proprietors, ** Scott Stamp & 
Coin Co. Ud.," find that the increasing cares of business oblige them to suspend its publication. 

Medical Medals have been collected by a few numismatists only. As will be seen in the introduc- 
tory reniarks to Dr. Storer's articles on these pieces, beginning in the present issue, there are but two 
or three who have acquired any considerable number. Dr. Storer has made them a study, and has 
published several articles upon them in some of our contemporaries, among which are those especially 
relating to Sanitation to which we referred in our last issue. He has not only a fine cabinet of these 
pieces, and an excellent library of works pertaining to them by foreign authors, but is probably better 
informed on the subject than any other American numismatist. We believe our readers will welcome his 
contributions to this branch of our favorite science, which will extend into our next volume at least. 

In reference to the rarity of English War Medals and Decorations, we learn that our statement as 
to the difficulty of obtaining them, although from a former soldier in the British army, needs some qualifi- 
cation. There is a penalty attached to the sale, as stated, but there are various ways known of evading it. 
The medals are easily lost^ with or without any intention on the part of tlie owner, but an afilidavit of loss, 
with a nominal fee, generally secures a duplicate, and a recipient, at the close of his term of service, unless 
he had gained a claim to a pension, might not be unwilling to part with the medal for a consideration, and 
there seems to be less difficulty than is generally supposed in obtaining any one desired, with patience. 
The number of collectors of these decorations on this side the water is as yet small, but is increasing. 
The medals are interesting and often valuable, and being seldom offered by dealers here, will for some 
time to come fairly deserve to be marked as scarce by cataloguers, and in sales we have noticed they 
usually bring good prices. 

We regret that we find ourselves obliged to postpone the publication of £avors from Messrs. 
Henry Phillips, Jr., and M. F. Lobo, of Philadelphia, prepared for the present number, and also several 
other items of interest, which will appear in our next issue. 



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AMERICAN 

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April, 1889. 




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CONTENTS. 



Oriental Coins, with special reference to those 
of Southern India 

A Xe^'lected Series, ... 

Ohio Centennial. . 

The Medals, Jetons, and Tokens illustrative 
of the Science of Medicine. 

Washington Confederatio, . 

The Medal of La Calotte, . 

Gleanings : 
Defeat of the Spanish Arjnada, 1588 
— British Museum Exhibits relating 
thereto, 

Masonic Medals, 

Recent Accessions to the Mint Cabinet, 

A New Washington Medal,. 



I Notes and Queries : 
T}y '■ Papal Medals. Radiated Effigy of Pius V, 
78 • Mardi Gras Medal 

81 j Medals of Robert Fulton, 

Medals deposited in Foundations of Build- 

82 ! ings 

87 ' .Vrchaeologicai Discoveries at Ostia, 

87 Eiffel Tower Medal, 

Transactions of Societies: 

Boston Numismatic Society, 
American Numis. and Arch. Society, 

88 I Archaeology: 

90 Relics of the Cliff Dwellers, 

92 t Editorial 

92 Currency 



93 
93 
93 

93 
93 
93 

94 
94 

96 



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FROM THE SUNDAY SCHOOL TIMES, PHILADELPHIA. 

The American journal of Numismatics has probably done more than any other single 
agency to advance the interests of numisma.tic science in this country. To those who have no 
higher idea of numismatology than a more or less systematic hoarding and trading of coins, an 
investigation of such material as this Quarterly furnishes, would come with the freshness of a 
revelation. Few sciences bear directly or indirectly upon so many human interests, or throw 
light into so many dark corners, as this study of coins, medals, and tokens. It is the daughter 
of metallurgy no less than of fine art, the handmaid of histor}', economics, and archaeology. 
The American youmal is rich in its original matter, as well as in its selections from the 
writings of the highest authorities at home and abroad. It comes in fine dress, clearly printed 
on heavy paper, usually with a frontispiece illustration. With the July number, it enters upon 
the twenty-fourth volume. Published by the Boston Numismatic Society, at 18 Somerset Street, 
Boston, Mass. Price, $2 a year. 




MAY. 14 1889 



AM ERIC AN 

JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS, 

AND 

Bulletin of American Numismatic and Archaeological Societies. 
Vol. XXIII. BOSTON, APRIL, 1889. No. 4. 

ORIENTAL COINS. 

WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THOSE OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

BY R. H. C. TUFNELL, M. S. C, F. Z. S. 

(Continued from Vol. xxiii, p. 551 which see for Illustrations.] 

Contemp6raneous with those last described is a series of thick and 
roughly- formed medals, bearing the same monogram, and above it one of the 
letters C, G, or T (not improbably to denote the town of mintage, Colombo, 
Galle, or Trincomallee) . On those in which the C surmounts the monogram 
the word " stiver" appears in full with the date below. Those with C andT 
have the abbreviated form of the value, while on the 2 stiver piece of Galle (?) 
the value, 2 st, occurs below the monogram, and on the reverse under the 
date the letters in Tamil, the initial of ** Elankai," the vernacular name of 
Ceylon. The difference in style and make between these two series of coins, 
the **challis'' and the thick ones now described, is so extremely marked that 
I think there can hardly be a doubt but that the former were made in a 
European mint and exported for the Eastern currency, while the latter have 
the most decided appearance of being ** country-made." One particularly 
rough specimen I came across in a village near Colombo, which consisted of 
a small bar of metal about the size of one's little finger, with either end 
flattened out, the monogram occupying one end and the value, 4i st, the 
other. This piece has, I believe, now found a fit resting place in the Colombo 
Museum. Belonging to this series is a neatly executed i stiver piece, having 
on the obverse the monogram surmounted by a C, and on the reverse I st. 
The greater number of these thick coarse coins, however, bear no date, and 
are smaller than those already described, and these (or most of them) were 
undoubtedly struck on the main land. By far the commonest have above the 
monogram the initial letter of the mint town, Negapatam, while on the other 
side occurs the name of that port in full, thus affording additional evidence of 
the truth of the theory that the C, G, and T alluded to above were intended, 
as suggested by Mr. Rhys Davids, to serve a similar purpose. 

VOL. xxin. 10 



74 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [April, 

Another small series of coins (Figures 52, 53, and 54), which I cannot 
satisfactorily describe, bears above the monogram the letter P, doubtless for 
the mint town Pulicat, where we know a Dutch mint was at one time estab- 
lished, and where most of the specimens in my collection were procured. Of 
these, figures 52 and 53 represent two specimens of the same issue, the one 
showing the upper, the other the lower portion of the reverse die. On these, 
three incomprehensible figures occur, one above another, the upper some- 
what resembling the emblematic sun and moon, frequently met with on the 
products of the native mints. The two lower figures appear similar, and may 
be rude imitations of boats, on either side of which are two others equally, if 
not more, inexplicable,* and beneath all what looks like an illiterate attempt to 
copy a Persian word. Figure 54 is equally incomprehensible, and on the 
obverse of this even the P is reversed and written 9, while the reverse reduces 
the whole of the figures I have tried to describe to a nearer resemblance to an 
unintelligible Hindustani word. Another coin in my collection, bearing a V 
above the monogram, bears on the reverse what, by a vast stretch of imagina- 
tion, might be taken to read Zerb Palicat (in Persian), while another has a II 
above, with a reverse which is so confused that I have never been able to get 
the most imaginative numismatist to get further than the suggestion that it 
must be double Dutch. When one looks at these rude caricatures of coins 
(and, as we shall presently see, we were not far ahead of our Dutch neigh- 
bors at the time), and then compares them with the clear cut issues of the 
Moghals and Pathans struck centuries before, fine in design and exquisite in 
workmanship, with every letter well defined and clear, one can hardly believe 
that we were posing among them as a civilized and civilizing power, though 
for our own credit, be it said, we had not then got so far as the establishment 
of '* Schools of Art." 

Early Dutch coins in silver are somewhat rare. Small one and two 
stiver pieces of 1820-30 are perhaps the commonest of the silver issues of 
the Dutch in the East. On the reverse they usually bear the arms of the re- 
spective States surmounted by a crown, and exactly resemble the **challis" I 
have already alluded to, except for the i.S or 2.S in the field, and the milling 
which runs round the field and not, as in modern coins, round the edge. On 
the reverse we find ' the name of the State, e, g., hol-lan-dia or zee-lan-dia 
in three lines, with the date below. One meets, too, with six-stiver pieces, 
bearing on one side a ship and on the other the coat of arms surmounted by 
a crown and having in the field the date and value of the piece. The Dutch 
are also said to have issued a ** Rix-Dollar," but I have never come across a 
specimen, nor have I met any collector who has seen one ; indeed, as far as I 
can learn, Bertolacci is the only author who ever mentions them.* Possibly 

1 The coins of Frisia or West-Frisia date back as Nahuys of a letter written by a Mr. Canter Visscher, a 
far as 1660. In some specimens of this fine series we Dutch Chaplain in Cochin in 1743, in which he gives 
find instead of the usual coat of arms a crowned lion the following description of coins current at that period: 
rampant left, bearing in his right paw a sword and in " Les monnaies paiennes ou hindoues ^taient des pa- 
his left a bunch of arrows. These names, Frisia, godes^ esp^ces en or de la valeur de deux disdales, ayant 
Zeelandia, Hollandia, Gel Rae, and so forth, of course Te m6me poids que les ducats, mais d'un titre inf^rieure. 
owe their origin to the Netherland provinces of Fris- Ces pieces doivent leur nom 4 I'image d'une idole, qu' 
land, Zecland, Holland and Gelderland, just as England elles portent d'un c6t^. . . . Les espices maures 
boasts of her Nova Scotia and her New South Wales, en circulation dans toutes les Indes etaient les roupies 
or the coins may have been struck in those provinces. et demi-roupies en or ou en argent. 

2 In the part of the Revue Bel^e de Numismatique "Les monnaies europ^ennes Etaient, en argent, les 
lately published, appears a translation by Count Maurin icus dis risdales^ les ducatons. Its piastres espagnoles dites 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 75 

he alludes to the 30 stiver pieces, which, with dukatons and gold ducats are 
still to be seen, now and again, in the possession of the old Sinhalese gentry. 
As in 1783, Negapatam, the last Indian possession of the Dutch, was sold to 
the English, and in 1802 the peace of Amiens made England also mistress of 
Ceylon, while the Dutch ** moved on " beyond our limits, it behoves us to 
leave them now and to pass on to, firstly, the consideration of the English 
issues in Ceylon, and then to those struck on the main land. 

The very first year of the British occupation of Ceylon witnessed the 
issue of a coinage peculiar to the island, and from that day to this the same 
system of issuing a separate series has been continued. Some of the early 
Anglo-Ceylon types appear to have been struck in England, as they resemble 
the stamp of coin at that time in use in Europe, and differ widely from those 
usually turned out of the native mints. On the obverse these coins bear the 
well-executed figure of an elephant, standing left, with the date 1802 in the 
exergue, surrounded by a circle and a ring of dots, and on the reverse the 
fraction of the rix-dollar (the value of which was equal to 48 stivers), with 
the circumscription **ceylon government" bordered on the obverse. This 
series occurs in three sizes, 1-48, 1-96 and 1-192 of a rix-dollar, which, at this 
time, as far as English issues were concerned, was but a nominal coin, the 
actual rix-dollar not being issued till 1821. This was contemporaneous with 
a far ruder imitation of the same, evidently the produce of a local mint and 
first issued in 1801. While obverse and reverse remained the same, except 
in point of value, the workmanship was of a very different character. Instead 
of the thin symmetrical coin already described, we have a set of thick, clumsy 
pieces, closely resembling the familiar Mohammedan dubs, so common in 
Indian bazaars, while the style of literation is infinitely inferior, and the 
careless method of stamping rarely brings the die on to the centre of the coin. 
This series appears both in silver and copper ; in the former metal of the 
value of 96, 48 and 24 stivers, and in the latter of 1-12, 1-24 and 1-48 of a 
rix-dollar. The silver issues of this series are now very rare. The dates on 
them extend up to 18 17. In 1815 and 1821, however, we find a return to 
the European style of coining and the issue of a series of coins of the value 
of one rix-dollar in silver, and of two, one, and half stivers in copper. The 
silver coin bears on the obverse the usual elephant in the centre, the lower 
portion being surrounded by a wreath of leaves, beneath which appears the 
date, 1 82 1, while above is the inscription in three lines, ceylon one rix 
DOLLAR ; the reverse bears the king's head to the left crowned with a wreath 
of leaves and the inscription georgius iv. d. g. britanniarum rex f. d. The 

spaansche maiten ; en Or, les ducats ct enfin en cuivre, " Les ducats servaient surtout dans le commerce avec 

Ics dutes et demi-dutes, la Perse. Les ^tablissements n^erlandais 4 Malabar et 

*• La Compagnie des Indes oricntales avait adopts le 4 Ceylan ^taient g^n^ralement pourvus de ducats, at- 

florin comme unite de compte, bien que le risdale ^qui- tendu que le commerce du poivre se fasait toujours avec 

valent en Europe 4 50 sous et aux Indes seulement 4 48 cette monnaie d'or fix^e au taux de 18 escaiins. Les 

sous, ftit g^n^ralement employ^ dans les transactions ducats de Venise etaient les plus estim^s.^ 

commerciales privies. ** A Malabar, les petites monnaies indigenes d*or et 

" Le dtuaton ^tais Tesp^ce principalement mise en d'argent etaient g^n^ralement appel^es fanams. II en 

circulation par la Compagnie, surtout 4 Batavia. Sa existe plusieurs vari^t^s, 4 cause du nombre de mo- 

valeur fut fix^e par le tarif de la Compagnie 4 i^fsca- narques qui poss^daient le droit de battre monnaie; 

tins ou schellingen de 6 sous, tandis qu'il ne valait en aussi differaient-ils entre eux en valeur. 

r^lit^ que 10^ escaiins. De cette mani^re la Compa- ** Les petites monnaies en plomb ou en cuivre s*appe- 

gnie se fasait un b^n^iice de 2\ escaiins, soit 15 sous, laient boes ero kken et cas ou cashs.^* 
sur chaque ducaton 1 



^e AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [April, 

copper series also bears the elephant, but without the wreath, the date being 
1815 and the inscription above, ceylon, two stivers, the reverse being as the 
last, except that the head and inscription are those of George III instead of 
George IV, and the head faces to the right. Two small silver coins also 
deserve notice here. The first of these bears on one side the word fanam, 
and on the other token, each inscribed round a small dot in a circle in the 
centre, though whether this little coin is peculiar to Ceylon or not I cannot 
say. I have met with several specimens in the island, but never one in India, 
and Mr. Rhys Davids in his excellent notice of the *' Coins and Measures of 
Ceylon," in the Numismata Orientalia, places it among those peculiar thereto. 
The other to which I allude, he describes as follows: — **It is half an inch in 
diameter, has on the obverse the bust of Victoria, surrounded by the legend 
VICTORIA D. G. britanniar. regina f. d., and on the reverse the figures \\ and 
the date 1842, surmounted by a crown and surrounded by a wreath. This 
little coin, seldom met with in Ceylon, is beautifully executed and was struck 
in England." This description so exactly corresponds with that of the \\d. 
of the ** Maundy" money, that I cannot but think that the specimens alluded 
to belong to that series, or to an issue of this silver piece, still to a certain 
extent in circulation in Malta, as a fraction of 3^/., which sum appears to be 
the most usual charge for all small commodities and services in Valletta. 

There only remains to be mentioned the series of copper coins now 
current in the island, where the decimal system has been introduced since 
1870. No rupee peculiar to Ceylon has been struck, but pieces of the value 
of 5, I, i and \ cents are peculiar thereto, one hundred cents being equiva- 
lent to one rupee of the Indian system. These coins bear on the obverse 
the queen's head to the left with victoria above and queen below in an 
ornamental border. On the reverse appears a palm tree, while in the field 
we have on one side 5 cents in Sinhalese, and on the other 5 cents in Tamil, 
the border containing the word ceylon, with the value of the piece. 

Passing thence across Adam's Bridge to the main land, we have to 
consider briefly the issues of the English, the now paramount power in this 
country ; but, before doing so, must take a hasty glance at the period of 
history that marked the first appearance of that power in the East. The 
close of the sixteenth century may be said to have witnessed the birth of 
England's commercial undertakings beyond the seas that surround her. 
Before that period internal dissensions, civil wars and the general policy of 
her rulers had prevented her embarking in any but warlike undertakings 
abroad. In the middle of the nineteenth century we see her the ruler of the 
seas, with so vast an extent of colonial territory that the sun never sets on the 
boundaries of her dominions: — in the middle of the sixteenth, only three 
hundred years before, we find her possessions almost exclusively bounded by 
the seaboard of Great Britain, with a mercantile marine so weak that London 
at that time is said to have ** possessed but four ships of above one hundred 
and two tons burden, exclusive of the navy royal." Now her merchant 
princes absorb an enormous percentage of the trade of the world : then the 
cities of the Hanseatic league appear to have almost monopolized the trade 
of her main towns, while Portugal, who, by the discovery of the Cape route, 
virtually commanded what little Indian trade there was, vied with the Italian 
States, who held the trade of Egypt and the Persian Gulf, in supplying the 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 77 

Western isles with the products and the luxuries of the East. The accession 
of Elizabeth, however, inaugurated a new era in the naval history of England. 
Recognizing the advantages of holding in her own hands the importation of 
those goods in which her merchant subjects dealt, and realizing, too, that she, 
as a defender of a faith at variance with that of most of the maritime powers 
of Europe, above all others, required a strong naval force, she spared no 
pains to encourage the promotion of that power, which was destined, in the 
distant future, to raise her country to the highest rank among the nations of 
the world. *'The result," as a writer at the commencement of this century 
says, ** was that the commercial resources of England developed themselves 
with a rapidity truly wonderful. The scene might have reminded a fanciful 
spectator of one of those changes undergone by vegetable nature, when after 
having slept in the indurated soil, under every appearance of hopeless barren- 
ness, a few vernal days seem to awaken it at once into full blossom." Her 
formation in 1554 of the Baltic and Russia Companies, her incorporation in 
1566 of the *' Fellowship of English merchants for the discovery of new 
trades," the institution in 1581 of the Turkey Company and such like meas- 
ures, formed the germ whence sprang the vast mercantile power of England. 
It was not, however; till in the closing years of her reign that Elizabeth first 
turned her attention to the introduction of a direct trade with India. With 
this aim in view, and urged on by the destruction on the English coast of a 
Venetian vessel laden with East Indian produce of enormous value, she 
despatched an envoy to the Court of the Moghal Emperor at Delhi to obtain 
permission to trade in his possessions. This was followed two years later 
(A. D. 1599) by the institution and incorporation of the first East India 
Company under the Earl of Cumberland. Under the terms of their charter 
they enjoyed the exclusive right of trading with the Indies for fifteen years, 
coupled with a distinct stipulation that, at the termination of that period a 
further extension of fifteen years should be granted if applied for. Accord- 
ingly on the 2 2d April, 1603, the first expedition, consisting of four ships 
under the command of Captain Lancaster, a mariner who had already proved 
his skill and daring as a navigator, started for the East. To trace, however, 
at all in detail the history of this and the numerous other companies that 
followed, finds no place in a paper devoted to a consideration of their coins, 
and, moreover, were I to attempt to touch on the vacillating policy of James 
and his successors at home, or of the constant intrigues and counter-intrigues 
of the native princes of India, in their dealings with the Company abroad, — 
of the hidden antagonism at one time and the overt hostility of Dutch and 
French at another, — all these would take up far more space than I have at 
my disposal now. ito be concluded.] 



The Old Colony Memorial, Plymouth, Mass., of January 17th last, says : — "An old 
silver sixpence was recently found by Mr. Austin Morton, in a pasture near Wellingsley. 
On one side it bore in the centre the representation of a tree, with the words around 
it " Masathvsets in," and on the other side the inscription, evidently completed, ** New 
England ano 1652 VI." The coin was of an irregular circular shape, as if hammered 
out before receiving the impression of the dies. Probably it went through some hole 
in a Pilgrim pocket, and has been lying where it was found for upwards of two cen- 
turies. It would be quite a valuable coin now to a numismatician." 



78 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. ~ [April, 

A NEGLECTED SERIES. 

[A Paper read before the American Numismatic and Archaeological Society of New York.] 

Of all the innumerable and differing series of coins filling the cabinets of our Amer- 
ican collectors, none has been allowed to suffer such utter neglect as that of the small 
money of the Middle Ages. For ancient coins, not only Greek and Roman, but such 
as are the productions of the mints of Egypt and the far East, there is always a place, 
and time for careful study. For crowns and thalers, medals and jetons, and even the 
copper series of modern European and other nations, there are, and always have been, 
devoted and enthusiastic specialists among us, well informed in their respective lines ; 
but for the small money of the Middle Ages we have none. 

When we have excepted the English series, which from our close connection 
with the mother-country, we have treated with a higher degree of respect, it can be 
truthfully stated that a single figure would serve to denominate the number of collec- 
tors of coins in the United States, to whom the small money of the Middle Ages is 
other than as a sealed book, the contents of which they neither know anything of, nor 
possess the slightest desire to learn. Nor is this from a dearth of the coins them- 
selves. They are among us ; every collector possesses a few, tossed carelessly aside 
in a box labelled ** unknown," or wrongly attributed, upon the authority of some of 
our ignorant local cataloguers, to an age or place to which they never belonged ; they 
can be picked up for a trifle at every sale, or imported with ease at a low cost from 
abroad, and yet, strange to say, they are, as a series, treated with total neglect. 

What American collector is there so pressed for time, that he has not ample 
leisure and to spare, to count the feathers in the eagle's tail upon a Dollar of recent 
date ; to estimate with mathematical precision the number of hairs in the head of 
Liberty upon a choice specimen of the old red Cent, and to write reams of foolscap 
for our numismatic publications, upon "booby-heads" and "silly-heads," for — we re- 
gret to say it, for it is impolite we know, but we must say what we think — "mutton- 
heads " to read ? 

That a certain Mr. Rutter sold rags and bottles in Fulton street, Boston, many 
years ago, must be of profound importance in the history of American numismatics ; 
for has not his Tcken sold for five dollars and more ? So also is the interesting fact 
that Anderson sold shoes at the sign of the " Big boot " in Chatham street ; that 
Phalon cut hair and dyed mustaches under the St. Nicholas Hotel, and that Robinson, 
Jones & Co., exhibited a choice line of breeches buttons at the Institute Fair in 1833. 
Such facts, commemorated upon the Tokens of these several individuals, are appar- 
ently of the highest interest and value to American numismatic science, for our col- 
lectors have time enough to study, classify and treasure them all ; while the coins of 
the kings, princes, barons and knights of those romantic ages of chivalry, long gone 
by, are passed over as valueless and uninteresting, worthy of neither thought nor 
study, — indeed, scarce worth collecting at all. 

For many years, the writer, like the jackass on the Van Buren Token, "followed 
in the footsteps of his illustrious predecessors," and blindly subscribed to all this, too. 
At length there came a day of awakening. A lover of history always, and never satis- 
fied unless a coin possessed could be assigned to its proper historical place, there fell 
into his hands a little worn bit of copper, which would fit in nowhere ; and yet its 
legends, for those who could read them, were as plain as plain could be. Latin char- 
acters upon one side. Arabic upon the other ! No such strange blending of tongues 
had ever been seen before. A desire to solve the mystery, followed by careful investi- 
gation, not only served to make the attribution of this special piece entirely clear, but 
opened up a field of wondrous numismatic beauty and interest to his astonished gaze. 
It was the neglected series of the small money or the Middle Ages, coins never prized 
or sought for before. Worn and indecipherable odds and ends were exhumed from the 
rubbish box and others procured at sales. Books relating to the subject were unearthed 
in libraries, and obtained from abroad, for none, alas ! were to be found at home ; and 
the result proved so deeply interesting, that it has been deemed wise to make it the 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 79 

subject of this paper, in the hope that it may induce others to enter this comparatively 
untrodden path, and share its pleasures. 

With this end in view, a few typical specimens of the small money of the Middle 
Ages have been selected, which we will now describe. 

No. I. Obv, An Arabic Xtgtvid^ reading, Struck by the order 0/ the magnificent king. In 
the field: The king William II, Rev, + opeRata in vrbe messane. In the field: rex w 
so AS in two lines. Spinelli, xiii, 26; Thomsen, 2477, ^ copper coin of William II of Sicily, 
1166/89, struck at Messina. Its size is 10, American scale. 

In this we have a fine and exceedingly rare specimen of the bi-lingual money of 
Sicily. The Saracens, in their conquering march, had possessed themselves of this 
island, and remained its masters for more than two hundred years. The last vestiges 
of the wonderful cities of the Greek colonists, Syracuse, Agrigentum and Panormus, 
sank out of sight before these barbarians from the East, and Arabic became the lan- 
guage of the people. Now the prince who caused this little bit of copper to be inscribed 
was William the Norman, son of Roger, the brave knight who drove out the unbeliev- 
ers, and whose brother was the famous Crusader, Robert Guiscard. And yet, though 
the power of the crescent was forever broken, so far as Sicily was concerned, by these 
bold Norman knights, who, forsaking home and friends, entered so valorously upon 
this self-allotted task, the common people of the island still spoke Arabic ; hence the 
language of Mohammed was, by a Christian king, placed upon the Sicilian coins. 

No. 2. Obv, An Arabic inscription reading : The king, William IL Rev. A lion's head 
facing. Copper, size 7. Spinelli, xiii, 30; Thomsen, 2481. This is another specimen of the 
small money of the same ruler. 

No. 3. Obv. ROGERivs COMES. The count, mounted, to left, holding a flag and a buckler. 
Rev. -[- MARIA MATER DNi. The Virgin seated upon a chair, holding the Infant Jesus. Copper, 
size 15. Roger, 1085/1101. Thomsen, 2445. 

This specimen offers a beautiful example of the money of old Roger himself, 
bearing a correct representation of the bold knight mounted upon his snow-white 
charger — we suppose it was snow-white, for snow-white and coal-black were the only 
styles of horses, which, according to those unimpeachable authorities, the fairy tales of 
our youth, the " knights so bold in the days of old " ever deigned to ride. While upon the 
reverse, we find that most pious of emblems, the Virgin and Child. Think what brave 
knights and "fair ladyes " may have touched these very coins we hold in our hand! 
The Greeks and Romans are such a long way back, they are to us, after all, little more 
than a name ; but these minute copper coins, may they not have served Sir Launcelot 
to purchase a ribbon for Guinevere's hair.? Or perchance, for Ralpho, the ever faith- 
ful squire, to join some Toby Tosspot of the age, at the wayside inn, in a flagon of 
strong mead, or ale, or beer ? Certainly they might, and probably they did ; but they 
served the natives of Sicily for money as well ; and, for well nigh sixty years, these 
bi-lingual inscriptions continued, until the people forgot the strange speech of the 
infidel invaders, and returned to the tongues of Christendom once again. 

When the brave crusaders started for the Holy Tomb of Christ, wherever they 
conquered a city, they stayed their march to issue coins, placing upon many the sacred 
figure of the "Portail," or Gate of the Sepulchre, a device misunderstood, and called 
by every name under the sun by American coin cataloguers even unto this day. 

No. 4. Obv. Gvi : Dvx : atenes Cross. Rev. thebani. civis. Portail. Silver, size 11. 
Guy II de la Roche, Duke of Athens, 1224/64. 

This offers a fair specimen of the money of the Crusades. 

No. 5 is a little silver coin of the old Vikings of the North, too rude to be 
described, though its uncertain runes, plainly visible on the obverse, may chronicle 
the name of any one of the three different kings, Sigried II, Inge I, or Eystein II, 
whose period was between 1 136 and 1157. 



8o AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [April, 

No. 6. Obv, CHRiSTOFOROS. The letter A within a circle. Rev, rex danorvm. Cross 
with fleur-de-lis in the angles within a circle. Billon, size 12. Christopher I, of Denmark, 

1252/59- 

Here we fare better, in a specimen of the money of a Christian king of Denmark, 
who had discarded the runes of his fathers with the legends of Odin and Thor, to be 
never again resumed. 

With what feelings of emotion do we gaze upon these rude specimens of the 
Norse moneyer*s art ! We can almost see the old Vikings in their ships before us 
now, launching into the wild North Sea, bound upon voyages of piracy and conquest, 
for the shores of Britain, Ireland or France, Iceland, Greenland, or even that far off 
Vineland, now proven to have been none other than our own " Down East,*' which 
was reached by these hardy old sea rovers in their frail, rude craft, beyond all 
possibility of doubt. 

No. 7. Obv. coLONi above, s behind a broad dash, possibly an arrow ; below, the letter 
A. Rev, 4" ODDO ivp. A cross with four pellets in the angles. Denier ; silver, size 13. 
Otto I or II, 936/83. Struck for Cologne. 

This is a specimen of the small money of old Otto of Germany, famous in legend 
and song, struck for his imperial majesty's very loyal city of Cologne, in the year 936, 
or thereabout. 

No. 8. Obv, LVDOVicvs : dei : gra : comes : z : dns : flandrie. A lion seated within a 
circle to left, the head covered by a rich helmet. Rev, -)- moneta. de. flandria A flowering 
cross. Exterior legend : + benedictvs. qvi : venit : in : nomine : domini. Botdrager, Silver, 
size 20. Louis the Bad, 1346/84. Den Duyts, VI, 40 ; Thomsen, 3797. 

A beautiful broad silver coin of Flanders, struck under the reign of one Louis, 
whose sins were so great that even in his own day they called him the " Bad." 

No. 9. Obv, -f- EPi + EPPVS A bishop*s staff between two crosses in the field. Rev, 
-f- CATisiENSis. A cross with three pellets in the upper left hand angle. Denier; billon, size ii^. 

This piece is an issue of the Prelate- Baron of Cahors, one of the principal cities 
in France. Being a Baron of the second class his coins were, by law, anonymous. 
The exact date of this coin it is impossible to determine. It belongs to the early part 
of the thirteenth century. 

No. 10. Obv, -f" CENTVLLO : COME. A cross with a bezant in the first and second angle. 
Rev, -[- onor : forcas. In the field, p m and a cross in monogram (meaning peace). Denier ; 
billon, size 13. 

This is a coin of Centeel V, Count of Bearne, and because we find the small cross 
upon the face of his coin, we know that his lordship subscribed money for the crusades, 
— probably hired a substitute, being afraid to march over mountain and plain, to the 
watchword " God willeth it ! " in rescue of the Holy City, himself. In looking Up this 
individual, we learn that he repaired the Cathedral of Toulouse, at his own expense. 
" Interesting information," I hear some one mutter. True, its historical interest is 
somewhat slight, but pray, what think you will be the interest felt, in the carefully 
preserved numismatic records, touching those eight feathers in the eagle's tail, in the 
year 2002.^ 

No. II. Obv, -j- sancii : rex. Bust crowned to left. Re2\ -[" castelle legionis. A 
cross with b in the angle. Denier; billon, size 12. Thomsen, 27^3. 

This is a coin of Sancho IV, King of Castile and Leon, in 1294. A bad boy he 
must have been indeed, since the typical bad boy has been said to "act like Sancho '* 
from that day to this. 

No. 12 is uncertain as to age or prince, but its plainly written devices tell their 
own tale. A cross on one side, and the Moorish triangle and inscription on the other, 
fix it as a coin of Sicily during the Arab occupation, beyond a doubt. Here, where 
cross and crescent waged incessant war for so many weary years. Christian and Moham- 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 81 

medan emblems became strangely blended — we see it in strong example upon this 
little coin before us now. 

No. 13 is a Denaro of Frederick, in 1151, Carlovingian prince of Milan, while 
No. 14 carries us hastily to the dark valleys of Hungary, where in the cup-shaped form 
of the coin, and the general character of its workmanship, the influence of the decaying 
Eastern Empire can be distinctly traced. Stephen IV and Bela V, 1235 to 1272, are 
the somewhat attenuated individuals pictured upon its reverse. Their names are upon 
the coin, and any work of history will furnish their date of reign ; yet, in a recent 
catalogue, by a well known antiquary, this very piece is disposed of as "Byzantine; 
rev,y two skeletons seated in two chairs ! " a description which, it is needless to say, 
could only have been evolved after months of toilsome study, research, and the deepest 
of deep thought. 

No. 16 offers an example of the coinage of the great Sempad, that noble Armen- 
ian, who so bravely stood out against the Moslem in 1295 ; while in No. 17, the last to 
which we shall allude, there is discovered that well-known piece with the man seated 
at the table upon the obverse, and the letters of the alphabet upon the reverse. Never 
yet has this piece been correctly attributed in any American catalogue which we have 
seen. It has been called a gambler's token, an abbey token, anything, everything but 
that which it really is. What, then, is this individual doing at the table, with his 
money spread out before him, his book on one hand, and his bag on the other.? He is 
simply the man to whom, had you lived in the thirteenth century, you would have 
applied to count your money — for, in all probability, you would have been unable to 
count it for yourself. He sat at the street corners, and in the public squares, his table 
before him, and upon it counters like these, arranged by a system of units and tens. 
He could also read and write, and he placed the alphabet upon the reverse of his 
counter to let you know it ; and, beside the monks and priests, we dare affirm that in 
all Paris, at the time when this token first dropped from the die, save the Comptoirs, 
or public counters, as we would say, who issued it, not a score of persons could read 
or write one line beside. 

To study the small coins of the Middle Ages few books are required. Lelewel, 
" Numismatique de Moyen Age,' is a most excellent guide to type ; Barthelemy, ^' Nu- 
mismatique Modeme^' for lists of kings and rulers, and Thomsen, ^^ Description des 
Monnaies de Moyen-Age,' for accurate description of i27,oc» specimens of the series. 
By the aid of these works, a history, and a little careful thought, in a short time 
wonders can be accomplished, and many an obscure bit of silver, copper or billon, now 
thrown carelessly aside as valueless among coins unknown, may be advanced to its 
proper place. That their study will awaken, in the mind of any collector who may faith- 
fully turn his attention to these coins, interest to the highest degree, there can be 
no doubt ; and we are willing to assert, that there can be no greater pleasure than the 
deciphering of an obscure inscription or the triumph of properly locating a doubtful 
coin. Let us then study our own cabinets and learn what coins we really possess, 
lest in the form of specimens of this "neglected series," we may have long enter- 
tained among us many choice rarities, as "angels unawares." 

FRANK W. DOUGHTY. 



OHIO CENTENNIAL. 



A MEDAL has lately been issued commemorating the Centennial of the 
first settlement of the ** Territory North-west of the River Ohio." The obverse 
bears a bust of Gen. Rufus Putnam, of the Ohio Company. Gen. Putnam was 
an officer during the war of the American Revolution, and in 1788 founded 
Marietta, the oldest town in Ohio. He died in 1824. The reverse h^s a 
representation of Fort Campus Martius, 

yoL. XXIII, II 



82 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [April, 

THE MEDALS, JETONS, AND TOKENS ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE 

SCIENCE OF MEDICINE. 

BY DR. HORATIO R. STORER, NEWPORT, R. I. 
[Continaed from VoL XXIII. p. 6x.] 

Dr. Richard Noble Starr of Caradoc ( ). 

3. Obverse, Device : A bare arm grasping a serpent, enclosed by a perfectly 
plain garter, upon which the legend morborvm cavsas docebo This is followed by 
what is possibly the imitation of a clasp. 

Reverse, vniversitas torontonensis. In the field, propter medicinam | fe- 
LiciTER EXCVLTAM | E DONG | R. N. STARR M. D. Edgcs beaded. Gold, silver, bronze. 
34 mm. 22. The dies are by Wyon. 

Le Roux has medicinan upon his figure, though correct in his description. Sand- 
ham, Supplement to Coins, Tokens and Medals of the Dominion of Canada, page 8, 
No. 53; McLachlan, Journal of Numismatics, April, 1882, p. 81, CCLXXVI ; Ibid.^ 
Part I, Montreal, 1886, p. 68 ; Le Roux, loc, cit., p. 133, No. 747, fig. 

This medal was spoken of as " Morborum, etc. (Toronto) " in the Journal for 
October, 1876.* It was unknown to Duisburg and Riippell. There is a copy in the 
Lee Collection. I owe impressions of it through the late Prof. Howard, to Dr. J. 
Algernon Temple, M.R.C.S. England, of Toronto. It was founded by the willf of Dr. 
Starr, for the encouragement of the study of Anatomy, Physiology and Pathology, and 
three of the medals, one gold and two silver, have been awarded annually, since 1862. 

The pieces thus far described, of Drs. Holmes, Sutherland and Starr, represent 
three separate classes of mortuary medals. The first was founded by its subject's 
colleagues, and represents therefore his respectful estimate by them ; the second, by a 
sorrowing widow ; and the third by the person himself, though as a legacy. They 
are therefore all memorial in the highest sense, and while perpetuating the remem- 
brance of individuals, they are each of them dedicated to the development of the 
science of medicine. In their methods of obtaining this end they also differ, each 
from the others. The third encourages excellence in a knowledge of the human frame 
in health and disease ; the second, attainment in that department which explains the 
processes of life and death, alike of man and of the universe ; and the first rewards 
those who have accomplished the greatest advance not only in these branches, but in 
all others, of medicine. 

Whether the three medals (Nos. 6, 7 and 8) of Bishop's College, Montreal, 
should also be mentioned in this connection, I have as yet been unable to ascertain. 

Dr. Joseph Le Roux, of Montreal. 

Dr. Le Roux is a medical graduate of Laval University, and a numismatist of 
repute. There are three medals, or rather tokens, bearing his name, but as they were 
struck by himself, for business purposes, their consideration will be deferred to a 
subsequent portion of the present paper. 

B. CgllegiaU (other than personal)^ Hospital, and Medical Society Medals, 

Besides the medals of McGill College at Montreal, and the University of Toronto, 
already described, there are the following : 
Trinity Medical College, Toronto. 

4. Obverse, A spade-shaped shield, bipartite. In right segment a closed urn ; 
in left, the caduceus of^ercury. Above, a beaver to left. Upon either side, upright 
branches ; that to right of maple, and to left of laurel. Uniting them, a long trans- 
verse band, twice lapped ; upon which, probitas - diligentia - scientia Beneath 

• Loc, Cit,, p. 46. 1843, ^ 'ot ^^ ^^^^ ''^sis devised in remainder after cer- 

t I am informed by H. H. Langton, Esq., Registrar tain lives to the Chancellor, etc., of King's College (now 

of the University of Toronto, through Prof. Walter B. the University of Toronto), the annual rental thereof to 

Geikie, F.R.C.S.E., that "by will of R. N. Starr, Sur- be laid out in the purchase of three medals," as above 

geoD (late of Township of Caradoc), dated 4th August, stated. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL Of NUMISMAtlCS. 83 

this, J. E. ELLIS & CO. TORONTO. Inscription : trinity medical college Exergue : 

ESTABLISHED I85O | INCORPORATED 1 877 

Reverse. Branches of maple and laurel, united. Field vacant, for name of reci- 
pient. Gold, silver. 20. 

Three of these medals, one of them gold and the others silver, are annually 
awarded to the first three graduates of the College upon the Honor list. It had 
escaped the knowledge of both McLachlan and Le Roux. I am indebted for impres- 
sions of it to Prof. Geikie, Dean of the Faculty. 

University of Trinity College, Toronto. 

5. Obverse. Between two branches of maple a bipartite shield, surmounted by 
a bishop's mitre and bands. In right half of shield, a stag ; in left, a crossed mitre 
and key between two open books ; above them a crown, below them a dove with olive 
branch, alighting. Inscription : collegivm • s • s • trinitatis - apvd * torontonenses • 

Reverse. Branches of maple, tied by ribbon. Field vacant, for name of recipient. 
Edges beaded. Gold, silver. 24. 

Le Roux, loc. cit.y p. 225, No. 1230. 

Two of the above medals, one gold and one silver, have been given annually, to 
the two students in Medicine who stand highest in the final subjects at the close of 
the examination. Hereafter, two additional medals will be given for excellence in all 
of the primary subjects at that time. For impressions I am under obligations to the 
Rev. Prof. Jones, and to Dr. Geikie, who brought my wish to the attention of the 
authorities of the University. This medal seems to have been unknown to McLachlan. 

Bishop's College, Montreal. 

6. The "Wood" medal, for general proficiency in final branches. Gold. 

7. The " Robert Nelson " medal, for best examination in surgery. Gold. 

8. The "David" medal, for best primary examination. Silver. 

I have only learned of the existence of these three medals as the sheets are being 
finally printed, through Dr. A. Lapthome Smith of Montreal, Lecturer at the College, 
but have as yet received no description. This I will endeavor to give in the next 
number of the journal. They appear unknown to both McLachlan and Le Roux. 

Of the Hospital and Medical Society groups I know as yet of but one, and this 
in the former subdivision. 

The General Hospital Training School for Nurses, at Toronto. 

9. Obverse. Within two laurel branches tied by ribbon, i was sick &. ye vis- 
ited ME I TORONTO GENERAL HOSPITAL Between thcsc lines, upon a scroll bent upon 
itself, TRAINING school | FOR (in the interspace) nurses Le Roux, in both his 
figure and description, has he for ye. 

Reverse. Plain. Oval. 19^ x 23 ; 17 x 22 (Le Roux). Bronze. The die cut 
by Rolf, Smith & Co., of Toronto. 

Le Roux, loc. cit.y p. 253, No. 1530, fig. 

I am indebted for impressions of this medal to Dr. Charles O'Reilly, Medical 
Superintendent of the Hospital, and to Mr. Robert Wallace McLachlan of Montreal, 
whose great knowledge as a numismatist is equalled only by his courtesy to other 
workers in the same field.* The medals are given to the graduates of the school 
when, at the end of two years of training, they receive their certificates. 

Subsequently, in their appropriate connections, I shall describe additional medals 
of this character, as of the Philadelphia Nurses' Training School , St. Barnabas' Guild 
(worn by the pupils at the Training School of the Massachusetts General Hospital, at 
Boston) ; the Guild of St. Peter, of whose location I am anxious to learn ; and perhaps 
others stilL 

* When speaking of my regret that contemporary McLachlan has in the kindest manner placed himself 

workers do not alwajrs give credit for each other's la- and his collection entirely at my service. Through his 

bors, I should have laid more stress upon the fact that aid I have been able to supply many details that had 

Dr. Le Roux's " Medaillier du Canada " was published not as yet been entered upon record, and he has enabled 

subsequently to the several contributions of Mr. Mc- me to publish no less than ten additions to the series of 

Lachlan. Since the first portion of the present paper Ste. Anne de Beaupr^ that were unknown to Le Roux, 

appeared in the January number of the yournal, uix. to whom I also owe thanks for his courtesy. 



84 AMERICAN JOURNAL Of NtJMISMAtlCS. [AprIl, 

C. Medals Commemorative of Medical Events, 

The Prince of Wales' recovery from Typhoid Fever. 

lo. Obverse, Portrait bust to left. Beneath, s. s. wyon so. Inscription : albert 

EDWARD PRINCE OF WALES. 

Reverse. Three Welsh plumes within a coronet, between sprigs of roses (to 
left) and shamrocks and thistles (to right). Motto, upon a band perforated by the 
central feather : ich dien Beneath, j. s. & a. b. wyon. Inscription : + recovery • of • 
THE • PRINCE • OF ' WALES + | CANADIAN . THANKSGIVING . 15 . APR : 1 872. Silver, bronze. 
58 mm. 36 (Le Roux). 

Le Roux has a comma in his description after edward, and on the reverse after 
WALES. He omits in his figure the engraver's name upon the obverse, and on the 
reverse the of. In his description of the reverse, he has a comma and sc. after wyon. 

McLachlan, American Jour of Numis,, Jan , 1884, p. 59, CCCCLXXXII ; Ibid,y 
Montreal, 1886, p. 107 ; Le Roux, loc, «V., p. 269, No. 1660, fig. 

In modern as in ancient times there have been many medals illustrative of the 
birth, pregnancy, parturition, illness, and recovery, as well as death, of royalty. The 
custom has extensively obtained in England. Thus I have notes of five medals, and 
possess two of them, commemorating recoveries of George III from his paroxysms of 
mental and other illness. Upon the convalescence of Prince Albert Edward, in 1872, 
a national (English) Thanksgiving medal was struck in London. The obverse is as 
just given. The device of the reverse is the same, but with the inscription national 
THANKSGIVING FOR THE RECOVERY OF THE PRINCE. Upon the recommcndatiou of Mr. 
Alfred Sandham, of Montreal, the separate reverse that I have described was prepared 
for the Canadian day of thanksgiving, which was appointed at a later period by the 
Dominion government, with the result of the present medal. Aside from its historic 
interest, this medal could perhaps have been included in the following group, although 
the sickness itself did not take place in Canada. 

Both of the above are unmentioned by Pfeiffer and Ruland, in their works here- 
after to be quoted. 

D. Medals of Epidemic Disease. 

I know of none of this class having been struck for Canada, that convey upon 
their face a statement of the fact. The no labour I no bread tokens of Toronto 
can be considered as only approximating to " Famine ' pieces, though issued during 
the "Hard times" of 1837. They were unknown to Pfeiffer and Ruland,* who have 
so clearly recognized the intercommunication of pestilence with the scarcity of grain, 
and I admitted them in my enumeration of the medals of Sanitation, with a distinct 
disclaimer.! 

Concerning these pieces Mr. McLachlan now writes me as follows : " They were 
imported into Toronto by a dry goods firm named Perrin Bros, or James A. Perrin, 
doing business at the corner of King and Toronto Streets. The coins were seized by 
the customs authorities and sent to the foundry, but more were spilled upon the 
foundry floor than were consigned to the melting pot. This accounts for the number 
that were found in circulation some twenty years ago." 

There are also several bread tokens in Canada, as in the United States, which 
are merely bakers' store cards and vouchers, and deserving of no higher consideration. 

The question of whether there exist any Canadian " Cholera " medals will be 
discussed in the following subdivision. 

E. Medico- Ecclesiastical Medals, 

The present group is one that has hitherto been almost wholly ignored by writers 
upon the general subject. Incidental allusions have been made by numismatists and 

• Pestilentia in Numis. Weimar, 1880, 8°; and Tii- t Medals, etc., illustrative of Sanitation (Section IX, 
bingen, 1882. Famine), The Sanitarian (N.Y.), August, 1888, p. 156. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OP NUMISMATICS. 85 

others * to the medical character of the English " touch-pieces " given by royalty after 
administering digital treatment through its " divine right " to credulous persons 
suffering from scrofula or the ** King's evil," but to the interesting and extensive 
department of semi-medical medals issued by the Church or its subordinate communi- 
ties, attention seems scarcely to have been given. I have failed as yet to find any 
systematic work upon this subject, and indeed but few authors seem to appreciate 
that such medals exist. 

They are divisible into several distinct groups. As, for instance : 

1. Medals issued to the devout, during times of pestilence, to assist them in 
keeping their spiritual, mental, and physical integrity, and thereby to escape the 
disease, or to lessen its virulence should it be contracted. 

2. Medals chronicling such perils that have safely passed, or expressing grati- 
tude to Almighty God, our Saviour, the Virgin mother, or the Saints ; in the latter 
cases, for their intercessory aid. 

3. Medals commemorating miraculous instances, sources, or places of healing, 
in non-zymotic disease. Etc., etc. 

The only writers in this direction, as I have previously shown in the Joumal^\ 
seem to have been Pfeiffer and Ruland of Weimar, who have labored conjointly. In 
their " Pestilentia in Nummis," already referred to, and in a German medical journal, J 
they have described a large number of the medals of the first of these groups, in 
connection with seasons of famine, and epidemics of the plague, cholera, typhus, etc. 
I myself own many of these medals, and have mentioned some of them in my paper 
upon the medals of Sanitation. A very interesting article upon the general subject of 
"medallic amulets and talismans*' has been written by Mr. David L. Walter of New 
York, who divides these medals according as they are i. "merely religious," or, as I 
have called them, medico-ecclesiastical ; 2. effective from their inscriptions, etc. ; 3. 
adapted to particular needs, as shipwreck, battle, travel, business anxieties, etc. ; and 
4. medico-astrological, against the evil eye, rheumatism, etc.§ 

Of the medico-ecclesiastical medals there exists an interesting series in Canada. 

At the village of Ste. Anne de Beaupr6, near Quebec, in the County of Montmo- 
renci, there is a noted shrine, resorted to by thousands of invalids, in large part 
cripples, from all parts of the Dominion, and indeed from New England also. Many 
remarkable cures are said annually to occur. The shrine is now under the charge of 
the Redemptorist Fathers. 

There are several varieties of the Ste. Anne medal. 

1 1. Obverse. The old church of Ste. Anne, with house and trees adjoining, the 
foliage being represented by dots. Inscription : PELERiNAGE • de • pIete • a • sU • 

ANNE • de • BEAUPRE ExcrgUC, PATRONNE | DU | CANADA | 1 87/ || 

Reverse. A dove, flying above maple branches, tied by a ribbon. Within, near 
top, souvENiR. Edges beaded. 19 (McLachlan), 22 (Le Roux). Dies by Torcopel. 

McLachlan and Le Roux disagree as to the punctuation upon the obverse, as 
well as to the size. The latter in his figure omits the dotted foliage, and the dot over 
each I. Both of them omit to mention the metal. 

McLachlan, Amerjour of Numis.y July, 1881, p. 9, CCV ; Ibid.^ Montreal, 1886, 
p. 52 ; Le Roux, loc. cit.^ p. 270, No. 1670, fig. 

12. Obverse, As last, save that it is more artistically executed. There is no dot 
over the Ts, and beneath the church there is merely fonde en | 1660. Exergue, a star. 

Reverse. Ste. Anne instructing the youthful Virgin, both seated. Inscription : 

SAINTE-ANNE I PATRONNE -DU CANADA ExcrgUC, I887. I9. DicS by Bishop. IsSUCd 

by Lymburner. 

• I instance espedally Pettigrew (On Superstitions t The Medals of St. Charles Borromeo, Cardinal, 

connected with the History and Practice of Medicine Archbishop of Milan. Amer. Journal of Numismatics^ 

and Surgery, London, 1884, 8°, pp. 1 17-156), which is July, 1888, p. 11. 

in my library. Figures of four of these pieces are there % Die deutschen pestamulete. Deutsches Archiv fur 

fiven. Messrs. Cochran-Patrick of Edinburgh and Geschichte der Medicin^ etc., 1882. 

loblyn of London, and in this country Mr. Henry § Proceedings of the American Numismatic and Ar- 

Phillips, Jr., of Philadelphia, have also been interested chaeological Society of NewYork^ 1886,/. 38. 

in this subject. || I am obliged to omit the French accents. 



&6 AUEklCAit JOtJkNAL Of NtMlSMAtlCS. [April, 

Le Roux omits the star on obverse. 

McLachlan, Amer, Jour, of Numis,^ July, 1881, p. lO, CCVI ; Ibid.^ Montreal, 
1886, p. 52 ; Le Roux, loc. city p. 270, No. 1671, fig. 
This is in my collection, in several metals. 

13. As above, save upon the loop, enregt | 1877 I^^^s by Bishop. 
Le Roux omits the star on obverse. 

Le Roux, loc. cit,y p. 271, No. 1672, fig. McLachlan does not mention this. It 
is in my collection. 

14. Obverse, As No. 12. 

Reverse, The same, save that the youthful Virgin, at left, is kneeling, and that 
to the right of the ladies is a tall plant in a pot. The date is much larger than in the 
preceding. 20. Dies by Bishop ; issued by Richard, of Quebec. 

McLachlan, Amer, Jour, of Num,y July, 1881, p. 10, CCX ; Ibid,, Montreal, 1886, 
p. 53 ; Le Roux, loc, city p. 272, No. 1676, fig. 

This, with a peculiar laterally oblong loop, is in my collection. 

15. Obverse, Inscription as preceding, with star in exergue. There are dots 
after each word. Le Roux omits a portion of them in his figure, and all of them in 
his description. In field, instead of the church, merely — . — | souvenir 

Reverse, As in No. 12. Small date. 19. Dies by Bishop ; issued by Lymburner. 
McLachlan, Amer, Jour, of Numis,y July, 1881, p. 10, CCVII ; Ioid,y Montreal, 
1886, p. 53 ; Le Roux, loc, city No. 1673, fig. 

This is in my collection. It exists both with and without a loop. 

16. Obverse, Church as in No. 12, save without the foliage. Inscription : sou- 
venir DE PELERINAGE A SAINTE ANNE DE BEAUPRE. ExCrgUC, FONDE EN | 1660. 

Reverse, Device as in last. Inscription : sainte anne patronne de la pro- 
vince DE QUEBEC 1877 A pointed oval. 9x18. Dies by Bishop ; issued by Lym- 
burner. 

McLachlan, Amer, Jour, of Numis,y July, 1881, p. 10, CCVIII ; Ibid,<i Montreal, 
1886, p. S3 ; Le Roux, loc, city No. 1675, fig. 

I have this. In another specimen in my collection the planchet is of double 
thickness. 

17. Obverse. As preceding. 

Reverse, Same, save that the bench upon which the ladies are seated is a little 
longer, and projects beyond them. A pointed oval. 9x18. Dies by Bishop ; issued 
by Charles Martin & Co., of Montreal, under the superintendence of Lymburner, who 
was then in their employ. 

McLachlan, Amer, Jour, of Numis.y July, 188 1, p. 10, CCIX ; Ibid,y Montreal, 
1886, p. 53 ; Le Roux, loc, city p. 271, No. 1674, fig. 

It is in my collection. 

18. Obverse, A front view of the old church. Inscription: sanctuaire de 

S^-ANNE DE BEAUPRE 

Reverse, Ste. Anne on a high-backed chair, with the youthful Virgin, at right, 
standing beside her. Circular, with the floreated extremities of a cross. 26. 

Not issued publicly, the design not being accepted because the old church was 
given instead of the new. 

Le Roux, loc, city p. 279, No. 1696, fig. 

McLachlan writes me that only a single specimen of this exists, and that it is in 
his collection. 

19. Obverse, The new church. Inscription: pelerinage a s" anne de 

BEAUPRE 

Reverse, The youthful Virgin, at left, is standing. Inscription : o bonne s" 
anne priez pour nous Oval. 19 x 25. Struck at Paris for Mr. Demerais, of Mont- 
real. 

McLachlan, Amer, Jour, of Numis,y July, 1881, p. 10, CCXI; Ibidy Montreal, 
1886, p. S3 ; Le Roux, loc, city p. 272, No. 1677, fig. 

20. Obverse. As preceding. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 87 

Reverse. Same, save that Ste. Anne sits in a chair, facing to right, while the 
youthful Virgin stands before her. Oval. 18 x 23. Struck in Paris for Cadieux and 
Derome. 

Le Roux, loc, city p. 274, No. 1683, fig. 

This and the greater portion of the remainder of the series were struck after the 
completion of Part I (1886), all as yet published of McLachlan's Manual. 

21. As preceding, but smaller. Brass, oval. 13 x 17. Struck in Paris for 
Cadieux and Derome, of Montreal. 

Le Roux, loc, cit, p. 275, No. 1684, fig. 

22. As preceding, but smaller still and with Greek cross in both exergues. 
Silver, oval 12 x 16. Issued by Cadieux and Derome. 

Le Roux, loc. city p. 275, No. 1685, fig. 

23. Obverse. As preceding, save the church is within a circle and surrounded 
by an atmosphere of crosses, sanctuaire de instead of pelerinage a. 

Reverse. Same, save with circle and many small crosses, and one of the latter in 
exergue. Nickel, circular. 20. Issued by Cadieux and Derome. 
Le Roux, loc. city p. 275, No. 1686, fig. 

24. As preceding, but smaller. Nickel. 19. Issued by Cadieux and Derome. 
Le Roux, loc. city p. 275, No. 1687, fig- 

25. As preceding, but smaller still. Silver. 16. Issued by Cadieux and Derome. 
Le Roux, loc. city p. 275, No. 1688, fig. 

26. Obverse. Inscription as preceding, save sainte for s" and the church within 
the circle is two-towered and cathedral-like. 

Reverse. The same, save sainte and that the circle is pearled. Circular, with 
extremities of a Greek cross bearing vine leaves, and with pointed ends and angles. 23. 
Issued by Cadieux and Derome. 

Le Roux, loc. city p. 276, No. 1689, fig. 

[To becontinaed.] 



WASHINGTON CONFEDERATIO. 

A specimen of the "Washington Confederatio 1785," heretofore consid- 
ered unique, has recently been brought to light, having descended from the 
late Hon. Richard Frothingham, formerly of Charlestown, to his grandson, 
T. G. Frothingham, of this city. 

It was obtained by Mr. Frothingham, probably about the year 1820, from 
the toll gatherer of Charlestown Bridge, who was accustomed to save for him 
such odd pieces as might come into his possession in the course of that 
business. 

The obverse is the Confederatio die with stars on a large central field ; 
the reverse, the head of Washington facing right. Legend, gen. Washington. 
(Early Coins, Plate VII, No. 14!) It is in fine condition and is now in the 
cabinet of L. G. Parmelee. s. s. crosby. 



THE MEDAL OF LA CALOTTE. 

The inquiry of W. T. N. in our January issue has attracted the notice of that 
accompHshed numismatist, Mons. A. de Witte, Librarian of the Numismatic Society 
of Belgium, who replies that there is a specimen in bronze of the medal of the Calotte 
in the Numismatic Cabinet of Brussels. The same has been published, after an 
engraving by Roettiers (Jean Charles) in the Revue Beige de Numistnatiquey page 404, 



88 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [April, 

Plate XIII, No. i, Tome III, 1847. ^^ Tome IV of that year Mons. Dumont classed 
and defined this singular metallic monument. Mons. de Witte says : This medal was 
struck in France towards the close of the reign of Louis XIV, as the decoration for a 
Society of the gay courtiers of that monarch, who called themselves "The Regiment 
de la Calotte." Mons. Emmanuel de Torsac, of the royal body guard, and Mons. 
Aymond, Porte-manteur of the King, were its chiefs. This Society proposed to 
reform the customs and the style of their time by turning everything into ridicule 
(see Memoires pour servir k I'histoire de la Calotte, Basle, 1725). They adopted as 
their emblem a skull-cap of lead. The commissions, the rules, and the proceedings 
of this Society of joyous fools were in verse. The medal is described as follows : 
Obverse, The god Momus, seated on a cloud. Legend, ridere est regnare. [To 
laugh is to reign, i. e., He who laughs, rules.] In exergue, j. c. roettiers fecit. 
Reverse, lvna dvce avspice momo. [The moon our guide, and Momus our patron.] 
In the centre of the shield, the design showed a fool's bauble, in pale (perpendicular), 
on a field strewn with butterflies. In chief, over a dark base, was the moon at the 
full, having a crescent to the right and to the left. The crest was a skull-cap with 
double ear-laps, trimmed with small hand-bells and little sleigh-bells, and bearing 
a weathercock, having at its feet a rat passant. For lambrequins a cloud of smoke ; 
and for supporters two monkeys, representing the one a gentleman of the robe, and 
the other a gentleman of the sword. 

This description reminds us of a medal which we believe is in the collection of Benjamin 
Betts, Esq., and which, if we are not mistaken, has usually been attributed to the series in 
ridicule of the " Bubble-blower," John Law. Possibly Mr. Betts, who has given much attention 
to the medals of Law, will favor the youmal with further information concerning it. — Eds, 



GLEANINGS. 



DEFEAT OF THE SPANISH ARMADA, 1588.— BRITISH MUSEUM EXHIBITS RELATING 

THERETO. 

In three of the moveable transverse cases in the King's Library at the British 
Museum, were exhibited, in 1888, a number of art works having connection with the 
defeat of the Great Armada, selected out of the riches contained in the three Depart- 
ments of Medals, Prints, and Books ; a show peculiarly Apropos during the tercenten- 
ary year of that famous naval struggle between the seadogs of Elizabeth of England 
and the veterans of Philip of Spain. Now, a concise notice of these mementos of so 
stern a fight should prove interesting to those readers of the Jottrnal who may 
have had no chance of examining in person this collection of Armada relics ; I have 
therefore noted down the salient points of the objects shown. I commence, as a good 
numismatist should, with the medals, which consist of 

a. An oval piece, bearing on its obverse a bust of Queen Elizabeth to left, 
features in profile, dressed in a large, high ruff, jeweled sleeves, stomacher, and caul. 
Legend, Elizabeth, d. g. anglie. f. et. hi. reg. Size about 3 by 2 inches, with a 
loop for suspension. I could not examine the reverse, which was of course hidden ; 
the etiquette attached to the medal, however, states that it is a piece issued for a 
naval reward upon the defeat of the Spaniards. Silver, from the Hawkins Collection. 
The relief is very high, and the execution clean and decided both as to the features 
and the details 01 the costume. 

b. and c. Gold and silver medals ; ovals, somewhat smaller than the preceding 
and from one die, showing a full-face figure of the queen down to her waist, wearing a 
crown and carrying a sceptre in her right hand and an orb in her left. A very capital 
autotype from medal b is given on plate i of the Guide to the English Medals, British 
Museum, 1881. Legend, ditior in toto non alter circulus orbe /. e. "No other 
circle in the whole world so rich." The silver medal c has, exhibited with it, it^ 
original silver chain for suspension. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMAtlCS. ^9 

Other medals are on view, oval silver naval rewards, having the ark on waves on 
reverse, etc., and medals on the defeat, struck in the Netherlands, in various sizes. 

Next in order, according to my notes, come the engraved portraits. These 
comprise : The Queen, wearing the dress in which she went to St. Paul's to return 
thanks, by Crispin de Passe ; Philip II of Spain ; Alexander Farnese ; James VI of 
Scotland ; Lord Burleigh ; Drake ; Raleigh ; Frobisher ; Lord Howard of Effingham 
(equestrian) ; Devereux, Earl of Essex (equestrian) ; the Earl of Northumberland ; 
Sir J. Hawkins ; the Earl of Suffolke ; the Earl of Cumberland, a volunteer in the 
fleet ; and Cardinal Allan ; all, with one or two exceptions, being contemporary exam- 
ples of burin work. 

Then is to be seen a satirical engraving respecting both the defeat of the Armada 
and the failure of the Gunpowder Plot, contemporary with the latter, and an engraving 
of Queen Elizabeth at Tilbury. 

Succeeding these is displayed a large woodcut (size about 26 x 18 in.) representing 
Howard's flag-ship "The Ark Royal," showing in full detail, hull and masts, rigging, 
armed tops and armament, about 25 guns on the broadside, crew, harquebusiers and 
standards. 

The next exhibits are plates of the various engagements ; and further portraits, 
viz: Dudley, Earl of Leicester; the Earl of Salisbury; Lord Hunsdon ; the Earl of 
Exeter (modern) ; Sir J. Norris ; and the Earl of Devon (modern). 

Of printed pieces, the first in order of notice is a most curious Broadside, the 
matter of which, written by Theodore Beza * in eight languages, namely, Latin, Eng- 
lish, Dutch, Spanish, Hebrew, Greek, Italian, and French, is a poetical address to 
Queen Elizabeth on the repulse of the Spaniards. Printed at London, 1588. Hakluyt, 
in his 1599 edition of Voyages, etc., gives the English verses. 

Another extraordinary Broadside relates to the belief, prevalent in England, that 
the Armada was furnished with inquisitorial implements of torture. The sheet is 
entitled " A new Ballet (Ballad) of the straunge and most cruell Whippes which the 
Spanyards had prepared to whippe and torment English men and womene. To the 
tune of the valiant Soldiour." There are two woodcuts of these "cruell whippes," and 
sixteen verses to the Ballet, which was printed in 1588. 

Of printed volumes, one is entitled "The Spanish Masquerado," and was issued 
in 1589. Another, printed at Florence in the year preceding, is the " Ordinazione 
deir Armata del Cattolico Re Felippo contra la Regina d'Inghilterra," etc. 

Following these exhibits appears Pine's folio volume, issued in 1730, of engraved 
copies of the Tapestries, representing the various incidents arising out of the engage- 
ments in the British Channel between the fleets of England and Spain, formerly 
hanging in the House of Lords, and destroyed there in the great fire at the Parlia- 
mentary buildings in 1834. 

Next in sequence I note a printed "Form of Prayer" used at the time of the 
Armada ; and 

Lastly, a most interesting document, being the original decision of the Council of 
War held on Aug. i, 1588, and signed by Lord Howard, by the Earl of Cumberland, 
by the Earl of Suffolke, by Drake, Hawkins, and other superior officers in the Queen's 
fleet. 

Consisting as these documents, medals, and printed matter clearly do, of unim- 
peachable evidence, the whole of the above mentioned exhibits form, I take it, a 
collection of surprising interest, connected with an event of immense magnitude in 
the history of the realm of England ; and thus believing, I have essayed to describe 
the gathering, before the various pieces are relegated to their respective shelves and 
drawers in the several departments of the Museum. 

In the next number of the Journal I hope to find room for a Note respecting the 
designer of the large medal a, and a further mention of the Tapestries, and the Queen's 
desire to possess them. w. tasker-nugent. 

* Protestant theologian ; poet; historian; diplomatist; 1 519-1605. 
VOL. XXIII. 12 



§6 AMEfelCAI^ jOUJpiAL OF NUHilSlkiATlCS. [AprIl, 

MASONIC MEDALS. 

[ConUnued from Vol. XXI II. p. 67.] 

DCCLXXVI. Obverse, A radiant triangle with the sun in the centre ; 
on the sides are amitie fraternite bienfaisance [Friendship, Fraternity, 
Benevolence] . The field is filled with rays ; above is a cable-tow tied in 
seven love knots. In exergue, 5837. Reverse, Two branches of laurel crossed 
at the bottom, leaving a blank field above, for engraving a name ; at the top 
of which, in two lines, recompense | accordee au f.-. [Recompense awarded 
to Bro. — ] Legend around the whole, l/. ch/. ec. des amis bienf.*. et des 
IMITA. d'osiris reunis 1 828. ♦ [Chapitrale Scottish Lodge of Beneficent 
Friends and of the Imitators of Osiris united, 1828.]' Bronze, octagonal, a 
loop at the top point. Size 23. 

DCCLXXVII. Obverse, The All-seeing eye within the square and 
compasses which surmount formal rays filling the field. Legend, □ l' alliance 
FONDEE l'an 5840. [The Lodge Alliance, founded in 1840.J At the bottom, 
in small letters, f.*. deblond f. Reverse, A wreath formed by two branches 
of acacia, open at the top and tied at the bottom by a ribbon and bow, from 
which depend two small rings forming a figure 8 ; between the ends of the 
branches at the top, a blazing star of five points on which is the letter G. 
Within the wreath is the inscription in three lines, a space for engraving 
name between the first and second lines, the third curving upwards, au f.*. | 
LA □ I RECONNAiSANTE [To Bro. — the Lodge recognizing him as a member.]' 
At the top of the planchet a small plate with knob and ring is attached. 
Silver. Size 19. 

DCCLXXVIII. Obverse, A cross of Calvary with a crown of thorns 
hung upon the upper bar, and rays proceeding from the intersections of the 
arms : below, at the right, a star formed by three triangles interlaced, enclos- 
ing a globe on which are three anchors and t. l. e. [which I take to signify 
Loge or La Triple Esperance] ; on the left a radiant delta, on which is a 
radiant sun and the letters g. o. f. [Grand Orient of France] in a cypher ; 
over the cross, curving, gloire on the left and a dieu on the right [Glory to 
God] ; below, curving to conform to the circle which encloses the field, s. a. 
le p- l. murat g.'. m.-. de l'o.\ [His Highness Prince Lucien Murat, Grand 
Master of the Order.] Legend above, grand orient de f,\ ^ triple espe- 
rance and below, ^ foi, esperance, charite [Grand Orient of France, 
Threefold Hope : Faith, Hope, Charity.] Reverse, Inscription in twenty-one 
lines : a/, l.-. g.\ \ D.*. g.*. a.-, d.-. l.-. u.'. | par l'initiative et le devoument 

(stc) I DU R.'. F.-. DESCOMBES (n- A- M^^^^** A^) | TRESORIER DU SENAT A PARIS | 
S.*. P.*. R/. S.\ 32"DELEGUE des 4 AT.'. DE | LA TRIPLE ESPERANCE, 0,\ DU PORT 

I As stated in note 142, the Lodge Amis Bienfai- the medal. Brethren who attended a certain number of 
sance was chartered March 29, 1829. The Masonic year meetings during the year received, in many of the 
1828 extended from April, A. D. 1828, to April, 1829, French Lodges, "a medal of recompense." See note 
which explains the date on the reverse. There was a 402 and DCXVIII in my volume. 
Lodge of the same name which dated from April 7, 2 This Lodge is in Paris, and is numbered 70 under 
1814, which seems to have become extinct. The Lodge the Grand Council, A. and A. Rite of France, in Re- 
Imitateurs d*Osiris was founded June 13, 18 19. (See bold*s History. For an opportunity of examining this 
LXXVII.) I have not ascertained when the two Lodges and several others heretofore unaescribed, I am in- 
united; the date 1837 like that of 1840, on CCXXX, debted to Mr. Ed. Frossard, of New York. I hayc 
may have some reference to the " reward " alluded to on never seen another impression. 



1889] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 91 

LOUIS, MAURICE, | s'iNSPIRANT DES SENTIMENTS DES FF/. DE CES | AT/. REUNIS, UN 
SERVICE SOLENNEL A ETE CELEBRE | A NOTRE DAME DE PARIS, LE 20 JUILLET 
1858, I A.-. D.-. AVEC L*APPROBATION DE S.'. E.*. LE CARD.'. MORLOT, | ARCH.*. DE 
PARIS POUR LE REPOS DES AMES DES RR.*. FF.'. | LECHELLE (l- M- J- B-), CHENAUX 
(C?), DUVERGER (l^), | PENARD f P-) & CHEPAULT BERICHON (r- G-), | DE LA 
TRIPLE ESPERANCE & LA FONTAN & | CESERI, DE LA PAIX, 0.\ DE MAURICE | DECEDES 
AU PORT LOUIS ET AUXQUELS | L*EVEQUE CATHOLIQUE DE CET 0.\ AVAIT | REFUSE 
LES PRIERES FUNEBRES | A CAUSE DE LEUR QUALITE DE | F.*. M.*. | L.\ E.*. T.'. 

[To the glory of the Grand Master of the Universe. By the suggestion and 
devotion of Res. Bro. Descombes (Jean Antoine Martial Aime) , Treasurer 
of the Senate, Paris, Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret, 3 2d degree, delegate-, 
of the four bodies of Threefold Hope, Orient of Port Louis, Isle of Mauritius, ^' 
inspired with the sentiments of these united bodies, a solemn service was 
celebrated at Notre Dame, Paris, on the 20th July, A. D. 1858, with the 
approbation of his Eminence, Cardinal Morlot, Archbishop of Paris, for the 
repose of the souls of Res. Bros. Lechelle, (Louis Marie Jean Baptiste), 
Chenaux (Ce.), Duverger (Louis), Penard (Jacques Pierre), and Chepault 
Berichon (Re. Gel.), of The- Threefold Hope, and La Fontan and Ceseri, of 
the Lodge Peace, Orient of the Isle of Mauritius, who died at Port Louis, 
and to whom the Roman Catholic Bishop of that Orient had refused funeral 
prayers because of their being Freemasons]" Bronze. Size 30. 

DCCLXXIX. Obverse, The obverse of the Medal of " Recompense " 
of the Grand Orient of France — the serpent ring enclosing a radiant delta, 
etc., as described under DLXXXVIL Reverse, A close wreath of acacia and 
oak as on the reverse of the same Medal. (See cut, Plate XVII, but the 
leaves are much thinner than as drawn for the engraving, which was repro- 
duced from Ephemerides) . The wreath encloses the inscription, (which was 
struck,) in eleven lines, medaille d'honneur | decernee | au r.'. f.-. des- 
combes I J- ANT- MAR-^ AIME | TRESORIER DU SEN AT A PARIS | S.*. P.*. R.\ S/. 
32- I DELEGUE DES RR.\ ATEL.'. | DE LA TRIPLE ESPERANCE | O.'. DE PORT-LOUIS 

(iLE MAURICE) | LE 3 1 MAI | 1860. [Medal of Honor decreed to Worshipful 
Brother Jean Antoine Martial Aime Descombes, Treasurer of the Senate, 
Paris, Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret, 3 2d degree, delegate from the 
bodies of the Regular Lodge of Threefold Hope, Orient of Port-Louis, (Isle 
of Mauritius,) May 31, i860.] Legend, outside the wreath, s. a. le prince 
LuciEN MURAT, G.\ M.'. DE l'ordre [His Highncss Prince Lucien Murat, 
Grand Master of the Order. A five-pointed star at the bottom between the 
stems of the wreath.' Bronze. Size 28. 

DCCLXXX. The square and compasses enclosing a gavel and trowel 
crossed, all surrounded by a circle of dots, outside of which the legend, above, 

I I am obliged to omit the accents in the French may not all be correctl]^ translated from the abbrevia- 

inscription. Rebold, in his History of the Grand Orient tions above. The service was conducted with ^reat 

of France (1864), p. 303, says that a circular letter was pomp and all the ceremonies of the Roman Church, at 

issued by order 01 Prince Murat, on the i6th of July, an expense of six thousand francs. The "four bodies " 

1858, calling on all the Lodges of the Grand Orient of are probably the four divisions of a " chapitrale ** 

France in Paris and its immediate neighborhood, to Lodge, /. e, the Lodge, Council, Chapter and " Areo- 

attend a Funeral service in the Church of Notre Dame, page," or Consistory, l.*. e.'. t.\ probably stands for 

on the Sunday following, for the repose of the souls of the name, La Esperance Triple. 

ten brethren who had died in the Isle of Mauritius, and 2 I have little doubt the size of DLXXXVII is the 

been refused Christian burial by their Bishop because same and the obverse di^s are also the same as those of 

they were Freemasons ; the medal seems to name but this med<^I, 
f0V0i; and it 19 very likely that th^ n^mes abl;>reviated 



92 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [April, 

HERDS.'. DE.'. l'humanite, and below, log.*. 147. ".Reverse, A circle of dots 
surrounds the inscription in three lines, jeton | de | presence. Legend, above, 
o TRAVAIL o and below, perseverance [Labor and Perseverance.]" Brass, 
octagonal. Size 16. „, ^ „ wa^xttxt 

^ ITo be continued.] W. T. R. MARVIN. 



RECENT ACCESSIONS TO THE MINT CABINET. 

To the. Editors of the yournal: 

I promised you some time ago to " keep you posted " in relation to the additions 
of coins and medals to the U. S. Mint Cabinet. The Roman Medals proved too great 
a demand on my time and it was a thing that could not be condensed ; besides, they 
had been in the cabinet for some months already. I send you, however, a short list 
of Japanese medals received some weeks ago from the Imperial Mint at Osaka, which 
were sent to Superintendent Fox in return for official courtesies shown Imperial 
Commissioner Hasegawa when he visited this mint officially in 1886 ; as well as in 
the way of exchange of courtesies for a collection of medals sent the Imperial Mint by 
Superintendent Fox. Without pretending to send you an artistic list of the medals, I 
simply enclose a copy of the titles and purposes for which they were awarded. 

1. Dragon Prize Medal (ist Class), National Industrial Exhibition, Tokio 1877. 

2. Phoenix " 2d " 

3. Flower " 3d " 

4. Prize Medal for Improvement, " " " " 1881. 

5. " for Merit, 

6. " for Skill, 

7. " for Admiration, 

8. " Fishery Exhibition, Tokio, 1883. 

9. " 1st Class Local Industrial Exhibition, Sendai, 1888. 

II « >sA ii « u a a « 

The above were accompanied by four photographs of the Imperial Mint at Osaka 

Very respectfully, 

M. F. LoBO. 
U, S. Mint, Philadelphia, 

A NEW WASHINGTON MEDAL. 

The Messrs. Chapman have just published a new Washington Medal as des- 
cribed below, which commemorates the Centennial of his inauguration. 

Obverse^ Head of Washington to left ; above, george Washington, and below, 

FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES — INAUGURATED APRIL 3OTH, 1 789. 

Reverse^ The sun surrounded by a circle of thirteen stars, enclosed in an endless 
chain of thirteen' links, each bearing the initials of one of the original States ; outside 
of these is the inscription, centennial of the inauguration of the first presi- 
dent OF THE UNITED STATES APRIL 30TH, 1 889; around are forty-two stars represent- 
ing the number of States now in the Union. Size 34. 

The portrait is by the late C. C. Wright, and though never before published, it is 
said to be his finest work, and the best reproduction on a medal of the original bust 
by Houdon. 

I The Lodge Les H^ros de L*Humanit^, number 147, (Rebold's History of the Three Grand Lodges, etc 
was of Paris, and placed itself under the jurisdiction of Paris, 1864. ) 
the Supreme Council in 1857, which numbered its bodies. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 93 

NOTES AND QUERIES. 

PAPAL MEDALS. RADIATED EFFIGY OF PIUS V. 

At the Loan Exhibition at South Kensington, London, in 1869, was exhibited a large 
Sixteenth Century Italian Medallion, in bronze, of Pius V, inscribed " Bea. Pius. V. P. O. M. 
Creatus. Die. i. Januar. 1565," with rays, like a glory, round the head of that Pontiff. This 
seems to me to be a rarity in treatment, as I can recollect no other medal so radiated ; and in 
coins I can remember only some examples of Rhodes, bearing the head of the Sun-god, with 
rays proceeding therefrom. I would like to be referred to other instances, and request infor- 
mation on the point alluded to. w. t. n. 

MARDI GRAS MEDAL. 

Some years ago I came across and examined a silver medal, of which the following is a 
description : Obv, Eight figures of harlequins, scaramouches, etc., four being placed on the 
steps of the platform. Legend, "Carouselle Comique le Mardi Gras 1722." Rev, The Place 
du Carousel and four rows of figures on pedestals ; barriers, but no spectators. Artist's initials 
H. P. G. This is the only example I have seen touching Mardi Gras festivities at, I presume, 
Paris. w. t. n. 

MEDALS OF ROBERT FULTON. 

Will any of your readers give a description of the medals of Robert Fulton, known to 
them? B. c. F. 

Our friend, Mr. C. P. Nichols, favors us with the following reply to the above. 

Two in my collection are as follows : 

Obv. A steamboat flying the American flag. Rev. " Sacred to the memory of Robert 
Fulton, one of the most illustrious benefactors of mankind." Size 34. In tin, very rare. Any 
matter relating to this medal will be gladly received. 

Obv. Bust of Robert Fulton at three-quarters face, " Robert Fulton, Borh 1765, Died 
1815." Rev, View of the first steamboat on the Hudson; within a wreath of thirteen stars, 
" Steam Navigation was first establish in the United States, on the Hudson River 1807." Alfred 
S, Robinson's Historical Series. Copper. Size 22. This medal was struck about i860. 

MEDALS DEPOSITED IN FOUNDATIONS OF BUILDINGS. 

Some little time ago, in a Note upon the building of the Church of S. Maria dei Miracoli 
at Venice, in the Fifteenth Century, I asked for information as to early instances of the practice 
mentioned in the heading. I am now able myself to furnish an example, apparently, in the 
case of the Basilica of Constantine at Rome, as I gather from the following : 

"This Basilica was built by Maxentius (reigned 306-312 A. D.), though dedicated to 
Constantine, as proved by the discovery in 1828, of a silver medal within a mass of fallen 
masonry, the head and name of Maxentius on the face ; on the reverse that emperor's temple 
of Rome, with the epigraph consbrv : urb : suo. Aurelian Victor mentions the dedication by 
the Senate to Constantine. The dilapidation of the Basilica commenced by the earthquake of 
A. D. 1349, described by Petrarch." w. t. n. 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCOVERIES AT OSTIA. 

Some important inscribed marbles just found at Ostia prove beyond doubt that the build- 
ing now being excavated was a station of the Roman vigiles. The last record of vigiles in 
England was found at Chester a short time ago. Prince Torlonia has undertaken fresh excava- 
tions on his property at Canino, the necropolis of ancient Vulci. The works have already 
brought to light several indications of an architectural character. Veii is also yielding just 
now a rich harvest of fictile votive records. 



EIFFEL TOWER MEDAL. 

The municipality of Paris, apparently anxious to associate itself with that taste 
which gave birth to the Eiffel Tower, and by way of rebuking the famous artist who 
remonstrated against its erection, has caused to be struck a medal of large size, bearing 
on the obverse the effigies of that edifice, and on the reverse the arms of the metropolis 
to which, since the days of Louis XIV, Europe has looked as a sort of focus of artistic 
genius, wisdom and skill. To each of the workmen employed an impression in silver 
of this medal is to be given. 



94 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [April, 

TRANSACTIONS OF SOCIETIES. 

BOSTON NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 

Jan, II, 1889. Mr. Parmelee exhibited several coins of extreme rarity; among 
them were several of the Confederatio and New York series, the varieties being those 
represented in Crosby's Early Coins of America, Plate VII, Nos. 10, 12, 13, 14, 14/1:, 
17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, and 24, the silver pattern Fug^o, Plate VII, No. i, and one in 
gold from the same obverse die, but the reverse differing from that of the silver piece 
in having we are one in the centre, and united ♦ states ♦ upon the star enclosing 
the central field; the set of silver Nova Constellatio patterns shown on Plate VIII, 
Nos. I, 2, and 3, and also a smaller piece evidently belonging to the same set, of the 
same general design but about the size of a dime, and having in the centre of the 
reverse, U. S. over i.oo, the only known set of these pieces; three different varieties 
of the Non Vi Virtute Vici, two of which were of the same design as that represented 
on Plate VIII, No. 4, but from different dies ; the third from the same obverse die 
as that one of the others which has the legend non vi virtute vici (not that shown 
upon the plate), but the reverse from one of the New Jersey reverse dies ; also, 
several specimens of the copper Nova Constellatio series, and a Centennial Medal. 
S^^Journaly Vol. XII, No. 2 ; Holland's List of Medals, No. 81. 

Feb. 8. Mr. Parmelee exhibited the two rare New Jersey pieces having the date 
1786 under the beam of the plow. These pieces differ but little except in the size of 
the figures of the date and the punctuation of the legend, one having none, the other 
ending with a period. The first of these (not punctuated). No. 17, is shown on Plate 
VI, Early Coins, and both on Maris's plate of New Jersey Coins, Nos. 7 and 8. 

S. S. Crosby, Secretarypro tern. 

AMERICAN NUMISMATIC AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

The regular meetings of this prosperous Society have been held as usual during 
the winter, with increasing numbers on its roll of members, and also with an increased 
interest in its proceedings and objects. The plan of "Numismatic Meetings," so 
happily suggested a few years ago, by some of its most active members, has been 
continued, and the papers read at these meetings have been carefully prepared, valu- 
able and instructive. One of the earlier papers appeared in our last issue ; another will 
be found in this. Those read in 1887-8 have been printed with the other proceedings 
in a handsome pamphlet of 56 pages, in uniform style with those of previous years, 
and we have read them with much pleasure. For an advance copy, as well as for 
former favors of the same character, we are indebted to the kindness of the Secre- 
tary, H. Russell Drowne, Esq. 

ARCHAEOLOGY. 
RELICS OF THE CLIFF DWELLERS. 
Mr. Frederick Schwatka has been visiting some of the ruined abodes of the " cliff- 
dwellers " whose home was formerly in Northern Chihuahua, Mexico, and has written a very 
interesting account of his discoveries to the Transcript^ in which a new theory is advanced 
to account for the destruction of this singular people. We make some extracts from his 
letter below. 

One of the interesting peculiarities of the numerous ruins in Northwestern Chihuahua 
indicating a once dense population living off the soil, is the way that most of them met 
their fate. When a ruined house is dug into, all the skeletons of its occupants are found 
in what might be termed the combined kitchen and dining-room — for these two rooms were 
in one — and always near a fireplace. The postures of these skeletons are as various as 
it is possible for the human body to assume. They are found kneeling, stretched out, 
sometimes with their locked hands over their heads, on their sides, and again with their 
children in their arms, no two being alike, at least in the same house or series of houses 
where they were united into a pueblo. Now, in the whole study of sepulture it l^as been 



1889.] AMEklCAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. $S 

universally found, among the lowest savages, as well as the most civilized, whatever form 
of burial they adopt, that it is always uniform in the main points, allowing, of course, some 
slight deviations for caste or rank. The position of these skeletons in their own houses 
controverts this theory, and has led some to believe that they were destroyed there by a 
great earthquake or other violent action of nature. I had a long talk with Mr. Davis, 
superintendent of the Corralitos Company, who has made something of a study of these 
ancient ruins, and he not only believes that they were destroyed by a violent earthquake, 
but that this catacylsm caught them at the evening meal. He infers this latter from a con- 
sideration of the customs of the present pure-blooded Indian race here, called Mexicans, 
which must have descended from the old race, but, singularly enough, know nothing of their 
ancient progenitors. 

The evening meal is the only one when they are all gathered together at about the same 
hour. The earthquake must have been a terrible one, and have shaken down the big buildings 
on the occupants before they could have escaped. This region is not especially given to earth- 
quakes, but that it has them at rare intervals, and severe ones too, is shown in the Bavispe 
earthquake of two or three years ago, when that town was destroyed and forty people killed, 
and the whole country was shaken up. Mr. Davis thinks that the survivors were then at the 
mercy of enemies (that they had enemies before is shown by their fortifications adjoining almost 
every village) and became cliff-dwellers as a last resource to escape the fury of their old assail- 
antSj who were probably savages by comparison, but by living in savage abodes, as skin tents, 
wikeyups and other light and temporary dwellings, suffered but little from the great commotion of 
nature. When they again became strong enough, they wandered southward as the first, or 
among the first, Toltec excursions in that direction. 

While at Corralitos, Mr. Davis told me of a set of ruins about half way between his 
hacienda and Casas Grandes, near Barranca. I visited it and found about the following : The 
first thing noticeable is a well-defined road leading straight up a hill to a slight bench, over- 
topped by a higher hill at the end of the bench. Here is an ancient ruin built of stone, 
and looking very much like a position of defence. It may have been a sacrificial place, for 
otherwise I cannot account for the careful construction of the road leading to it. Had it been 
purely for defence the road would not have been needed, especially so well made ; but experi- 
ence has taught me that when no other reasonable explanation can be found for a thing, that 
superstitious or religious motives can then be readily introduced to account for it. 

This hill was really an outlying one from a larger one near by overlooking it, and after 
climbing up the latter about half-way a series of stone buildings, not discernible from the 
bottom are clearly made out. They encircle the hill, and about halfway between it again and 
the top of the hill is another row of encircling buildings faintly made out by their ruins, but the 
masonry is of the very best character. 

On the top of the hill is a fortification, probably, with a wall about twenty feet from the 
top, overtopped and almost hidden by a hanging mesquite bush. At the base of both hills is a 
series of mounds extending as far as the eye can reach, and I almost feel afraid to place an 
estimate on the number I saw. More than that, I am afraid to say whether the mounds really 
represent buildings. In all other mounds there is sign of the house walls protruding through 
the debris, but here there is none ; yet they closely resemble the other mounds in all other 
respects. Everything goes to show that these people were on the defensive, and that defence 
was often necessary. These ruins look very much older than any others I have visited here, 
but much can be accounted for, I think, by the sandy character of the district. Nothing makes 
any abandoned building or other work of man look so very antiquated as drifting sand piling 
up around it This town, therefore, may have been contemporaneous with the ruined towns of 
the Casas Grandes Valley generally, though the latter look much more ancient from having 
been built on more compact soil. As I have already hinted, all these valleys along the foothills 
of the Sierra Madre Mountains may have held a dense population when these ancient people 
sojourned here. If the physical characteristics were the same as at the present time, it is easy 
to account for. To the westward it is too mountainous for many people to find homes and 
cultivate the soil, while to the eastward the country is too barren, after one passes the line of 
lakes or where the mountain rivers sink. 

The strip along the foothills between the main ridge of mountains and the plain is about 
the only place where an agricultural people could live in large numbers and thrive. These 
ancients probably raised everything they needed, so that there was very little commerce 
between them and not much need for roads or trails, although a few of them are occasionally 
made out with a great deal of distinctness. I have already spoken of the plainly marked road 
leading straight up the steep sides of Davis Hill. This, one can make out fully a mile away, 



g6 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NtJMISMAtlCS. [April, 18^9. 

although, at that distance, the observer might think it a strip of light grass in a depression, 
until closer inspection revealed its true character as the work of man and not of nature. 

From the fortification summit the view from a military standpoint was one of the most 
complete that could be desired. From both sides the hills retreated, giving full scope to the 
eye up and down the broad valley, every square yard of which was probably irrigated and cul- 
tivated, while just back of the fortification or to the eastward, the Escondito Mountains opened 
out into a valley that made any surprise by an enemy from that side impossible. In short, the 
fortification could be left defenceless by the people in clear weather, or during such weather as 
they would be likely to work on their farms, and a few keen-sighted sentinels posted there 
coirid give the alarm of a coming hostile incursion in ample time for the population to man the 
intrenchments before an attack could possibly be made by the most rapidly moving enemy. 

This, of course, assumes that the able-bodied citizen of that day was equally an artisan or 
farmer and a soldier when an enemy approached, an assumption which we kiiow is well founded 
with so many of the ancient races. 



EDITORIAL. 



We conclude with this number another Volume of the journal, which now remains not 
merely the oldest but the only American magazine especially devoted to Numismatics. There 
certainly should be found a sufficient number of coin lovers, and numismatic students among 
American collectors, to give the journal such financial support as will enable its conductors to 
carry out their desire to increase its size, to give more plates and illustrations of rare and 
interesting pieces, and to make it as fair a representative of American coin-study as the most 
advanced periodicals abroad. We have aimed in our pages to enlarge the circle of interest in 
the science, to divert into broader fields the pursuit of inexperienced collectors and so prevent 
the folly of piling up in their cabinets a worthless series of dates and die varieties of American 
coppers, — worthless from any real coin-value, as well as from an artistic point of view: — to 
increase the knowledge of those coins of classic antiquity, so far and away beyond the skill and 
attainments of modern die cutters as yet developed ; while at the same time by descriptive lists 
of medallic series, made as complete and comprehensive as the labors of specialists can pro- 
duce, to make the y<?«r«tf/ valuable for reference and a veritable "magazine" of information in 
this department. The popular side of numismatics will not be neglected, of course, and as far 
as possible, we shall keep up our record of coin sales, with an occasional paper on American 
Archaeology. Such are our plans for the future, which we believe are an advance in the direc- 
tion we have aimed to pursue in the past. May we not then rely on the efforts of all of our 
subscribers to assist us in increasing our circulation, and sustaining us ? If each would interest 
one collector, or induce the public libraries in his neighborhood to subscribe, it would at once 
enable us to enlarge our plans, and to this end we especially invite the cordial co-operation of 
American Numismatic Societies. Our periodical in the past has received praise from foreign 
contemporaries, for its original papers. What it shall be in the future depends as much upon 
receiving the encouragement we ask for, as upon editorial efforts. Will you help us ? 

The youmal is unavoidably late in issuing its present number, from the fact that our 
printers have been obliged to move their office. We ask the indulgence of our readers. 

We hope to have a plate in our next, illustrating some of the Masonic Medals, descrip- 
tions of which have appeared or will be given in the youmal in the coming volume. 



CURRENCY. 



When is an old cheese like a dollar ? When it is mitey. 

Money is a good deal like tea — to be best enjoyed it should first be urned. 



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Medals and Badges for Colleges, Scliools, Horticultural, Agricultural and other Societies. 

Designs made and Estimates given for Dies and Medals, 
MEDALS STRUCK IN PURE GOLD, SILVER, BRONZE AND WHITE METAL. 

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AND ORIENTAL JOURNAL. 

AN ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINE, PUBLISHED BI-MONTHLY BY 

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Devoted to the antiquities of all lands, including Oriental, Biblical, and Classical as well as American. It 
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AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS 

AND 

BULLETIN OF AMERICAN NUMISMATIC AND 
ARCHiCOLOGICAL SOCIETIES. 



QUARTERLY. 



VOL. XXIV. 



July, 1889 — July, 1890, 




COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION. 

WILLIAM SUMNER APPLETON. 
SAMUEL ABBOTT GREEN. 
JEREMIAH COLBURN. 
WILLIAM T. R. MARVIN. 



BOSTON: 

PUBUSHED BY THE BOSTON NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 
M DCCC XC. 




ruPBiw^^ 






CONTENTS. 



Pa(». 

A Coin Pedigree, 19 

African Money, 47 

Age of Bronze in China, .... 56 
Alchemical Coins and Medals, ... 5 

Alchemy, Contributions of, to Numismatics, 73 

American Shillings, 47 

A Numismatic Whim, 32 

An Undescribed Franco- American Jeton, 7 

Archaeology :— 

Ancient Aboriginal Mining, 

Cliflf Dwellers in Mexico, . 

Remains of the Mound Builders, 
Armada Medals, . 
A Royal Collection, 
A Royal Collector, 
Avalonla Copper, 
Bees on Coins, 
Black Dogges, 

Book Notices, 71, 

Brass Cash and the Age of Bronze, 
British Museum Coin Catalogues, 
Canadian Medicals, 
Captain Kidd's Treasure, 
Coin Sales: — 

Chapmans\ .... 

English, 

Frossard*s, .... 
Coins and Medals, Alchemical, .5, 

Coins of Southern India, 
Coins, Oriental, . 
Coins, Terms describing. 
Coins, The Mystery ot. 
Collecting, The Passion for, 
Comets, Medals of, . . .25, 49, 

Contributions of Alchemy to Numismatics, . 

Currency, 24, 48, 72, 

Diplomatic Medal, Dies of, . 

Dogges, Black, 45 

Early Medals of the Saviour, ... 44 



20, 



20, 



99 

22 

71 
56 
63 
98 

47 
47 
45 
99 
56 
91 
37 
41 

70 
48 
70 

73 

I 

1 

34 

36 

36 

84 

73 

100 

10 



East India Company, Coins of, . 

Editorial, 24, 48, 72, 

Electricity, Photograph of Coin by. 
Emperor Frederick, Coins of, 
England. Money in, 1560, 
Engraved Vurginian Medal, 
Exhibition of Medical Medals. 
Franco-American Jeton, 
Franklin Medals, 
French Mint Marks, . 
Gleanings, . 

How Nickels and Pennies are made, 
Jeton, Franco-American, 
Kidd's Treasure, 
Masonic Medals, 



Medallic Memorials of the Great Comets, 25, 49, 84 



Medallions, Roman, 
Medals :— 

Agassiz, . 

Alchemical, 

Armada, . 

Canadian, 

Centennial of Inauguration 

Comets, . 

Diplomatic, (Dies of,) 

Dr. Kane, 

Franklin, . 

French Centenary, 

Louvre. . 

Masonic, 

Medical, . 

The Saviour, (early,) 

Virginian, (engraved), 

Washington, . 

Washington Masonic, 
Mexican CliiT Dwellers, 
Mint Cabinet, Recent Accessions to. 
Mint Marks, French, . 
Money in England in 1560, 



18, 21,42, 



Pack. 

3 
100 

47 
32 
96 
64 
9 
7 
10 

21. 47 
63.9* 

95 
7 

41 
65. 97 



9« 



92 



93 

5 

. 56 

'2.37 

35 

25. 49. 84 

10 

94 
10 
20 
63 
18, 21, 42, 65, 97 
9. 12, 37, S7f 92 
44 
64 
62 
21 
22 
32 
47 
96 



35. 



21, 



IV 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 



Mound Builders, Remains of, 
Napoleonic Medal relating to the Louvre, 
Nickels and Pennies, how made, . 
Notes and Queries: — 

A Coin Photographed by Electricity, 

African Money, 

American Shillings, 

A Washington Masonic, 

A Zapotec Codex, . 

Bees on Coins, 

Franklin Medals, 

French Centenary Medal, 

French Mint Marks, 

Minor Coins in Cabinets, 

The Avalonia Copper, 
Not worth a •* Rap," . 
Numismatic Whim, 
Obituary :— 

Chalon, Renier H. G., 
Oriental Coins, . 
Otto, of Bavaria, Coin of, 
Passion for Collecting, 



Pack. 
71 
63 
95 

47 
47 
47 
21 
21 
47 
47 
20 

21. 47 

20 

47 
64 
32 

21 

I 

32 

36 



Pedigree of a Coin, 

Petition Crown, . 

Recent Accessions to the Mint Cabinet, 

Roman Medallions, 

Ro}'al Collector, A, 

Sardanapalus, Tetradrachm of, 

Southern India, Coins of, . 

Star of Bethlehem, Medals of. 

Terms used in describing Coins, 

Tetradrachm of Sardanapalus^ 

The Green Collection, in Boston Public 

Library, 

The Medals, Jetons and Tokens illustrative 

of the Science of Medicine, 12,37 

The Mystery of Coins, 
Transactions of Societies :— 

Amer. Numis. and Archaeol. Soc., 

Boston Numismatic Society, 
United States Medicals, 
Washington Masonic, . 
Washington Medals, . 
Zapotec Codex, . 



Pagb. 

19 
19 
32 
91 
98 
33 
I 

31 
34 
33 



57» 



35. 



10 

92 
36 

97 
96 

92 
21 
62 
21 




; JUL 31 18H9 ! 

Two Dollars a Year, in Advance. [Entered at P(HjJffifcf./f^tp. y ffc^dpfe Rates.] Single Copies, 50 Cts. 



Vol. XXIV.— No. t.] 



[Whole No. 125. 



AMER I CAN 

JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS 

AND 

BULLETIN OF AMERICAN NUMISMATIC AND 
ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETIES. 

July, 1889. 




BOSTON: 

PUBLISHED BY THE BOSTON NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 

QUARTERLY. 



COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION. 

WILLIAM SUMNER APPLETON. 
SAMUEL ABBOTT GREEN. 
JEREMIAH COLBURN. 
WILLIAM T. R. MARVIN. 



SUBSCRIPTIONS RECEIVED BY 

DAMRELL & UPHAM, 

283 WASHINGTON STREET. BOSTON. MASS. 

S. H. & H. CHAPMAN, 
1348 PINE STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 

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H. HOFFMANN, 
I RUE DU BAC. PARIS, FRANCE. 

W. S. LINCOLN & SON, 69 NEW OXFORD STREET, LONDON, ENGLAND. 
An Commmilcations to be addressed to Jeremiah Colbum, 18 Somerset Street, Boston, Mass. 



CONTENTS. 



Oriental Coins, with special reference to those 

of Southern India, . 
Alchemical Coins and Medals. 
An Undescribed Franco- American Jeton. 
Exhibition of the Storer Collection of Medical 

Medals, 

The Green Collection in the Boston Public 

Library, and the Dies of the Diplomatic 

Medal, 

The Medals, Jetons, and Tokens illustrative 

of the Science of Medicine, 

Masonic Medals, 

A Coin Pedigree, 



ID 
12 

i8 
19 



Coin Sales: 

Chapmans' Sales,— Frossard's Sale, 
Notes and Queries: 

Minor Coins in Cabinets, . 

French Centenarj* Medal, 

Reply. — French Mint-marks, 

A Washington Masonic, . 

A Zapotec Codex, 
Obituary : 

Mons. Renier Hubert Ghislain Chalon, 
Archaeology : 

Cliff Dwellers in Mexico, . 

Editorial 

Currency, 



20 

20 
20 
21 
21 
21 

21 

22 

24 



TTfte Critic, 

A WEEKLY REVIEW DEVOTED TO LITERATURE, ART, 
MUSIC AND THE DRAMA. •" 

SINGLE COPIES 10 CENTS, $3.00 A YEAR IN ADVANCE. 

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PUBLISHED QUARTERLY,— THE TWENTY-FOURTH VOLUME BEGINS JULY ist, 1889. 

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Address 



FROM THE SUNDAY SCHOOL TIMES, PHILADELPHIA. 

The American youmal of Numismatics has probably done more than any other single 
agency to advance the interests of numismatic science in this country. To those who have no 
higher idea of numismatology than a more or less systematic hoarding and trading of coins, an 
investigation of such material as this Quarterly furnishes, would come with the freshness of a 
revelation. Few sciences bear directly or indirectly upon so many human interests, or throw 
light into so many dark corners, as this study of coins, medals, and tokens. It is the daughter 
of metallurgy no less than of fine art, the handmaid of histor)% economics, and archaeology. 
The American youmal is rich in its original matter, as well as in its selections from the 
writings of the highest authorities at home and abroad. It comes in fine dress, clearly printed 
on heavy paper, usually with a frontispiece illustration. With the July number, it enters upon 
the twenty-fourth volume. Published by the Boston Numismatic Society, at 18 Somerset Street, 
Boston, Mass. Price, $2 a year. 




An Undescribed Franco-American Jeton. 





DCCLXXVII. 



DCCLXXIX. 





SWISS. 





MEXICAN. 



MASONICS. 

TO BE DESCRIBED IN JOURNAL HEREAFTER. 



[ JUL 31 \HUi 1 

AM ER IC AN 

JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS, 

AND 

Bulletin of American Numismatic and Archaeological Societies. 
Vol. XXIV, BOSTON, JULY, 1889. No. i. 

ORIENTAL COINS. 

WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THOSE OF SOUTHERN INDIA. 

BY R. H. C. TUFNELL, M. S. C, F. Z. S. 

[Concluded from Vol. xxiii, p. 77.] 

^N 1640 the East India Company purchased the town and port of 
Madraspatnam. On the fatal field of Talikota the last vestige of 
actual power had been wrested by the Mohammedans from the 
once powerful house of Vijeyanagar, and the representative of the 
royal race had retired to the fastnesses of the Chendraghiri. 
Here he sold to the English the ground where now stands Fort St. George, 
with permission to establish a factory and fort there, at the same time granting 
them jurisdiction over the natives, an exemption from customs, and the right 
to coin money, with the proviso that the pattern in use with his dynasty 
should be followed. This consisted of the figure of a standing god, the 
reverse of the coin being granulated and convex. It does not appear certain 
that any coins were struck for some time after this. Twenty years later, 
however, we find Charles II inheriting, as part of the dower of Catharine of 
Braganza, the Island of Bombay, and this territory was leased to the East 
India Company for ;^io per annum, a fair proof of the value of land in the 
East in those days. Several coins were struck in his time, a mint having been 
established under royal letters patent, and permission granted to coin rupees, 
pice and budgrooks,' which, however, were not to be of the same pattern as 
the coins in use in England. Regarding these coins Tavernier, whose 
works were published in Paris in 1676 by Chapuzeau, one of his comrades in 
his eastern travels, after observing that the English in their fort of Bombay 
coin silver, copper, and tin, observes that ** this money will not pass at Surat 
nor in any part of the Great MoghaFs dominions, or in any of the territories 

I There can, I think, be bat little doubt, but that this for years in India : more especially, as both were in the 
word owed its origin to the Portuguese ** bazarucco," same metal, tutenag. Dr. da Cunha refers the origin of 
the name of a coin which had been in use by that power the term to ruk (small change) and inizar (market). 

VOL. XXIV. I 




^ AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [July, 

of the Indian kings ; only it passes among the English in their fort and some 
two or three leagues up in the country and in the villages along the coast/' 
To most of his coins there is no need to allude, as they were neither minted 
for circulation in this Presidency, nor, as far as I am aware, have any speci- 
mens been discovered here. There is, however, one notable exception, which 
I have figured as 55.' This coin, which occurs in two sizes (weighing respect- 
ively 25 and i2i grs.), is thus described by Mr. E. Thomas in a paper in the 
Indian Antiquary for Nov., 1882 : ** Obverse, two linked C's (the monogram 
of Charles II) with two or three dots at the sides. Reverse, the ordinary 
standing figure of the Indian god (Vishnu ?)." It has usually been attributed 
to the Bombay mint, though for the following reasons I am inclined to think 
it more probable that it is an issue of Madras, coined during Charles's reign. 
In the first place the type of coin connects it with the design imposed by the 
Vijeyanagar king on the Madras mint ; secondly, it differs entirely from all the 
known issues struck at the time in Bombay ; thirdly, it fits in with the Hindu 
system of the south ; and lastly, it is occasionally met with in this Presidency, 
while from inquiries I have made from collectors in Bombay, I find that it is 
rarely if ever found there. At the same time, or shortly after, Madras also 
minted the **star" pagoda. Here too the same figure was preserved, but on 
the granulated surface was a five-pointed star (Figure 56), whence came its 
popular name. 

This issue was followed by a series of coins in which the same figure was 
preserved on the obverse, but surrounded by a scroll, on which the value of 
the coin was inscribed in Tamil and Telugu, while on the reverse appears the 
**gopura" or entrance porch of a temple, designed perhaps to keep up its 
reputation as a ** pagoda." A number of stars were placed in the field, with a 
scroll around, bearing the value in English and Hindustani. A series of these 
coins were struck, consisting of a double and single pagoda in gold, and a 
half and quarter in silver, all following the same model (Figure 59) and 
agreeing with the Hindu system, under which 8 kds went to the fanam and 
42 fanams to the pagoda. No fraction of the fanam was, however, struck 
following the pagoda model, but coins were minted of the value of five, three, 
two, and one fanam, a specimen of which I figure as 57. Two types of the 
whole series occur, differing, however, so slightly that it is unnecessary to 
describe them minutely. Each of these has on the obverse a scroll ending 
in a buckle with the value of the coin in English, the Hindustani equivalent 
occupying the centre, while on the reverse the scroll is surmounted by a 
star, the value of the coin in Telugu being in the centre and the same in 
Tamil running round. 

Lx)cal silver coins were also made for issue at some of the Company's 
factories, the commonest being those of Tellicherry, of which two types occur, 
each having the initial letter of the mint (T), (Figure 58), and one of the 
scales so common on the early copper coins both of Bombay and Madras with 
the letter under the balance and date (1805) in the exergue. The other with 
the name of the mint town in Persian, the T being placed on the obverse with 
99 beside it. I had always looked upon this 99 as being an abbreviated form 
of the date 1 799, but I have recently seen a small gold coin exactly corres- 

I See plate in number for January, 1889. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 3 

ponding to the one here described, but with the date 1801 in the exergue, 
the **99" still appearing at the top. To the issue struck at Pondicherry I 
have already alluded. The letter P here takes the place of the T, and the 
name of the mint town occurs in Persian as in the last. Cannanore also 
boasted, or is said to have boasted, of a similar issue, though there appears 
to be some uncertainty about it. 

The copper coins of the Company,' prior to about 1 700, are very rare, 
especially in the Southern Presidency, and as few of them bear any date, and 
fewer still any mint town, it is somewhat hard to discover when or where they 
were struck. Several appear to have been issued by Charles II and a few by 
James II, a notice of which, well worthy of perusal, appeared from the pen of 
Mr. E. Thomas in the Indian Antiquary for November, 1882. George II 
also appears to have struck money in Bombay both in copper and in tutenag, 
which usually bears on the obverse a large crown surmounted by the letters 
G. R. and with the abbreviation bomb. (Bombay) in the exergue. On the 
reverse we usually find the motto Auspicio Regis et Senatus Anglice, or, as on 
the **Pice Bombaye," the monogram of the Company V.E.I. C. in a divided 
shield, surmounted by a device like the figure 4, and this, with some few 
variations, continued on most of the Company's coins up to the time of the 
introduction of their coat of arms at the commencement of the present 
century. A good deal of discussion has arisen as to the origin and meaning 
of this 4, but as a reference to the hand-books of the mercantile tokens of the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries proves the same mark to be of very 
common occurrence on the pieces struck by the tradesmen of those periods, 
I think there is every reason to regard it as merely a trade mark. 

In one series of coins struck in the south during the eighteenth century, 
we find another form of monogram, if so it may be called, a specimen of which 
I figure No. 60. On the one side invariably appears the date in large charac- 
ters between two waving lines, while the other is divided by a horizontal line, 
from the centre of which the upper portion is again divided by a cross. In 
each of the upper divisions is a figure like a crescent moon to the right, the 
lower portion of the shield being occupied by the letter E, and the whole 
surrounded by an ornamental border. The earliest coin of this series that I 
have met with was found in the extreme south (Kelikarai) and bears date* 
1702, and as I have in my own collection one struck as late as 1801 and 
several intermediate years, the series must have ranged over a century. 
About 1730 a new form of triply-divided shield appears, one of the letters 
E.I.C. (Figure 61) occupying each division, above which is a waving line, 
surmounted as usual by the 4. On the reverse we still find usually the date, 
but occasionally this gives place to the cross lines which appear on the early 
Mysore and other Hindu coins. This form of monogram appears to have 
remained in fashion till the latter part of the last century, when we find a 
return to the earliest form, in which the V.E.I. C. appears, as is shown in 
Figures 62, 63, and 64. On some of these, as for instance 62, the date still 
retains its place on the reverse, while on others the ** scales of justice" (Fig- 

I A very much needed contribution to numismatic 2 With the limited number of specimens available 

literature is, I believe, now in course of preparation by for comparison, the dates of the commencement and 

Mr. E. Thurston of the Central Museum, Madras, in discontinuance of particular series can, of course, only 

the shape of a complete catalogue of the coins of the be approximate, and in some instances may not even be 

East India Company. that 



4 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [July, 

ures 63, 65) takes its place with the Persian word adl (justice) beneath. 
About 1 790 a change also took place in the style of the Company's coins. 
The former rough piece, unmilled and shapeless, gave way to the circular 
European form of coin, that of 1791 (Figure 63) being about the first to 
boast of an even and milled edge. About the same period the Company's coat 
of arms appeared for the first time, and with it came innumerable series of 
coins, the reverses of which (and sometimes obverses as well) were occupied 
by the value of the piece in the language of the people of the country in 
which it was intended to pass current, some consequently being impressed 
with as many as four different types of character, such as Persian, Devanagari, 
Canarese, Tamil, Telugu and so forth. 

To return now to the issues in the more precious metals that found 
currency beyond the limits of the Madras Presidency. While the Hindu 
method of pagoda and fanam was in use here, the rest of India had the 
Mohammedan rupee system, and this consisted of an endless variety of issues 
from native mints, each gradually but surely depreciating in value, in inverse 
ratio to the comparative integrity of the ruler of the State ^at the time. Even 
the Company's coins varied very considerably, each Presidency having its own 
particular mint or mints. Those struck in Calcutta (known as the **sikka" 
rupee) bear on the obverse the name of the then ruling Moghal Emperor 
Shah Alum and on the reverse in Persian, Struck at Murshiddbad in the 19th 
year of the happy reign ; those of Faruckabdd (afterwards struck at Sagur) 
have, in the same language, Struck at Faruckdbad in the 45th year of the 
happy reign. 

The appearance of the same **jalus" date on each coin of the same mint 
would render the assignment of anything approaching the year of mintage of 
a given coin impossible, except by means of assay, were it not that a differ- 
ence was made in the style of milling. Thus the old Calcutta rupee from 
1793 to 18 18 and that of Faruckabdd from 1803 to 1809 had an oblique milling. 
Those coined between 1819 and 1832 in the former and between 18 19 and 
1824 in the latter, had the edge straight-milled like the ordinary coins of to- 
day, and all subsequent to these a plain and unmilled edge. The Bombay 
series bears date the 46th year of Shah Alum's reign, as stated in the Persian 
inscription. The Bombay (?) mint also turned out in 1825 a series of rough 
coins, consisting of a mohur, rupee, half and quarter rupee bearing the same 
**jalus"date (46) with the year of the Christian era (except in the mohur) 
apparently /««r^^^ upon it. On the obverse the upper dot of the letter shin 
of Shah Alum takes the form of a crown, while above the final letter h are 
three dots surmounted by a star or flower. The same mint is also credited 
with a minute and rare coin in gold of the value of one rupee, on which a 
seven-pointed star appears in the last letter' of the word jalus. On the 
introduction of the rupee system into the more southerly Presidency, Arcot, 
which had, as we have already seen, been the mint town of the Naw^bs of the 
Karnatik, also appeared upon the Company's coins. A complete series of 
mohur, double rupee, rupee, half, quarter, eighth and sixteenth rupee was 
struck there and bore as date the 20th year of the reign of Aziz-ud-dhin 
Alemgir. 

I The " last " Ittter of the Persian word jalus, is by their method what we should call the first. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 5 

By Act VII of 1836 the **sikka" and other coins with Persian legends 
passed away, and the present stamp of rupee, weighing 180 grains, of which 
165 grains are pure silver, came into universal use throughout the country. 
From this point I need hardly say a more sordid, if not less absorbing, interest 
centres around coin-collecting, but one regarding which I fear I can offer no 
practical ** hints," though were I able to do so, my circle of readers would 
doubtless be considerably increased. 



ALCHEMICAL COINS AND MEDALS. 

Editors American Journal of Numismatics : 

I READ with much interest, at the time of their publication in the Journal, Mr. 
Henry Carrington Bolton's articles on the above subject.* They induced me to look 
up some rough notes and memoranda made while investigating the somewhat kindred 
subject of medallic Amulets and Talismans. I found them only very lately, as they 
had been mislaid. The following suggestions are the result. Of course I make no 
pretensions to any special, or in fact any knowledge except in a very general way, of 
alchemical or transmutation pieces, and only jotted down these notes as incidentally 
of interest, and have now verified the citations and quoted them a little more fully. 

I. To Mr. Bolton's list of pretended Alchemists, add the soi-disant ** Count " 
Gaetani, who after being appointed official gold-maker to Frederick I of Prussia, and 
raised to the rank of General, was at last executed as a swindler at Custrin, in 1708, 
probably ^^pour encourager Ics autres'' There is, it appears, a medal, commemorating 
the execution, and Professor Fieweger read an account thereof before the Berlin 
Numismatic Society, July 3, 1882. I take this item from Berliner Miinz Blatter, i'^IZi^ 
April and May, 1883. 

II. The following medal, not mentioned by Mr. Bolton, is described as alchemi- 
cal by Madai (4544), from whose work I translate. 

Obv, Bust of the Emperor Charles VI (III of Sicily). Leg, carol, hi. d. g. sicil et. 

HIER REX. 

ReiK A burning phoenix, illumined by the sun. Leg, oblita ex avro. argentea resvr- 
GET S.M. 1732. Triple Thaler (/. e, 3 Scudi). "The phoenix," says Madai, "is the alchemist's 
leilnwgel, and when the legend is taken in connection therewith, there remains little doubt that 
the medal is from the hand of some schbpferigen feuerkiXnstler.^' 

It seems to me from the inscription that it might be made from silver left after 
the refining of gold, or with which gold was alloyed. 

III. As to the supposed alchemistic coins of Gustavus Adolphus, even the 
earliest numismatic writers who describe them, doubt their being or even pretending 
to be of alchemical metal. According to the writers who affirm their alchemical 
character, they are said to be made of gold presented to the king by a merchant of 
Lubec when Gustavus Adolphus passed through that city ; they are dated 1634 (see 
them illustrated by Reyher). On the other hand "doubting Thomases" deny that 
the king ever did pass through Lubec, if I understand Mr. Reyher's crabbed Latin 
aright, and then show that the whole ^tory is apocryphal and the signs Sulphur^ and 
Mercury 9 on the coins, do not, as supposed, have any alchemical meaning, but are 
simply the ordinary and well known mint-mark of Weismantel of Erfurt, who they say 
struck these gold coins. They certainly make a very strong case, as they illustrate a 
silver thaler of the City of Erfurt, unquestionably the work of Weismantel, which bears 
the same mint-mark, and even little silver groschen with the same signs. See Madai, 
218; also Reyher, 5-7 et seq., who sums up the whole controversy, and gives an 
illustration of an Erfurt silver thaler of 1617, also bearing the same signs. It may be 

I See Jaurnal, Vol. XXI, p. 73. 



6 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [July, 

added that Weismantel certainly did strike coins for Sweden, and there are medals of 
Gustavus Adolphus well known to have been minted at Erfurt. See Schlegel^ Biblia 
in N. 14, and the authors named supra,^ 

IV. The Alchemical Medal of Ferdinand III is described in the Journal, Vol. 
XIII, p. II, by Mr. G. H. Preble. 

V. The Krohnemann Thalers are illustrated and described in a more generally 
accessible work than the one quoted by Mr. Bolton, — Kohler, " Miinz Belustigung " in 
Vol. VII, p. 261, the first and second thalers, and in Vol. IX, p. 447, the third. See 
also description, no illustration, Madai, 1053-4-5. 

VI. The Silver Thaler of Ernest Ludwig of Hesse is thus described by Madai 
(1277). 

Obv, ERNEST LVD. D.G. HASS. LANDG. PR HERST Bust. NACH ALT REICHS SCHROT V 

KORN (according to the old imperial weight and fineness). 

Rev, E.L intertwined four times, so as to make a cross crowned. In the centre the 
Hessian lion holding a crown. Leg, sic deo. placvit. in tribvlatione b.i.b. 17 17. (For thus 
it pleased God in our tribulation.) 

Madai says only one hundred thalers were struck, there being only enough metal 
for that quantity. 

VII. Reyhery p. 18, and Historischcn Remarqiies, Vol. for 1702, p. 129, illustrate a 
coin or medal of Francis II, of Saxe-Lauenburg, of very remarkable design, and which 
they consider alchemical. As Mr. Bolton does not mention it, I will endeavor to 
describe it. 

Ohv, In outer circle : FRANCISCVS. II. D.G. SAXONIiE. ANGARIiE WESTPHALI/E ET HADELERIiE 

Dvx. In inner second circle : propitio deo secvrvs ago. (By God's favor I act with safety.) 
Within the field, encircled by a third inner circle of a rope-like figure, a triangle, round which, 
in two lines, each word in an ornamental oblong, rvta virescet (The rue* shall flourish) dec, 
siBi ET PROXIMO (For God, thyself and thy neighbor) ; also, sincpliciter et rectam tvvm (By 
thy honesty and righteousness) ; under the triangle, in three semi-circles, posvi tibi pvnctvm. 
et redvcam te (I have set a bound for thee, and will bring thee back.) On the three sides of 
the triangle, mirabilis devs. est in operibvs svis (God is wonderful in His works) ; within the 
triangle is a wheel, on the hub of which, sapienti^e divin^e m'anvs (A gift of the divine wis- 
dom) ; between the spokes, tandem (at last) ; in the centre of the wheel O the sun's symbol. 
(1 question the last; it looks to me like the hub of the wheel, but of course I have only seen the 
illustration.) 

Rev, In outer circle : gloria in excelsis deo et in terra pax hominibvs bon« volvn- 
TATis. (Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, to men of good will) ; in the more 
inward circle, tria svnt mirabilia. devs et homo, mater et virgo. trinvs et vnvs (There 
are three wonderful things, God and Man, a Virgin and a Mother, three and one) ; within this 
a twisted circle enclosing a triangle containing two angels' hands, upholding an erected sword ; 
underneath, in the triangle, ira placata (the wrath appeased) : over the apex, iehova. around 
it, verbvm caro factvm est (The Word is made flesh) ; to the left, s. spiritvs messias and to 
the right, spirantibvs zephyris (The Holy Spirit : Messiah : gently breathing zephyrs) ; below 
the triangle, the signs A 9 (/. ^., salt, sulphur and mercury) ; beneath these, homo (Man). 

As above remarked this medal is engraved by Reyher, p. 1 8, and also in Hista- 
rischen Remarques, 1702, p. 129. There is a variety described in the latter work, at 
p. 179, with three characters as mint-marks qq i W The writer says, the centre sign 
may mean Antimony, or Salts Alcali, the last Calcis (lime or chalk); but he can make 
nothing of the first character, of which I give as close a representation as type will 
supply. It may, he says, mean the tables of the law, the conventional representation 
of which it somewhat resembles ; and the centre and last characters the world, and 
the chalice of the New Testament. This last variety is also described by Schlegel, 
p. 364, who however doubts its being alchemical. 

Vin. Of course there are many other medals supposed to commemorate trans- 
mutations or the doctrines of the adepts, but I understand that the valuable articles to 

I Other mint-masters used chemical symbols for mint- of Mavence, with mint-mark D ^ (Madai, 402.) 
marks : e, g, there are coins of Anselm Francis, Bishop 2 Tne rue is the national emblem. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 7 

which I referred at the commencement of these disjointed remarks, only intended to 
deal with coins or medals actually being or pretending to be composed of chemically- 
made metal. As you know, I am of opinion that investigation will prove most of 
the so-called transmutation medals to be talismans or amulets, made by the mediaeval 
quacks to cure various diseases, or by pretended astrologers to divert dangers of various 
kinds. I may have something to say hereafter as to these, and meanwhile may perhaps 
without obtrusiveness refer to a little paper read by me on that subject, and found in 
the Transactions of the American Numismatic and Archaeological Society for 1886. 

I have verified all the quotations made in the foregoing. All the works referred 
to, except Schlegel and the Miinz Blatter which are in my own library, can be found 
in the library of our Society, viz : 

Madau Vollstandiges Thaler Cabinet, by David Samuel Madai. Konigsberg, 1765-7. 

Reyher, Dissertatio de Nummis quibusdam ex Chymico Metallo, etc. Kiel, 1692. 

Historischen Remarques, Der Historischen Remarques uber die Neuesten Sachen in 
Europa. Hamburg, v. d. 1702, etc. 

Schlegel^ Af, Christian, Biblia in Nummis. Jena, 1703. 

Berliner MUnz Blatter ; A. Weyl, Berlin. 

I may add that of course all the Thalcrs quoted from Madai, etc., can be found in 
Schulthess-Rechberg, but I have not been able to consult his work conveniently. 

XT T7 T .00^ DAVID L. WALTER. 

New York, June, 1889. 



AN UNDESCRIBED FRANCO-AMERICAN JETON. 

In December last, Mr. Frossard sold the collection of Mr. Gerald E. Hart at auction, in 

which there was a Medal, apparently bearing a close relation to the series of Franco-American 

Jetons, well known to our readers by the valuable and interesting articles from the pen of Mr. 

George M. Parsons, which have appeared with phototype illustrations in the Journals This 

Medal, No. i6i3<z, Mr. Frossard describes as follows: — 

Colonial Disturbances. Indian armed with bow and arrow stepping from the back of an alligator 
at sea-shore, and advancing toward a female figure, seated on sea-horse, ana holding a sceptre and small 
temple, sed motos praestat componere flvctvs; in exergue, svb exitvm anni mdcclv. Rev. 
Engagement between French and English frigates ; Mercury at the sea-shore listens to the cannonade, 
salvs in flvctibvs; in exergue, statvs rervm. Silver, very fine, entirely unknown to all authorities 
on Dutch and French Medals. 22. 

The piece attracted the attention of several of our collectors, and brought Thirty dollars. 
We understand that Mr. Daniel Parish, the President of the American Numismatic and 
Archaeological Society of New York, is now its owner. By his kindness we give an illustration 
of the jeton, on the plate in this number, and one of the editors wrote to Mr. Parsons a note 
concerning it, requesting his opinion. He had no opportunity to examine the medal itself with 
any care, and his remarks are based almost entirely on the engraving a proof of which was 
sent him, which gives a good general idea, but does not show certain minute details ; a study 
of the piece itself would probably have determined some questions still unsettled, to which Mr, 
Parsons alludes. His letter was not written for publication, but it is so interesting, and the 
explanations offered so satisfactory, that we trust he will pardon us for giving to the readers 
of the youmal a portion of it. 

I take it for granted that the medal shown in the engraving refers to the rela- 
tions which existed between the French and the English North American Colonies. 
The Indian and alligator represent the French possessions, which extended from the 
St. Lawrence on the North, the home of the friendly Indian, to the Gulf of Mexico on 
the South, the home of the alligator. I have given that interpretation to the two 
symbols as joined on the French Colonial Jeton of 165 1. It is quite probable the 
design of the medal was taken from the Jeton. The female figure, with crown and 

I See Journal^ Vol. XIX, pp. i, 25. 



8 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [July, 

sceptre, is Britannia seated upon a sea-horse, a type of her assumed sovereignty over 
the seas. There is no appearance of the horn of the unicorn, which is always promi- 
nent ; I therefore conclude that the animal is a sea-horse. Besides, if one of the 
supporters of the English crown had been used in this connection, it would have been 
the lion and not the unicorn. 

At the time of the issue of this medal the Governments of France and England 
were at peace, but between their colonies there was bitter hostility. The French 
aimed to possess the whole country, and had so firmly established themselves by 
means of settlements and military posts from one end to the other of their possessions, 
that they seriously threatened the safety of the comparatively small line of English 
possessions on the Atlantic coast. Several attempts were made to put an end to the 
encroachments in the west. In 1754 Washington was sent out by the Governor of 
Virginia to erect forts at points which his observation, on the occasion of a tour in 
1753, led him to conclude it was necessary to occupy; but he found the French had 
built Fort Duquesne on the present site of Pittsburgh, and he was forced to retire 
after a severe engagement. In 1755 a force of regulars from the standing army of 
England, accompanied by provincial troops, under the command of Gen. Braddock, 
took the field for the purpose of making another attempt against that fort. The 
expedition was a failure. The General was killed and his army was forced to retire 
after heavy losses. Thus there was salus in fluctibus, Security at sea, but the 
Indian was ready to adjust his arrow to the bow. Such was status rerum sub 
EXiTUM ANNi I7SS. "The condition of affairs at the close of the year 1755." The 
unfortunate issue of the expedition under Braddock forced the British Government to 
declare war against France. But that was not done until 1756. 

With this explanation, we can see the force of the legend of the obverse of the 
medal, sed motos praestat componere fluctus. This legend of course expressed 
the dominant sentiment of the medal. It is a quotation from the Aeneid, Lib. I, 135. 
Neptune had been rebuking the winds for their invasion of his dominion and had 
begun to threaten them with punishment, but abruptly breaking off with " Qiios Ego^^ 
he uttered the phrase as quoted. " Praestat " when used impersonally means " It is 
better." The sentiment therefore is " It is better to compose the disturbed waters," 
and translating the metaphor for the present purpose, we have the significant declara- 
tion, ** It is better to allay existing strife." There is an invocation for peace, a protest 
against the more general hostilities which were likely to follow the events of the 
previous summer. 

As to the device on the reverse, I see no evidence of an engagement between the 
two vessels. A sea-fight would be inconsistent with the legend "Salus in fluctibus" 
and with the general tenor of the medal, and is opposed to the fact that there was 
peace between France and England. I cannot understand the meaning of Mercury, 
who stands with his back to the sea and holds his caduccus behind him. If he is 
listening to anything that is done at sea, he would hear better if he stood facing the 
waters. Perhaps he is in fear of a coming strife which it would be beyond the power 
of Neptune to allay, a fear, which as the Patron of Commerce, he may well entertain. 

The temple in the hand of Britannia is not an uncommon device. I have a 
Papal Scudo of Alexander VIII, 1691, executed by Hameranus. The reverse com- 
memorates the organization of a force directed against the heretics, legione ad 
BELLUM sacrum instructa. The device is that of a female figure which occupies 
the field. She wears a tiara, her left hand supports a military standard, and on her 
right hand there rests a church of classical style of architecture. The meaning of the 
tiara and of the standard is evident, as is the meaning of the crown and sceptre. It 
is probable that the church and temple are only additional symbols of power. 

Without knowledge of what the medal was intended to express, I think the 
interpretation which I have given of it is reasonable as far as it goes, but as you will 
see there are shortcomings and difficulties. The latter may possibly be removed by a 
more minute and exact representation of the medal, which might enable us to deter- 
mine the nationality of the vessels seen on the reverse. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 9 

EXHIBITION OF THE STORER COLLECTION OF MEDICAL 

MEDALS. 

At the Fortieth Annual Meeting of the American Medical Association, held in 
Newport, Rhode Island,, during the closing week in June, Dr. H. R. Storer was enabled 
to display in the rooms of the Newport Historical Society, his splendid collection of 
" Medicals," scientifically arranged and labelled. It was visited by hundreds of physi- 
cians from all parts of the country, and he was the recipient of countless expressions 
of gratitude for having afforded them such an unexpected pleasure. One very promi- 
nent physician, who is familiar with all that has been done in this especial direction in 
our own country and abroad, was most complimentary, pronouncing it by far the most 
perfect collection of its kind in the world. He thought it should belong to some 
public institution. It filled to overflowing six large show cases, four of which were of 
unusual size. 

We are behind the times in America, in the proper appreciation of Numismatic 
collections. Special students gather together superb cabinets of coins or medals in 
some branch of the science to which their tastes or study have directed their labors ; 
they occasionally publish a monograph on them, which is accepted as authority, and 
constantly referred to, — though the expense of acquiring the collection too often 
forbids them to complete the task, from which they cannot hope any return, — and then 
the pieces are dispersed. This is sheer waste of skilled labor of a kind of which the 
world possesses too little. Take the collection of medals gathered by Mr. Marvin, 
which formed the basis of his work on the Medals of the Masonic Fraternity ; when it 
went to the auction room, we are informed by good authority, it brought little more 
than half what it cost that gentleman to bring it together, and quite a large proportion 
of the gross receipts were expended for the catalogue and commissions. The cabinet 
of Mr. Hart, recently dispersed, was full of rare Hebrew coins, and those of Roman 
rulers relating to Judea; these should have been kept together. These instances 
are but examples of the usual fate of such collections. The cabinet of Mr. Parmelee 
abounds in rare and valuable Colonials bearing on American history. It includes, as 
is doubtless known to many of our readers, nearly everything known to American 
collectors which relates to America. What will be its fate ? It is not hard to foretell. 
Government ought to acquire it, and place it in the Smithsonian Institute. If an 
English collector had such a cabinet of British pieces, with a like proportion of the 
early and rare issues which the British Museum did not own, he would not be allowed 
a moment's peace till he had placed it beyond danger of being scattered, in that 
magnificent Treasure House in London, already so rich in its numismatic department. 

It is easy to see why such collections do not restore their cost to the original 
owner: — other coin seekers have not yet learned the value, nor the difficulties in 
the gathering of such a cabinet. But when the pieces are scattered it is like a seed- 
sowing ; each purchaser seeks to add to his own harvest. Here and there a student 
may be found who appreciates these facts, or a shrewd coin-dealer who recognizes 
his opportunity. The first too often jacks the means to secure the treasure ; and it 
is the interest of the latter to buy as quietly and as cheaply as he can, knowing that 
in time he is sure to place the pieces at his own price. Experiefitia docct. Would 
that our Government with its enormous "surplus " might heed the lesson. 

The Dominion of Canada has shown its wisdom no less than its liberality by 
acquiring the cabinet of a well known Canadian collector. One of the Provincial 
Grand Lodges of England has within a year or two purchased the largest cabinet yet 
gathered there of Masonics. So should it be here. Dr. Storer should be called upon 
to place his collection in the hands of our Government ; Mr. Warner's curious collec- 
tion of Communion tokens, unique of its kind, should go thither also. Mr. Parmelee 
should not be permitted to dispose of his collection to any one but the same buyer, 
whose liberality should be proportionate to the pains with which it has been gathered : 
and so with other collections in special lines. Then we should have the nucleus of a 

VOL. XXIV. 2 



id AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [July, 

National Cabinet in Numismatics, that by and by would be a credit to the country. 
Placed as we have suggested in the " Smithsonian/* it would encourage special study ; 
it would create a numismatic literature, and if such a thing is possible, by putting 
before our designers the best works of the ancients and of the most artistic medallists 
of Europe of later days, in time it might even elevate the character of our national 
coinage, hopeless as that seems to be. j. c. 



THE GREEN COLLECTION IN THE BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY, 

AND THE DIES OF THE DIPLOMATIC MEDAL. 

By the Thirty-seventh Annual Report of the Trustees of the Public Library, Boston, it 
appears that the "Green Collection of Frankliniana " has lately received some notable additions. 
We give below an extract from the Report, describing these. The attention of the Trustees 
was called to these Medals, etc., by a letter from Mr. W. S. Appleton, in January, 1888, in 
which he suggested its purchase, and said that the collection came from the family of Duprd, 
the artist of many of our National Medals. It consisted of some of his original drawings, 
models, dies, and essays, relating to work done on Medals for the United States, and more 
especially in reference to the medals of Franklin. The Trustees lost no time in securing the 
collection, and it can now be seen at the Library. Aside from the value of the original portrait 
of Franklin, (previously unknown,) there is a special interest attaching to the dies of the so- 
called " Diplomatic Medal," which has several times been mentioned in the youmaL In 
Vol. XVII : p. 29, it is said by Mr. Snowden, that "the dies are certainly lost;" that it is 
supposed they were sent from France to America, and lost in transit. He also says that the 
first two dies made by Dupr^, broke in hardening or testing. If the perfect dies were lost in 
transit, then the dies mentioned below, of which the reverse is we understand in good condi- 
tion, were one of the earlier sets. We are glad on many accounts that these dies are now 
safely deposited in the Boston Library. The first information of the existence of this Medal, 
after it had passed into the shadow of forgetfulness, came from members of the Boston Numis- 
matic Society ; the journal was the first to show its origin and history, and though the facts 
which it presented were quietly ignored by Mr. Snowden, and even the statements of our 
members- as to impressions in their possession from the original dies were at first discredited 
by that gentleman,' yet the acquisition of these dies by the City of Boston settles beyond 
future controversy all that we stated at the time. The collection contains : — 

Two white metal proofs, obverse of a Franklin medal by Duprd. Bust of Frank- 
lin facing the left. Legend, benjamin franklin natus boston xvii jan. mdccvi. 
Diameter, 2 centimetres. With these proofs is the steel die from which they were 
struck. One of these proofs is enclosed in a small black frame, and with it is a proof 
of the reverse of an oval medal, bearing the arms of the Franklins, having for a crest 
a temple, with a rod drawing lightning from a cloud ; legend on the shield, /// siviplici 
saluSy and another below, Dieu et la Libert^ ; a palm-branch on the left of the shield, 
an olive-branch on the right. Size : height, 3 centimetres ; width, 2.3 centimetres. 

The Franklin medals, with differing reverses. These are described in J. F. 
Loubat*s ** Medallic History of the United States,** pp. 93 and 95, and figured in plates 
15 and 16. These measure 45 centimetres in diameter. 

Bronze medallion portrait in profile of Franklin, facing the right; height, 7.5 
centimetres. This bust shows the shirt-frill and five buttons on the coat. It is 
fastened upon an oval piece of fine marble, enclosed in a gilt-bronze frame, 12.3 centi- 
metres high, 10 centimetres wide. Above the bust is a gilt crown, with seven stars 
on the band, and sprigs, one each, of oak and olive. Below the bust is a gilt scroll, 
bearing the word "Franklin.** This profile portrait resembles no one of the Franklin 

I See Editorial, Vol. XVII, p. 24. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 11 

portraits in the collection belonging to the Public Library, but it has a marked resem- 
blance to the medallion portrait in "bisque" described below. 

Bisque medallion portrait of Franklin. The portrait faces the right; height, 5.3 
centimetres ; it shows the shirt-frill and four buttons on the coat. It has a close 
resemblance, although reducied in size, to the bronze medallion portrait described 
above. The medallion is round, with a diameter of 9 centimetres. It is gilded on the 
edge, and has two gilt bands on the raised border. On the back, apparently put on 
before baking, is a mark .... [of which a cut is given in the Report.]' 

The original design in pencil by Aug. Dupr6, for what is generally known as the 
Franklin Medal. Obverse. Bust of Franklin facing the left. Legend, benj. franklin, 
MINIS. PLEN. DES ETATS UNis DE l'amerique. mdcclxxxiii. Revcrsc. Winged flying 
figure, with a rod surmounted by a Phrygian cap in his right hand, pointing with left 
to a temple in right background, on which a rod is drawing lightning from a cloud, his 
right foot spurning a broken crown and sceptre. Legend, ye vole a V immortaliti. 
The size of the design is g centimetres. Stamped in blue ink below, A. Dupre, fecit. 
Dupre's Franklin medal appears in two forms, in which the obverse is the same, but 
the reverse differs. These differences have been noted in describing the copies in 
this collection. The above design for the reverse was modified somewhat before the 
die was cut. On the medal the figure is represented as standing, instead of flying ; 
for the legend, yi? voh\ etc., was substituted the Latin verse by Turgot, Eripuit, etc. 

Proofs in white metal of the obverse and reverse of the medal given to Washing- 
ton, in commemoration of the evatuation of Boston, the gold original of which by Du 
Vivier is in possession of the Public Library. The legend of the obverse proof differs 
from that on the gold medal in having U's instead of V's ; for instance, duci for nvci, 
etc. These proofs are enclosed in a black frame. Above them is a proof struck in 
thin white metal, bearing a head of Washington facing the left, with the legend, 
GEORGius washingto.v. Its diameter is 4 centimetres. 

A copy in bronze of the medal by Dupri, struck in commemoration of General 
Morgan's victory at Cowpens. Described by Loubat, in his " Medallic History of the 
United States," page 40, and figured in page 8. With this are the raised steel dies 
for both the obverse and reverse. There is also in wax on a plate of slate an enlarged 
copy of the reverse, with a diameter of 12 centimetres. 

The dies for the obverse and reverse of the Diplomatic medal, with the legend. 
To Peace and Commerce, This is described by Loubat on page 115, and figured in 
plate 19. The die for the obverse is damaged, the edge bearing the part ** To P '* of 
the legend being broken off. With these is the raised die with the figures of America 
and Mercury, for the obverse. There is also a round medallion in plaster with these 
same figures and in intaglio. Its diameter is 28 centimetres. 

A copy in bronze of the medal voted to Gen. Nathaniel Greene for the victory of 
Eutaw Springs, described by Loubat on page 50, and figured in plate 11. 

A bronze medal struck in commemoration of the surrender of the British armies 
at Saratoga and Yorktown, with legend, libertas Americana. This medal is fully 
described by Loubat on page %6, and figured in plate 14. With this medal are copies 
of the obverse and reverse in plaster, the figures and legends gilded, enclosed in gilt- 
bronze frames. 

I This mark, which seems not to have been recog- The date letters are sometimes capitals and sometimes 

nized by the writer of these descriptions, is the well small." Chaffers^ Marks and Monograms on Pottery 

known mark of the Sevres porcelain. It is the royal and Porcelain, p. 466. It is possible that what we have 

cipher of two L*s interlaced, (one retrograde,) below taken for a J may be an artist's mark, but the authori- 

which is a letter which we take to be J and, if so, it ties, (Jacquemart, Catalogue Mus^e Ceramiques, Chaf- 

shows the date of the portrait to be 1762, the year in fers, Marryat, Bohn, Prime, and others consulted) give 

which Franklin received the Degree of Doctor of Laws none resembling it; the nearest is of the following 

from the Universities of Oxford and Edinburgh, and century, when a double G was used by Georgct, a figure 

also that in which he returned to America, after having and portrait painter, but much too late to be the artist 

been abroad five years. The Sevres porcelain is dated of this portrait. The most accessible work to those 



by letters, A signifying 1753, (Vincennes,) U 1754, etc.; interested in looking further into this matter, is probably 
this was continued till the alphabet was exhausted, when " Prime's Pottery and Porcelain of All Times and Na- 
the dates were indicated by doubling the " 
representing 1779. " These letters are' not alw 
within the cipher, but occasionally outside 



the dates were indicated by doubling the letter, AA tions," where (pp. 472 and 473) the Sevres marks are 
representing 1779. " These letters are' not always placed illustrated and explained. Ed. 



12 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [July, 

A copy in bronze of the medal voted to Com. John Paul Jones. Described by 
Loubat on page 97, and figured in plate 17. 

With this is a bronze medallion portrait of Com. Jones. The bust faces the 
right ; height, 7.5 centimetres. The diameter of the medallion is 9 centimetres. On 
the back is scratched, " Duprt^ f." It need not be said that this collection, as such, as 
well as in many particular articles of it, is unique, and of great historical and artistic 
value. Also, what is scarcely of less interest in Boston, the original of the pencil 
sketch of Dupre s Franklin, and a bronze medallion portrait, apparently unknown to 
medalists. These, with the other medals, dies, essays, etc., above described, lay the 
* foundation of a collection of American medals which cannot be equalled. 



THE MEDALS, JETONS, AND TOKENS ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE 

SCIENCE OF MEDICINE. 

BY DR. HORATIO R. STORER, NEWPORT, R. I. 
[Continued from Vol. XXIII, p. 87.] 

27. As preceding, save that both circles are beaded, and the chair shows one 
of its front legs. The crucial ornaments are more elaborate. 29. 

Issued by DeSaulniers of Montreal. 
Le Roux, loc, city p. 277, No. 1690, fig. 

28. This has been said to be like the preceding, save that the maple leaves were 
omitted. The cross and ornamental border are like those of No. 18, and it has in 
addition an inner circle. Brass. 

Hart Cat. (Frossard 89th), 26-28 Dec, 1888, No. 1592. 
Very recently issued, since the publication of the work of Le Roux. 
29. Obverse. The two-towered church. Inscription : eglise de sT5 anne de 

BEAU PRE. 

Reverse. Within a floreated and scalloped circle, Ste. Anne standing, with the 
youthful Virgin in her arms. Inscription: bonne sI? anne — priez pour nous. 
Edges beaded. 21. Struck at Paris. 

Issued by the Redemptorist Fathers at Ste. Anne, as were also the four following. 

Le Roux, loc. cit.^ p. 277, No. 1691, fig. 

30. As above, save that the church is directly facing. Oval. 13 x 18. 
Le Roux, loc. cit.y p. 277, No. 1692, fig. 

31. As preceding, but smaller. The right tower is the larger and taller, although 
not so shown in Le Roux's figure. Oval. 10 x 13. 

Le Roux, loc. city p. 278, No. 1693, fig. 

This is in my collection through the kindness of Mr. McLachlan. 

32. Obverse. Ste. Anne and her child as in the reverse of last, but only half 
length. Inscription the same. 

Reverse, souvenir | de | sI? anne | de | beaupre Oval. 18 x 20. 
Le Roux, loc. cit.y p. 278, No. 1694, fig. 

33. As preceding, but smaller. Oval. 12 x 16. 
Le Roux, loc. city p. 278, No. 1695, fig. 

34. Obverse. Ste. Anne upon a chair, to right, with the youthful Virgin, erect, 
before her. Beneath, a cherub. Inscription : si? anne et marie | sI? anne de 
beaupre. McLachlan has si 

Reverse. Two flaming hearts, encircled by thorns, the one to the right pierced 
by a sword. Above, a crown. Inscription : coeurs de jesus et de marie. Oval. 
12 X 15. Struck at Paris for Desmerais. 

McLachlan, Amer. Jour, of Numis.y July, 1881, p. 10, CCXII ; Ibid.y Montreal, 
1886, p. 54 ; Le Roux, loc. city p. 273, No. 1678, fig. 

35. As preceding, but smaller. Oval. 10 x 12. Struck at Paris for Desmerais. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 13 

McLachlan, Amer, Jour, of Numis,, July, 1881, p. 11, CCXIII; Ibid.^ Montreal, 
1886, p. 54; Le Roux, loc, cit., p. 273, No. 1679. 

The following ten additional medals of Ste. Anne de Beaupr6 were unknown to 
Le Roux, and they are as yet unpublished. I owe the opportunity of thus presenting 
them, to the great courtesy of Mr. McLachlan, who has permitted me thus to antici- 
pate the appearance of "Part II" of his general work, which will contain the descrip- 
tion of somewhat near one hundred Canadian coins and medals that are as yet wholly 
unknown to numismatists. 

36. Obverse, As No. 19. Exergue : the monogram of Maria. 
Reverse, Same as in No. 19. Oval. Brass, silvered 19 x 25. 

37. Obverse. As above, without the monogram in exergue. 

Reverse, As above, but with the monogram, instead of ornament in exergue. 
Brass. Oval. 19 x 25. 

Issued by Cadieux and Derome. 

38. Obverse, As No. 24, but the letters are slightly smaller and the crosses in 
the field are in different relative positions with regard to the church. 

Reverse, Same as No. 24. Nickel. 19. 

The only known specimen of this variety is in the collection of Mr. McLachlan, 
who found it on a sample card of religious medals at DeSaulniers Freres*. 

39. Obverse, Same as No. 33. 

Reverse, As No. 33, but the globe on which Ste. Anne stands is without the 
letters sr and the fleur-de-lis at the top is not so much covered by the head. Brass. 21. 
Issued by the Redemptorist Fathers. 

40. Obverse, As. No. 30. souvenir de N(otre) D(ame) de beaupre. 
Reverse, As that of No. 39. Brass. 21. 

Issued by the Redemptorist Fathers. 

41. Obverse, Same as No. 30. 

Reverse, As No. 30. archconfrerie de sif anne de beaupre. The field 
within the letters filled with small ornaments. Brass. 21. 
Issued by the Redemptorist Fathers. 
Hart Cat. (Frossard 89th), 26-28 Dec, 1888, No. 1610. 

42. Obverse, As No. 31, but the cross on the spire of the church extends to 
the fop of e in anne. 

Reverse, Same as No. 30. Oval. Brass. 13 x 18. 
Issued by the Redemptorist Fathers. 

43. Similar to No. 32, but smaller. Oval. Silver, y \%, 
Issued in the United States. 

44. Similar to No. 34, but smaller. Oval. Brass. 10 x 13. 
Issued by the Redemptorist Fathers. 

45. Obverse, The two-towered church. The field dotted with stars, eglise 
de si? anne de beaupre. 

Reverse, Ste. Anne standing, with the youthful Virgin in her arms. The field 
dotted with ornaments. Inscription : bonne si? anne priez pour nous. Oval. 16x20. 

Issued by the Redemptorist Fathers. 

The Ste. Anne de Beaupr6 medals' seem to exist in white metal, copper, brass, 
gilt, tin, and some of them in silver. Their variety is partly due to the rapid wearing 
out of the dies, owing to the immense number of invalids who yearly make the pilgrim- 
age to Beaupr^. Several of these dies were disposed of at the Woodward Forty-ninth 
Sale, July 11- 12, 1882, Nos. 794 and 798. 

There are three others described by Le Roux as from the same source, Beaupre, 
which Mr. McLachlan writes me should not be classed as Canadian, since they were 
struck from "stock dies," available for any parish of Saint Anna, wherever existing in 
the world. The criticism is a just one, and while mentioning the medals because 
given by Le Roux, it will be seen that I do not admit them numerically to the list. 

I As this paper ^oes to press, I learn from Mr. Mc- issued, the details of which are however as yet unknown 
Lachlan that an additional Beaupr^ medal has just been to him. 



14 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [July, 

The case is the same with still other medals of St. Anna, of which several, with the 
same devices, and in different languages, are in my own collection. 

Obverse, As reverse of No. 23. The youthful Virgin stands at left of St. Anna, 
seated. 

Reverse, As that of No. 38. Oval. 19 x 25. 

Le Roux, loc, city p. 273, No. 1680, fig. 

Obverse, Within circle, open above, St. Anna seated in high-backed chair. The 
youthful Virgin at her right reads to her from a book. Above, a gothic arch. In 
remainder of field, small crosses. Inscription : s. anna mater mariae virginis geni- 
TRicis DEI. o(ra). p(ro). N{obis). 

Reverse. Within a beaded circle, a child, with guardian angel. Small crosses 
as on obverse. Margin elaborately ornamented. 21. 

Le Roux, loc, cit, p. 274, No. 168 1, fig. 

Obverse, Ste. Anne seated, reads to the youthful Virgin, at left. Above, an 
irradiated monogram, between palm branches. Inscription: si? anne - et marie | 
priez - POUR NOUS Excrguc : s'l (Souvenir) de pelerinage 

Reverse, A saint, erect. Inscription : saint joachin - priez pour nous Margin 
scalloped. 21. 

Issued by Desmerais. 

Le Roux, loc, cit,^ p. 274, No. 1682, fig. 

The French shrine of Lourdes has its direct representatives upon this side of the 
Atlantic. Not only in the United States but in Canada are there communities issuing 
a medal commemorative of the miraculous apparition of the Blessed Virgin, and of the 
cures efifected upon those who, using the water of the spring, invoke her intercessory 
aid. 

46. Notre Dame De Lourdes (Montreal). 

Hart Cat. (Frossard 89th Sale), 26-28 Dec, 1888, No. 1611. 

Whether or no there exists besides the above medico-ecclesiastical medals 
another one, struck during or in memory of cholera, and bearing an inscription to this 
effect, is a point upon which I am still in doubt. 

At the sale of the Burleigh Collection, 15-16 Jan., 1885, there was catalogued in 
a lot (No. 554) with several Nova Scotia coins, a "cholera token." This escaped my 
notice at the time, or I should have obtained it. Subsequently I endeavored to trace 
its purchaser, but without avail. Upon writing to the cataloguer, Mr. H. P. Smith, he 
has assured me, under date of 22 Feb., 1886, that he could not have been mistaken, 
and that it was an "issue of some Catholic church in Nova Scotia, brass, oval, with 
loop, — the Virgin and infant Jesus. In exergue, ' Cholera Token.* *' Were it not 
for the alleged inscription in the exergue, about which Mr. Smith seems positive, I 
should have supposed that he must have been mistaken, and that the medal was one 
of the two " Marie-pieces " to which I shall shortly call attention. 

If the medal does exist as above described, it has not yet been put upon recog- 
nized numismatic record, and must be very rare. Upon mentioning my doubts to Mr. 
McLachlan, he has written me as follows : "I remember hearing something about a 
Nova Scotia cholera token, but did not see that particular catalogue. It is probably 
like some other Canadian rarities that I have attempted to trace. Most of them 
proved to be errors, accidental or intentional, of the cataloguers. I long since ban- 
ished the thought of this piece from my mind as a myth." 

Subsequently to the occurrence mentioned above, confusion was rendered worse 
confounded by the following medal being offered, with the statement that it was struck 
for the parish of St. Roch, Quebec, when the cholera was introduced into this country 
through that city, in 1832, and that it was very rare, if not indeed unique. 

Obverse, The saint kneeling, with a dog by his side. Inscription : st roch | 

PRIEZ POUR NOUS. 

Reverse, *st roch | preservez | nous | du cholera. Brass. Oval. 15. 
Hart Cat. (Frossard 89th Sale), 26-28 Dec, 1888, No. 1567. 
The piece, however is not Canadian, and it was struck not for Quebec especially, 
but for Paris, and though it may be comparatively rare, it is very far from being 



1^89-] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. tj 

unique. It is one of two of St. Roch that have been described by Pfeiffer and 
Ruland. ' 

There does, however, appear to exist a Canadian "cholera medal," the true 
character of which seems not to have been appreciated by either McLachlan or 
Le Roux, and which escaped my own notice until preparing the present paper for the 
press. In my enumeration of the medals illustrative of Sanitation, under the hea4 of 
Cholera,* I have stated that certain of the " Marie-pieces," collectively generally known 
as "the miraculous medal," were struck during the excitement of the two years 
preceding the appearance of the cholera of 1832, and while it had already reached the 
eastern borders of Europe. Their inscriptions are in various languages, but all to the 
same effect, and they were employed for the purpose of sustaining the courage and 
faith of their wearers, and for securing the prayers of the devout for intercessory aid 
towards warding off the approaching epidemic. Pfeiffer and Ruland, the greatest liv- 
ing authorities regarding the numismatics of pestilence, have no hesitation in including 
this series among medical medals, and they describe quite a number of them.3 

There seem to be two varieties of the Canadian piece referred to. McLachlan's 
positive statement about the source of the medals would seem to put their authenticity 
as Canadian cholera pieces beyond question. They were unknown to Pfeiffer and 
Ruland. Though one of them is dated 1830, and it was not until 1832 that the 
cholera reached America through Quebec, the case is the same as with the similarly 
dated pieces of Paris, which are now unquestioned, although the pestilence did not 
reach that city until the same year. 

47. Obverse, The Blessed Virgin standing upon the globe, her head irradiated. 
Inscription : o marie con^ue sans peche priez pour nous | qui avons recours 
A vous Kxcrgue: 1830. 

Reverse, M surmounted by a cross (the monogram of Maria). Beneath, a heart 
pierced by a sword. Around, twelve stars. Exergue : grothe Oval. 20 x 25. 

McLachlan, Amer.Joiir. of Numis,^ July, 1881, p. 9, CCII ; Ibid,y Montreal, 1886, 
p. 51 ; H. R. Storer, The Sanitarian, April, 1889, p. 335. 

Mcl^ichlan states that "Grothe, whose name appears on this medal, had at that 
time an extensive silversmith's establishment (in Montreal). The dies are said to 
have been engraved by Beaume. We may therefore class it as the earliest medal of 
purely Canadian workmanship." 

It will be noticed that McLachlan speaks of **a heart" upon the reverse. Gen- 
erally both of the sacred hearts, of Jesus and Mary, are represented, beneath the mono- 
gram. I have many instances of this in my collection. 

48. Obverse, The Blessed Virgin, erect, with halo, her hands irradiated. In- 
scription : marie CON9UE sans — peche priez pour nous 

Reverse, The monogram as in preceding, above the two sacred hearts. Around, 
twelve stars. Exergue: grothe. Oval. 10x12. 

Le Roux, he, cit.y No. 634, fig. ; H. R. Storer, loe. cit., p. 335. 

It will be perceived that in addition to the two hearts, Le Roux's specimen has 
no date, and the usual description is curtailed by one-half. Its size is very much 
smaller than that described by McLachlan. 

Mr. McLachlan writes me that he is quite certain that this last, the smaller of 
the Grothe medals, does not exist. I insert it therefore wholly upon the authority of 
Dr. Le Roux, who, it would seem, could hardly have ventured to describe and figure 
it, unless prepared to give good reason. 

F. The Private Tokens of Physicians^ Pharmacists^ Dentists and Empirics. 

First among these are to be described the three pieces of Dr. Le Roux of Mont- 
real, to which allusion has already been made. 

49. Obverse. Within branches of laurel and palm, united by ribbon, an armorial 
shield, surmounted by a beaver to left. Upon upper right quarter of shield, the 

I Pestilentia in nummis, 1882, p. 159, Nos. 453-4; Die 2 The Sanitarian^ April, 1S89, pp. 339, 343. 
deutschen Pestamulete, Deutsches Archiv fiir Geschichte 3 Loc. cit.^ pp. 491-2. 
der Medicin, 1882, p. 492, Nos. 8-9. 



i6 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [July, 

Geneva cross ; upon upper left, three bees ; upon lower right, an ancient lamp ; upon 
lower left, the caduceus of Mercury. Legend: labor improbvs omnia vincit. 

Dr. Le Roux thus explains the above emblems : "The gold cross is the emblem of 
my creed, — on gules, because red is the noblest color. The three bees on azure mean 
obstinate work. The antiquarian lamp is the collectors* sign, and Mercury's rod and 
the wreath on gules are a copy of the decoration I was awarded by Laval University." ' 

Reverse, achetez le Canadian copper coin catalogue $0.50 | l' atlas 

NUMISMATIQUE | DU CANADA | $1.5® ET $2.00 - | ET LE VADE MECUM | DU | COLLEC- 
TIONNEUR I $I.OO. | PAR | JO^ LE ROUX M.D. | MONTREAL | CANADA. Copper, braSS. l6. 

The dies were cut by G. W. Dawson of Montreal. 

In his description Le Roux introduces commas that do not appear in his figure, 
and in the French version states the size as lo. 

McLachlan, New Canadian Coins. Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic your- 
nal, April, 1886, p. 69, No. i, fig. ; Le Roux, Le Collectionneur, Montreal, I, No. 2, 
June, 1886, p. 23, fig. ; Ibid., Le Medaillier, etc., p. 184, No. 975, fig. 

One hundred and forty-two were struck in copper, and thirty in brass, when the 
reverse die was accidently destroyed, on Jan. 7, 1886. 

50. Obverse, The same. 

Reverse, buy the Canadian copper coin catalogue $0.50. | numismatic 

ATLAS I FOR CANADA | $I.SO AND $2.00 | AND COLLECTOR'S | VADE MECUM $I.OO | BY | 

jo« LE ROUX M.D. | MONTREAL. | CANADA. Coppcr, brass. i6. By G. W. Dawson. 

In Le Roux's description commas are given as in the last. 

McLachlan, he, cit,, p. 69, No. 3, fig. ; Le Roux, Le Collectionneur, p. 24, fig. ; 
Ibid., Le Medaillier, etc., p. 185, No. 976, fig. 

Fifty-six were struck in copper and twenty in brass, when the reverse die was 
accidentally destroyed on Jan. 23, 1886. 

51. Obverse, The same as reverse of No. 49. 

Reverse, The same as reverse of No. 50. Copper, brass, lead. 16. By G. W. 
Dawson. 

In Le Roux's description commas are inserted, as above. 

McLachlan, loc. cit.y p. 69, No. i, fig. ; Le Roux, Le Collectionneur, p. 23, fig. ; 
Ibid.y Le Medaillier, etc., p. 184, No. 974, fig. 

One hundred and fifty-eight were struck in copper, sixty-two in brass and thirty 
in lead on Dec. 12, 1885. Shortly after, both dies were destroyed. 

It will be perceived that Dr. Le Roux, to the tastes of the collector and antiqua- 
rian, has added a knowledge of the art of making his publications known, to the end 
doubtless of disposing of his duplicate specimens without loss and most probably to 
advantage also. 

Lesslie and Sons, Druggists, of Toronto. 

** The firm (though dealing also in books) was for many years in the drug busi- 
ness." ' Nothing upon their tokens declares this fact, but it perhaps warrants me in 
including them with those of pharmacists. The motto, " Prudence and Probity," was 
an excellent one. 

52. Obverse, Justice, erect and to left, with sword in right hand, and scales in 
the other. Inscription : lesslie & sons | york Kingston & dundas. 

Reverse, A plough to left, the handles connected by a single bar; the lower one 
opposite the last a in Canada. Below, half penny ; above, token. Legend : pros- 
perity TO CANADA | LA PRUDENCE ET LA CANDEUR. (The rcsemblancc in this legend 
of the words Canada and Candeur, in pronunciation, will be noted.) Copper. 17. 27 mm. 

Weyl, Fonrobert Cat. (Nord-Amerika), No. 141 ; Sandham, loc. cit., p. 23, No. 18; 
McLachlan, Amer, Jour, of Numis,, Oct., 1881, p. 34, CCXXI ; Ibid.y Montreal, 1886, 
p. 56. 

I McLachlan (Canadian Numismatics, p. 146, No. real, Secretary of the Medical Department of Laval, 

CLXXX ), states that a serpent-entwined rod, which pre- that it is his impression that this is not the case, although 

sumably would be that of Aesculapius (the ** schlangcn- the serpent-rod in question constitutes the seal of the 

stab " of the Germans), is represented in the lower right Medical Faculty of the University, 

quarter of the coat of arms of Laval University. I 2 McLachlan, Amer. Jour, of Numis,, Oct., 1881, p. 

am, however, informed by Dr. Arthur Valine of Mont- 35. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 17 

McLachlan states that this variety, and by implication the four following, must 
have been struck previous to 1834, for in that year Toronto resumed its early name, 
for which York had for some time been substituted. Weyl recognizes one variety 
only of this token. 

53. Obverse, As preceding. 

Reverse. Also, save that the lower end of the plough is below the last a in 
CANADA. Both edges beaded. Copper. 27 mm. 

Neumann speaks of a subvariety of this, his No. 21,972, with obverse beaded and 
reverse lined. Le Roux, in his description, has a dot after token. 

Neumann, No. 21,972; McLachlan, Amer. Journal of Nuinis., Oct., 1881, p. 35, 
CCXXII ; Ibid., Montreal, 1886, p. 56 ; Le Roux, Le Medaillier, etc., p. 123, No. 699, fig. 

This is in my collection. 

54. Obverse. Similar to those preceding, save that there is a comma after 

YORK. 

Reverse. As the preceding, excepting that there are two bars connecting the 
handles of the plough. In this variety, the clevis points below the first p in prosperity. 
Copper. 17. 27 mm. 

Weyl describes this as having the rim milled and with the edge of reverse lined, 
whence he considers it the same as Neumann's No. 21,972, already referred to, though 
this author does not mention the distinctive comma after york. 

Weyl, loc. city No. 142; McLachlan, Amer. Jour, of Numis., Oct., 1881, p. 35, 
CCXXIII ; Ibid., Montreal, 1886, p. 56. 

55. Obverse, As last. 

Reverse. Also, but with clevis above the first p in prosperity. The grass 
behind the plough long and distinct. Copper. 17. 27 mm. 

McLachlan, Amer. Jour, of Numis., Oct., 1881, p. 35, CCXXIV; Ibid., Montreal, 
1886, p. 56. 

56. Obverse. As the two last. 

Reverse. As the very last, but grass behind the plough shorter and less distinct. 
Copper. 17. 27 mm. Extremely rare. 

McLachlan, Amer. Jour, of Numis., Oct., 188 1, p. 35, CCXXV ; Ibid., Montreal, 
1886, p. 56. 

Le Roux gives still another variety, the handles connected by a single bar, while 
the lower one is above the last a in Canada (Numismatic Atlas for Canada, No. 7^6, 
fig. 7). I do not however venture to number it, for Mr. McLachlan writes me emphati- 
cally that he is certain "it does not exist.*' I have already referred to the apparent 
carelessness of the engraver who made Le Roux's figures, and to the errors to which 
this must almost inevitably give occasion. 

57. Obverse. Device as on the halfpenny tokens, save that the figure of Justice 
is more distinctly facing, her eyes are bandaged, and the scales are held much lower. 
Inscription : lesslie & sons tokonto & dundass {sic). Exergue : . 1822. 

Reverse. A two-barred plough to left. Below it, 2° currency Above, token 
Inscription: prosperity to Canada. | la prudence et la candeur Edges beaded. 
Copper. 26. 40 mm. 

In Le Roux's figure the dots in exergue of obverse are omitted. 

Sandham, loc. cit., p. 23, No. 17; Neumann, No. 21,974; Weyl, loc. cit, No. 143 ; 
Numismatische Zeitung, 1846, p. 61, No. 58; McLachlan, Amer. Jour, of Numis., Oct., 
1881, p. 35, CCXXVI ; Ibid., Montreal, 1886, p. 57; Le Roux, Numismatic Atlas for 
Canada, p. 7, No. 77, fig. ; Ibid., Le Medaillier, etc., p. 123, No. 698, fig. ; Woodward, 
sixty-seventh (Levick) sale. May, 1884, fig. 

McLachlan points out that though the date upon the obverse is that of the year 
in which the firm of Lesslie & Sons was established, this piece could not have been 
struck before 1834, since it was then that the name of Toronto, also upon the obverse, 
was first reapplied to the town. All of the Lesslie tokens were probably struck in 
Birmingham, but the error upon this in the spelling of dundas would prove that it 
was by a different die cutter from the others. 

VOL. XXIV. t 



i8 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [July» 

This is in my collection. It is one of the Canadian very great rarities, and 
always commands a high price. From five to seven dollars is the usual cost, and at 
the Levick sale it brought fourteen. Its scarcity is accounted for by the member of 
the firm still living near Toronto, in a twofold way. It was the only coin of its denomi- 
nation issued in Canada, and was always looked upon with great disfavor for circulating 
purposes. In consequence, a portion of the issue was destroyed as old copper, and a 
great many more were employed by millers of the time as "washers," the metal being 
comparatively soft, and answering better for the purpose than anything else at hand. 

The Lesslie halfpenny issues were perhaps the very earliest of American drug- 
gists* tokens. The halfpenny varieties were struck previously to 1834, ^ind though 
the rare Haviland, Stevenson & Co*s token of Charleston, S. C, which is in my collec- 
tion, bears both upon the obverse and reverse "established 1825, "there is no reason 
to suppose it was struck until long after that date. The very rare token of Benj. F. 
Fotterall of Vicksburg, with H., S., & Co.'s reverse, also in my collection, was doubtless 
even later still. There are two specimens known of a token of H. Cook of Boston, with 
the same reverse. They are said to have been struck without the order or knowledge 
of Mr. Cook, and are perhaps the rarest of Boston tokens. There is also a very scarce 
mule of a medal of President Lincoln, " The Rail Splitter of the West," with the same 
reverse. This of course is of recent date. R. L. Baker's silver soda token, of Charles- 
ton, S. C, which I own, was issued in 1837. Weyl, in the Fonrobert Catalogue (No. 
141), states that the Lesslie tokens were struck "about 1815," but he was evidently 
in error. 

[To be continued.] 



MASONIC MEDALS. 



[Continued from Vol. XXIII. p. 9a.] 

DCCLXXXI. Obverse, On the field the inscription in three lines, com- 
mune DE PARIS surrounded by a circular border. Legend, outside the border, 
LiBERTE EGALiTE FRATERNiTE ou LA MORT [Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, or 
death] and below, completing the circle, federes de 1871. [Confederated 
187 I.J A circle surrounds the legend, outside of which is a circular border 
of conventional leaves. Reverse, An ornamental border enclosing the in- 
scription in eight lines, le g.\ o.\ le r.\ | e.\ le r.\ m/. | sont representes 

PAR PLUS DE I 100,000 F.-. M.\ | APRES UNE | DEMONSTRATION GRANDIOSE IlLS 

VONT PLANTER LEUR BANNiERE | SUR LEs REMPARTS [The Grand Orient, ihe 
Scottish Rite, and the Modern Rite, represented by more than a hundred 
thousand Free Masons, after an immense demonstration, plant their banner 
upon the ramparts.] The first and last words in the third line are in smaller 
capitals than the others. Over the inscription are two compasses crossed, 
and beneath it the level. Legend, outside the inscription, gr~ manifestation 
DE LA franc-maconnerie above, and (separated from the foregoing by 
clasped hands,) le 30 avril 1871 below, completing the legend. [Grand 
manifestation of Freemasonry, April 30, 1871] : a circle surrounds this 
legend, outside of which is another legend : liberte egalite fraternite 
The first word is preceded by clasped hands, and followed by a small 
Liberty cap ; the last word is preceded by a star of five points and followed 
by a level. At the bottom, completing the circle, republique FRAN9AISE Type 
metal ' or lead, and cast ; gilt. Size 36. 

I This is another of the Masonic Medals struck by peculiar demonstrations I have not been able to dis- 

the Order at the time of the reign of the Commune, and cover. The " three rites " mentioned on the medal just 

alludes to the same demonstration as that commcmo- referred to are explained by this. Th^ proper a^c^U 

rated by CCXLVIII. Just what was gained by these appear on the medal. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 19 

DCCLXXXII. Obverse, Bust of Liberty with legend, from obverse die 
of GL. Reverse, Below two crossed compasses, an inscription in seven lines, 

LA DEMOCRATIE UNIVERSELLE | LES MA9ONS/. | DE TOUS LES RITES | SONT DANS LE 
DEUILLE PLUS GRAND | DE VOIR LES CRIMES | d'uNE GUERRE AUSSI CRUELLE | QU' 

INJUSTE. [The universal democracy. Masons of all rites, behold with the great- 
est grief the crimes of a war as cruel as it is unjust.] At the bottom is a 
small level. Ornamental border. Tin; gilt. Size 32. Struck in 1871 by the 
Masons of Paris during the war with Germany. 

DCCLXXXIII. Obverse, Similar to obverse of DCXXIII. A bee, its 
head towards the top of the planchet. Legend, □ bonaparte above, and 
. FONDEE EN 5852 . below. [The Lodge Bonaparte, founded, etc.] Reverse, 
Similar to reverse of DCXXI I L The square and compasses entwined by a 
wreath of acacia or laurel, crossed at the bottom, and enclosing the letter G. 
Legend, jeton de presence and three five-pointed stars at the bottom, the 
centre one being the larger.' Bronze. Octagonal. Size 18. 

DCCLXXXIV. Obverse, As obverse of CCXXVII, but the rosettes 
have five leaves. Reverse, As the same medal, but the date is i860. Gilt. 
Decagonal. Size, between opposite sides, 15.' 

DCCLXXXV. Obverse, A bee-hive on a low platform, shrubs on 
either side and eight bees flying above ; over its top are two right hands 
joined, and at the top a triangle on which is the word union ; rays from the 
triangle falling behind the devices nearly cover the field. Legend, l.'. la 
ruche LIBRE OR.-. DE PARIS [Lodge of the Free Hive, Orient of Paris.] Re- 
verse, An open wreath of two branches of acacia, which are crossea at the 
bottom, where they are surmounted by the square and compasses. Legend, 
LiBERTE EGALiTE FRATERNiTE [Liberty, Equality, etc.] The field is blank for 
engraving the member s name. It is usually found with loop and ring for 
suspension. Copper-gilt, and probably other metals. Size as engraved, 20 
nearly.' 

(To be continued.] W. T. R. M. 



A COIN PEDIGREE. 



In the recent sale of the Egmont Bieber collection, in London, the auctioneers, Sotheby, Wilkinson 
& Hod^e, give the following remarkable pedigree of the famous Petition Crown by Simon. This beauti- 
ful specimen of the rare masterpiece of the greatest of English artists is in the finest possible condition, 
and has the reputation of being the finest of the few examples known. In the description of this piece in 
the Memoirs of Thomas Hollis, it is said to have been presented by Charles II to Lord Chancellor Claren- 
don, and afterwards given by his son to the Earl of Oxford ; at his sale in 1742 it was bought for ;£2o by 
Martin Folkes, at whose sale in 1756 it was purchased at the low price of ;£i2 by Thomas Hollis. It was 
then bought privately of Dr. Disney, the executor of Hollis, for ;£io5, by Barr6 Roberts, whose collection 
was purchased by the British Museum; it was included in the sale ot Museum duplicates in 181 1, and 
bought for ;£ 1 02 by Marmaduke Trattle, at whose sale in 1832 it was purchased for ;£225 by Colonel 
Durrant; at the sale of his collection in 1847, Mr. C. S. Bale became the purchaser at ;^i55. Next it 
was offered for competition at the sale of Mr. Bale's collection in 188 1, when Mr. Egmont Bieber obtained 
it at £21 s» It is contained in a case undoubtedly of the period, which has belonged to every owner in 
succession. Rarely is the pedigree of a coin so distinctly traced. 

1 The devices of both obverse and reverse of this tcurs de L'Univers, three of whose medals have pre- 
jeton are the same as on DCXXIII, but it was evidently viously been described. 

struck from different dies, the planchet is octagonal not 3 This is a member's badge of the Lodge named, 

round, and of larger size. It is doubtless the piece located at Paris, which received a Warrant from the 

alluded to in Note 451. The Lodge mark encloses Grand Orient, Jan. 18, 1875. My description is from a 

three dots. cut in the Revue Beige de Numismatique^ for 1884. The 

2 This is simply a later issue of the Lodge Admira- proper accents on the letters appear on the medsd. 



io AMERICAN JOURNAL Of NtJMlSMAtlCS. [July, 

COIN SALES. 

CHAPMANS' SALES. 

The Messrs. Chapman. 1348 Pine Street, Philadelphia, held a sale of Ancient and Modern Medals 
and Coins at the Rooms of Davis & Harvey, 12 12 Chesnut St., Phila., May 27-29, 1889. We give the 
prices of the more interesting and valuable pieces. Daric, Persian, gold, fine, rare, $13 ; Cyzicus, elec- 
trum, Greek, v. f., 7.50; Thurium, silver, v. f., 8.75 ; Agria;entum, Tetradrachm, v. f., 9; Syracuse, do., 
V. f., 9; Carthage, Stater, electrum, v. f., 13; Alexander the Great, Stater, gold, f., 15; another, f., 14; 
do., 9.50; Alexander ly, Tetradi-achm, f., 10.50; Perseus, do., f» 19; Ptolemaios II, gold, v. f., 52 ; 
do., gold, 30; Arsinoe II, gold, f., 60; Ptolemaios III, gold, v. f., 80; Shekel, Simon Maccabeus, 15; 
Half Shekel, f., 8.50 ; Alexander I. Tetradrachm, v. f., 16. Roman Gold and Silver Coins. — M. Antonius, 
Tetradrachm, 5.25; do., 5.50; do., 3.50; Octavius, 4.25; Tiberius, gold, 12; Claudius and Agrippina, 

ir., gold, 18.50; Nero, gold. 16; Antoninus Pius, gold, 14.50; Faustina, Jr., gold, 26. English Coins: 
idward I, f., 7.25; Edward HI, Noble, gold, 13.50; do.. Half Noble. 12; Richard II, Noble, gold, 8; 
Henry V, gold, 9; Edward IV, Rose Noble, 10; Henry VI, do., 14.50; Henry VII, Angel, 8; Henry 
VIII, Half Sovereign, 8; Edward VI, Crown, v.g., 9; Elizabeth, Crown, ex. f., 32; James I, Sovereign, 
14; do., XX Shillings, 8; Charles I, Crown, v.g., 7.50; do.. Half do., 7; do.. Shilling, 1648, 15.75; 
Commonwealth Crown, v. f., 15; do., 12.50; do.. Sixpence, v. f., 16.50; Cromwell, Crown, proof, 37; 
Half do., 21 ; do., do., 10.25; Shilling, do., v. f., 8.50; Charles II, Double Guinea, v. f.. 16.75; ^o » 
Shilling, 4; do.. Pattern Farthing, 1665, 2.12; James II, Crown, 3.75 ; .William and Mary, do., 7; 
Anne, Farthing, 1714, 10.25; George III, 6)>/7//f Guinea, 13; do., 662; do.. Half do., 5.25. American 
Coins: Oak tree Shilling, f., 6.50; do., Ill Pence, 8.25; do.. Shilling, 5; do., 5.25; Lord Baltimore 
Sixpence, f., 9.50. 

The Messrs. Chapman held a sale at the Auction Rooms of Davis & Harvey, Philadelphia, June 17 
and 18, 1889. The following comprise the most desirable specimens of the American Coins. N. E. 
Shilling (1652), V. f, $40; Oak tree Sixpence, f., 23; do.. Ill Pence, 5; Pine tree Shilling, v. f., 8.50; 
Lord Baltimore Shilling, f., 40; do.. Sixpence, f., 20; Higley Threepence, Conn., deer standing, etc., 
rev., broad axe, v.g., 32; Vermont Cent, range of mountains, etc., 1785, f., 20; New Jersey Cent, 1786, 
f., II; Dollar of 1794, good impre.ssion, from the Britton Sale, 100; Half do, fine, 15; 1815, do., 8; 
Quarter do., f., 17; Dimes, 1796, v. f., 6; do., 2.60; do., 1802, 21 ; Half Disme, 1792, 6; 1794. Dimes, 
8.12; 1801, f., 4.50; 1846. f., 5.50; do., 2; i860, uncir., with stars, 5; 1793, Chain Cent, unique^ 130; 
do., f , 52.70; clo., wreath, v. f., 20; 1794, do., fine. 14; do., do., 14; 1795, thin planchet, uncir., 41 ; 
I79i5, Liberty cap, do., 30; do., bust, uncir., 17; 1797, uncir., 15; 1801, uncir., 35; 1804, broken die, 
ex. f., 12.50; 1805. ex. f., 16; 1808, 13 stars, ex. f., 9.50; 1810, ex. f., 28; 181 1, uncir., 20; 1812, 1814, 
V. f., 5.50 each; 1817, 13 stars, v. f., 10; 1821, v. f., 10; 1822, do., 7.75; 1829, p.. 20; 1844, p., 17. 
Half Cents, 1836, p., 18.25; 1^42* Mickley's, 55; 1844, 17; 1846, 16; 1847, 41.50; 1848,23; '52, 13.50. 
1831, Proof Set, 6 pieces. 57. For other interesting items see Priced Catalogue. 

FROSSARD'S SALE. 

Mr. Frossard is to sell on the 2d July the remainder of the Hart Collection, which contains many 
valuable gold and silver coins of Ancient Greece and Rome, rare patterns. Colonials, and Canada pieces. 
The Catalogue, 38 pages, numbers between five and six husdred lots, and is prepared with Mr. Frossard's 
well known skill and taste. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 

MINOR COINS IN CABINETS. 

The following item is clipped from one of our daily newspapers. We do not know on 
what calculation it is based, but it strikes us as a very extravagant estimate. The number of 
collectors of cents is large no doubt, but we cannot believe that 450 millions of these pieces 
have been withdrawn from circulation for any such purpose. 

It is estimated by a mint official that there are still in existence somewhere in the country 
lied up in old stockings or in the hands of curiosity collectors, over 100,000,000 of the old- 
fashioned copper cents, about 120,000,000 of copper-nickel cents, nearly 5,000,000 of the 
present issue of brown p)ennies, 25,000,000 of nickel three-cent pieces, and about 200,000,000 
of the nickel five-cent pieces. The total value of these outstanding various coins is put in 
round numbers at $62,950,000. 

FRENCH CENTENARY MEDAL. 

A Revolutionary Centenary Medal has been struck in Paris to commemorate the recent 
f^tes. It will be bestowed upon the Presidents of the Senate and Chamber, the Ministers and 
other prominent officials. President Carnot's portrait occupies the obverse of the medal, the 
reverse being filled by the date of the ceremonies and the names of the Presidents and 
Ministers. 



i&Sg.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. ii 

REPLY. - FRENCH MINT-MARKS. 

In Eckfeldt's & Dubois's Manual of Gold and Silver of All Nations, page 55, " Previous 
to the year 1772 there were no less than thirty-one mints in the French kingdom. At that date 
the number was reduced to eighteen. Twelve of these have been discontinued, so at present 
there only remain the mints of Paris, Bordeaux, Lille, Lyons, Rouen, and Strasburg. The 
coinage of each mint may be known by its mark or letter, — that of Paris, A ; Bordeaux, K; 
Lille, W; Lyons, D; Rouen, B; Strasburg, B.B. The marks of some of the former mints are 
as follows — Rochelle, H ; Bayonne, L ; Toulouse, M ; Perpignan, Q ; Nantes, T ; Marseilles, 
an M interlaced with A. Also C, Caen ; I, Limoges ; N, Montpelier ; S, Rheims ; U, Pau ; 
V, Tours ; X, Villefranche ; V, Bourges ; Z, Grenoble. Each coin has also another small mark 
or figure, such as a lion, anchor, cadoceus, etc., to indicate under jvhose directorship it was 
issued." It would be interesting to follow the history of the French coinage in later times. 

R. s. 

A WASHINGTON MASONIC. 

The Massachusetts Mercury of Boston, February 1 1, 1800, has the following : — A National 
and Masonic Medal, on one side of which is a bust of Washington, pronounced by judges an 
excellent likeness ; and on the reverse an Urn, on the Pedestal of which is this motto, " Victor^ 
sine Claiie" ; with Emblems masonic, national and fanciful, has been received from Newbury- 
port, and is for Sale, by E. Moulton, No. 11, and D. Tyler, No. 15, Comhill ; T. Pons, oppo- 
site Faust's Statue, Newbnry-Street ; S. Sumner, No. i, S. Turell, and at the Bunch of Grapes, 
State-Street; R. Evans, Hanov er- Street ; and P. Revere, jun. Fore-street. 

This is No. LIV in Appleton's List of Washington Medals. (See the youmal^ Vol. VII, 
p. 77.) It has not been considered heretofore as being Masonic, but from this contemporary 
notice, which is of the nature of an advertisement, it would seem that it was so intended by its 
maker, and as it was " received from Newburyport," it was doubtless the work of Jacob Perkins- 

A zapotec codex. 

It is stated that Mr. Doremberg, a German in Puebla, Mexico, has acquired a Zapotec 
codex, very ancient. The hieroglyphs are painted on the skin of some wild animal, and 
beneath each hieroglyph is written in Roman characters its meaning in the Zapotec language. 
The writing must have been the work of some priest about the year i.sso. The hieratic char- 
acters are much older. The subject matter of the painting seems to be the many migrations of 
the ancient race of Zapotec Indians. 



OBITUARY. 

MONS. RENIER HUBERT GHISLAIN CHALON. 

MoNS. Renter Chalon, one of the most distinguished European Numismatists, 
died in Ixelles, Belgium, on the 23d of February last. Mons. Chalon was born at Mons, 
December 14, 1802. He had long passed the allotted period of life, but his industry 
and devotion to his favorite science had not failed v/ith his advancing years. From 
184s to 1885 he was the President of the SociM Royale de Numismatique de Belge^ 
and when infirmity compelled him to lay aside the active duties of that station, he was 
chosen Honorary President for life, his associates thus testifying their deep apprecia- 
tion of the value of his long continued services. In one of the addresses delivered at 
his obsequies, he is styled "the eminent personification of Belgian Numismatics.'* 
He was the author of many works on the science to which he gave so much attention, 
among which perhaps the best known are his " Researches on the Moneys of the 
Counts of Hainaut,*' and a similar volume on those of the Counts of Namur. For the 
latter he received the compliment of a request from the Royal Academy of Belgium 
to be allowed to publish it under their auspices, and for the other he received honor- 
able mention from the French Institute, in 1851. King Leopold, as a token of his 
appreciation of the labors of Mons. Chalon, made him a Commander of the Order of 



22 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [July, 

Leopold, bestowing upon him the Civic Cross of the First Class ; he also received 
similar honors from the Emperor of Russia and the King of Portugal. He was also 
a member, either active or honorary, of several scientific, numismatic and other 
similar societies. His funeral was attended from the Church of St. Boniface, Ixelles, 
when addresses eulogistic of his life were delivered by the representatives of the 
various learned Societies in Belgium of which he was a member. The readers of the 
Revue Beige de Nmnismatique in America will miss his lively and pleasant contribu- 
tions to its pages, and the science of Numismatics has lost by his death one of its 
most devoted and brilliant devotees. w. t. r. m. 



ARCHAEOLOGY. 

CLIFF DWELLERS IN MEXICO. 



Lieut. Schwatka, whose letter, printed in the last yournal^ described some ruined 
abodes of the " cliff-dwellers," has made a most interesting discovery of living representatives 
of that strange and almost unknown people, who it would seem are descendants of those who 
once inhabited the long-deserted " dwellings in the rocks " of the mountain passes in our 
Western States, of which occasional accounts have reached us. " We now make some condensed 
extracts from a later letter, recently printed in the Boston Transcript^ which describes his 
discovery. A brief telegram has since appeared in the papers, from some reporter who had 
'* interviewed " the party, which speaks of their rude ladders by which they climb the mountain 
sides to their almost inaccessible abodes, and of their weapons and tools of stone. From this 
it appears that the " Stone age " may still be studied from living representatives in our own 
land. We cordially sympathize with the suggestion which closes his letter, and trust the 
Smithsonian Institute may take early measures to carry it into effect. — Eds, 

The Tarahumari Indians of western and southwestern Chihuahua are a tribe occasionally 
mentioned in works on Mexico, and especially the northern part, but I can find no detailed 
account of them or of their most curious habitations and customs. They are a very numerous 
people ; I have found very intelligent and well-informed people who place their strength as high 
as 35,000. I had thought that about 12,000 to 15,000 would be ample to cover their population, 
but am now inclined to increase that number ; probably 20,000 would be a better estimate. 
The isolation of the Indians, and the little interest taken in them here, especially of a character 
which would make their habitations and customs known to the world, has thrown a veil over 
them so that tribes of no greater strength in the interior of Africa are better known to us than 
these Tarahumaris of the Sierra Madre of Mexico. They are seldom in Chihuahua City ; only 
after the mule trails to the deeply hidden mountain mines are taken, are they seen in their 
rugged primitiveness ; most of them met by the white traveller are found living in log huts, 
tilling a little bit of the mountain slope, and generally not unlike the lower classes of Mexico. 
" Chihuahua " is a Tarahumari word, and was applied to the site of the present city of the 
name, meaning " the place where their best wares were made." Between the line of the Mexican 
Central Railway, which cuts through a small part of their ancient country and the Sierra Madre 
proper, or where the diligences cease to go, and transportation is done on muleback or with 
donkeys, the Tarahumaris have retired before invading civilization, or become " civilized " 
themselves. They are only found in the Sierra Madres, with the far greater excess in the 
eastern slopes. Beyond them to the west are the Mayo and Yaqui tribes in the rich level 
slopes of Sinaloa and Sonora ; to the north they came in contact with the Apache. Though * 
peaceful, as far as their relations with Mexico have always been, they were not wanting in the 
elements that made them good defenders of their land ; and the dreaded Apaches gave the 
mountainous country of the Tarahumaris a wide berth when on their raids in this direction. 
The latter, equally armed, which they seldom were, were more than a match for them. 

One who had seen a group of the wild Tarahumaris would not credit them with anything 
aggressive, or even with much of the defensive combativeness that is necessary to fight for 
one's country. They are shy and bashful to a point of childishness that I have never seen 
before, and I have lived among many Indian tribes both of the United States and outside of 
our domains. Heretofore I deemed the Eskimos of North Hudson's Bay the shyest of savages ; 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 23 

but they are brigands compared with the Tarahumari. Even those that are civilized are as coy 
as a school-girl, and if they have the least intimation of a white man's approach, he stands 
little chance of seeing them. A gentleman told me that he had several times passed over the 
mountain trail on mule-back and not seen a single Tarahumari, although the trip occupies six to 
seven days in their country and takes him where he should see two or three hundred of them if 
they made no efforts to escape his notice. The country is well wooded, and hearing the clang 
of the mule-shoes on the rocky trail, they retire to the seclusion of the nearest thick brush, and 
wait until the intruder is out of sight. They do not fly, like a flock of quails surprised by the 
hunter, for, if caught, they generally stand and stare it out, rather than seem to run from the 
white man while directly in his presence ; but if the latter is vigilant, he will often see them 
skulking away among the trees or behind the rocks as he approaches their villages or the caves 
or cliff dwellings where they abide. The savage Tarahumari natives who live in the rocks or 
caves or brush jacals are wilder and more timid than those essaying the forms of civilization ; 
but the latter follow closely their more aboriginal brothers. This has made it hard to learn 
anything about them in a land where so little interest is taken in them. 

In my wanderings through the Sierra Madres (and here I might state that on some maps 
this portion of this great range is occasionally labelled as the Sierra de Tarahumari, about the 
only place we find the name) I was fortunate in seeing a large number of them engaged in the 
labors and duties they are known to follow ; the civilized Tarahumari living in stone and adobe 
houses, with fences around his cultivated fields ; the most savage of the race acknowledging 
none of the Mexican laws or customs, and living in caves or under the huge boulders, or in 
cliffs high up the almost perpendicular faces of the rocks, attending to a few goats, and planting 
their com on steep slopes, using pointed sticks to make the holes in the ground in which the 
grains are deposited. 

In appearance the Tarahumari is a little above the average height of the North American 
Indians. They are well built, with clean-cut muscles ; their skin is the darkest of any Indian I 
have ever seen, being almost a mixture of the darkest Guinea negro with the average copper- 
colored aborigine that we find in the western parts of the United States. The Mayos and 
Yaquis on the west, the Apaches to the north, the Tapehuenes to the south, and the Coman- 
ches to the east, are all lighter in complexion, although they live in much warmer climates. 
The savage Tarahumari wear only a breech-clout, and if it be a little chilly — as it always is at 
evening, night-time and morning on the elevated plateaus or mountainous regions of Mexico 
— they may add a zarape of goat or sheep's wool over their naked shoulders. Their faces 
generally have pleasing expressions, and their women are not bad looking for Indians, although 
the older women break rapidly in appearance after passing thirty to thirty-five years, as near as 
I could judge their ages. 

The Sierra Madres are extremely picturesque in their rock formation, a curious blending 
of limestone pierced by more recent upheavals of eruption rock : many caves are found, and 
the huge, irregular granitic and gneissoid boulders left on the ground by the dissolving of the 
softer limestone often lie so that their concavities can be taken advantage of by these burrow- 
ing savages. The cliff-dwellers on the Bacachic River had taken a huge cave in the limestone 
rock, almost overhanging the picturesque stream, and had walled up its outward face nearly to 
the top, leaving the latter for ventilation probably, as rain could not beat in over the crest of 
the beetling cliff. It had but one door, closed by an old, filthy goat-hide, into which the inhabit- 
ants had to crawl, as the Eskimos into their snow huts, rather than any other form of entrance 
I can liken it to. The only person we saw was a "wild man of the woods," who, with bow and 
arrow in his hand, was skulking along the big boulders at the foot of the cliff. A dozen deter- 
mined men inside ought to have kept away an army corps not furnished with artillery, although 
I doubt if the occupants hold these caves on account of their defensive qualities, but rather for 
their convenience as places of habitation, and as needing but little work to make them subserve 
their rude and simple wants. My guide said if we visited them, they would fly, leaving a little 
parched corn, a rough stone for grinding it, an unburned olla to hold their water, and some 
skins, and perchance worn-out blankets for bedding ; so I desisted from such a useless endeavor 
to inspect their eyrie. Here are living cliff-dwellers of which the world seems to have heard 
nothing. How many there are it seems hard to say. We saw at least two or three hundred 
scattered around in the fastnesses of this mountain chain, and could probably have tripled 
this if we had been looking for cliff and cave dwellers alone, along our line of travel. A 
Mexican gentleman who had spent his life in Chihuahua and among the mountains, estimates 
the number of living cave and cliff dwellers at not far from twelve thousand ; he had no reason 
to exaggerate, and in a long contact with him I found all his estimates correct where I could 
verify them. 



24 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [July, 1889. 

The large number of deserted cliff-dwellings found in Arizona and New Mexico, have 
often been assigned to a people older than the ruins of the Toltec or Aztec races. That there is 
some relation between those old cliff-dwellers and these new ones I think more than likely ; and 
I believe most writers who had seen both, as I have, would agree with me. It is pretty clearly 
settled that the Apaches came from the far north, and very likely they drove southward or 
killed the northern cliff-dwellers, leaving only these here as representatives, although numerous 
beyond belief, of a most curious race generally supposed to be extinct. 

The Pueblo Indians of the same locality, living in large communities and stronger abodes, 
were better able to resist these Indian northmen, and some of their towns still exist. But the 
old cliff-dwellers, like the new ones, could in many cases be cut off from water by a persistent 
and aggressive enemy, such as the Apaches must have been then, when fresh from their northern 
excursion. It is probable that they drove the retreating cliff-dwellers southward until they 
became so powerful by being massed upon their Southern brothers that they could resist fur- 
ther aggression, and give successful battle to their old foes, as we know they have been able to 
do recently, when the Apaches were doing such destructive work in this part of the country, a 
time happily passed forever. Whatever may be the relation between the dead and departed 
Northern cliff-dwellers and their Southern living representatives, it seems to me that it would 
be well for some one to devote a few years to their thorough study, as Gushing did so well with 
the Zunis. 



EDITORIAL. 



This number begins a new volume of the yournal. As it is now the only American 
magazine devoted to Numismatics, it should receive the generous support of all lovers of the 
science and especially of the members of Numismatic Societies. May we not ask with hopeful- 
ness that the management of these bodies will use their influence to secure us new subscribers, 
by commending it to the kind consideration of their membership. 

The present volume will contain a continuation of the scholarly articles by Dr. Storer, on 
Medical Medals, which we are pleased to know are attracting much attention. Mr.*^larvin will 
give us further descriptions of Masonics, more particularly those of France, Germaufy, Switzer- 
land, etc., and of the American issues that have appeared since his volume, was published. An 
interesting series of papers on the Medallic Memorials of the Great Comets, which we hope 
to illustrate, and which has been prepared for the jfournal by Mr. David L. Walter, one of the 
Vice Presidents of the American Numismatic and Archaeological Society, will begin in our 
next These are a few of the "good things" we can promise our readers for the coming year. 
^'^ Now is the time to subscribe." 

The valuable series of papers on Oriental coins is concluded in this number. We learn 
that they are now being reprinted in an attractive pamphlet, with all the engravings. A limited 
edition only is to be issued, by Mr. Lyman H. Low, the manager of the Coin Department of 
"The Scott Stamp and Coin Co." 12 E. 23d Street, New York, to whom application should be 
made by intending purchasers. 

Mr. Wm. S. Appletom, one of the Publishing Committee of the yournal^ has returned 
home after a long absence abroad. We shall hope to publish in the coming year occasional 
papers from his pen, givin;^ some of the results of his numismatic studies while absent. 



CURRENCY. 



Spriggins desires to call the attention of civil service reformers to the fact that certain 
employees of the Government, in Philadelphia, while professedly engaged in their daily task, 
are just coining money. 

Dear to the Southerner is the circulating medium obtained from the Mint, known as the 
julep, two being of the value of a quarter of a dollar. But many a man has been taken in for 
attempting to carry away too many at once. 



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[Whole No. 126. 



A NOTRT'C AN 

JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS 

AND 

BULLETIN OF AMERICAN NUMISMATIC AND 
ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETIES. 

October, i 889. 




BOSTON: 

PUBLISHED BY THE BOSTON NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 

QUARTERL V, 



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CONTENTS. 



MedalHc Memorials of the Great Comets, 
A Numismatic Whim, .... 
Recent Accessions to the iMint Cabinet, 
Tetradrachm of Sardanapalus, 
Terms used in Describing Coins, 
Washington Medals, .... 
The Passion for Collecting, . 
The Mystery of Coins, 
The Medals, Jetons» and Tokens illustrativ 

of the Science of Medicine, 
Captain Kidd's Treasure, 
Masonic Medals, 



25 
32 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
36 

37 
41 
42 



Early Medals of the Saviour, 


44 


*' Black Dogges," . . . . 


45 


Notes and Queries: 




Franklin Medals, — French Mint-marks 




Again, —American Shillings. — Bees on 
Coins,— A Coin Photographed by Elec- 






tricity.— African Money.— The •' Avalo- 




nia" Copper, 


47 


Coin Sales: 




American Coins in English Sales, 


48 


Editorial, 


48 


Currency, 


48 



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FROM THE SUNDAY SCHOOL TIMES, PHILADELPHIA. 

The American youmal of Numismatics has probably done more than any other single 
agency to advance the interests of numismatic science in this country. To those who have no 
higher idea of numismatology than a more or less systematic hoarding and trading of coins, an 
investigation of such material as this Quarterly furnishes, would come with the freshness of a 
revelation. Few sciences bear directly or indirectly upon so many human interests, or throw 
light into so many dark corners, as this study of coins, medals, and tokens. It is the daughter 
of metallurgy no less than of fine art, the handmaid of history, economics, and archaeolog\\ 
The American youmal is rich in its original matter, as well as in its selections from the 
writings of the highest authorities at home and abroad. It comes in fine dress, clearly printed 
on heavy paper, usually with a frontispiece illustration. With the July number, it enters upon 
the twenty-fourth volume. Published by the i^oston Numismatic Society, at 18 Somerset Slreei, 
Boston, Mass. Price, $2 a year. 





Fir.. 



Fig. 2. 





Fig. 3. 



Fig. 4. 





Fig. 5. 



Fig. 6. 



The Julium Sidus. 



MEDALLIC MEMORIALS OF THE GREAT COMETS. 



1^ L A T K I . 



-■.>, 



OCT 11 1889 ! 



A 1 



AM ER IC AN 

JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS, 

AND 

Bulletin of American Numismatic and Archaeological Societies. 
Vol. XXIV. BOSTON, OCTOBER, 1889. No. 2. 

MEDALLIC MEMORIALS OF THE GREAT COMETS, 

AND THE POPULAR SUPERSTITIONS CONNECTED WITH THEIR APPEARANCE. 

BY DAVID L. WALTER. 

No attempt has been made in the following paper to give any novel information of a 
strictly astronomical character, nor is there any pretence on the part of the author, that he is 
able to impart any. The astronomical details relating to the various Comets themselves have 
been gathered from many authorities, chiefly from contemporaneous accounts ; but frequently 
from more or less well known works on the cometary system, general treatises on astronomy, 
and other sources. 

As to the numismatic portion of the work, the case is different. The author has attempted 
to bring together for the use of his fellow-numismatists, descriptions of all coins and medals 
known to him, which have at any time been struck in remembrance or commemoration of 
Comets, or which bear Comets as part of their devices. Nearly fifty years ago (1839), ^^ ^^^ 
annual address of the then President of the Numismatic Society of London, three medals of 
Comets were described, and it was suggested that possibly there might be more, and that a very 
interesting list of medals on celestial phenomena might be made. Nothing, however, appears 
to have been done in pursuance of the idea until very lately. 

The present paper was almost completed, and the notes on which it is based had long 
since been read by the author before the American Numismatic and Archaeological Society, 
when, through the kindness of a brother numismatist, Horatio R. Storer, M. D., of Newport, 
R. I., his attention was called to a pamphlet by Drs. Ruland and Pfeiffer of Weimar, published 
as an addenda or appendix to Deutsches Archw fur Geschichte der Median for 1882, which 
contains among other medals relating to pestilence, famines and medical matters, a list of 
medals relating to Comets ; and comprises, with additions, all the medals in an earlier book 
by the same authors entitled " Pestiientia in Nummis^ 

The pamphlet above spoken of contains several descriptions of medals not found in any 
other place, which have been incorporated into the following paper and duly acknowledged ; 
and also others which the authors, as well as the present writer, found in, and credit to, more 
ancient authorities. Besides being written in the German language, and bearing evidence of 
haste and defective reading of inscriptions in some instances, these pamphlets are merely 
catalogues, of a few pages in length, describing only the medals in the briefest possible 

VOL. XXIV. 4 



26 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [October, 

manner, without any illustrations, or any account whatever of the events which caused the 
issue of the Medals, or of the Comets thereby commemorated. It is hoped, therefore, that 
the following pages, — in which a very much larger number of medals on the subject treated 
of are described, (some of them for the first time) — and which are also designed to give in an 
unpretentious way a short account of circumstances attending the issue of each medal, the 
Comets commemorated, the superstitions attending their appearance, and the events supposed 
to be coincident therewith — may be acceptable not only to English-speaking numismatists, but 
even to our German brethren, our elders and preceptors in the study of the science. 

Certain very learned numismatists, who in late publications designed to popularize the 
science (!), affect to suppose that all their readers are as familiar with Arabic, Sanscrit, Hebrew, 
and the Greco-Indian dialects as with their mother tongue, and to whom it appears sufficient to 
make statements of fact or theory with an ipse dixit — "for he himself hath said it" — will no 
doubt be astonished to find that the writer has not only in all cases given his authorities for his 
statements, but has usually translated into English all quotations, legends or inscriptions in 
foreign tongues. Possibly the very learned few will object ; but after all the author fancies 
that many a reader would, like Moliere's " Bourgeois Gentilhomme " if asked by the Doctor of 
Philosophy^ " Vous entendez cela, et vous savez le latin, sans doute ? " answer like the worthy 
M. Jourdain, " Oui : mais faites comme si je ne le savais pas ; expliquez moi ce que ce veut 
dire!" 

I. THE COMET OF B. C. 44. 

(the julium sidus.) 

Many of the consecrationary coins of Julius Caesar (Caius Julius Caesar) 
struck after his death by Mark Antony (Marcus Antonius), and a still greater 
number struck by the Emperor Augustus (D. Octavius Augustus Caesar), 
Julius's adopted son, bear the head or bust of Julius Caesar with the ordinary 
Diws IVLIYS or similar inscriptions, and a star or Comet (stella crinita or hairy 
star), as the case may be, over his head, or before or behind his face. As to 
the signification of this star or Comet, authors are divided. Out of the con- 
fusion of opinions, — for confusion there is, as some writers insist the device 
represents a certain star as the Julium Sidus ; others, that some other 
heavenly body is intended, while others still believe that in portraying one 
it symbolizes all, they being all in reality the same — it appears to be practic- 
able to make an orderly arrangement by reducing the varying opinions into 
the following three classes. The star or Comet represents then either ( i ) 
Venus, which some assert was the star of Julius {yulium Sidus), and that 
spoken of by the writers hereinafter quoted, because the Julia Gens claimed 
descent from Venus: or (2), the star described by Propertius (Lib. IV, Eleg. 
6, 1. 59, 60), as seen at the battle of Actium, which others consider to be the 
"only original" Julium Sidus j and the same star spoken of by Horace: — 

Crescit occulto velut arbor aevo, 
Fama Marcelli ; micat inter omnes 
Julium sidus velut inter ignes 
Luna minores. 

Lib. I, Ode XII, lines 45-48. 

translated by Lord Lytton thus : 

Tree-like grows up, through unperceived increases, 
Marcellus' fame. As the moon throned in heaven 
Mid lesser lights, the Julian Constellation 
Shines out resplendent. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 27 

The translation is of the most liberal, but with the alteration of ** Con- 
stellation'' into ''star,'' which can also be given as the equivalent of sidusy 
** it will serve." Virgil also speaks of this star: — 

Hinc Augustus agens Italos in proelia Caesar 
Cum Patribus Populoque, Penatibus et magnis Dis. 
Stans celsa in puppi ; geminas cui tempora flammas 
Laeta vomunt patriumque aperitur vertice sidus. 

Abnbid, Lib. VIII, lines 678-682. 

Dryden, who translates the verses, was evidently familiar with the Julium 
Sidus, from his other translations ; witness his version : — 

Young Caesar on the stern in armor bright 
Here leads the Romans and their gods to fight ; 
His beaming temples shoot their flames afar 
And o'er his head is hung the Julian Star, 

Again, in the Ninth Eclogue, lines 46-48, Virgil speaks of this star : — 

Moe. Daphni quid antiquos signorum suspicis ortus ? 
Ecce Dionaei processit Caesaris Astrum. 

Daphnis, why gaze you on those signs of ancient date ? 
Behold, Dionaean Caesar's Star hath entered into course. 

The allusion is to Caesar as of the Julian Gens, which sprang from 
Aeneas, son of Venus and Anchises. 

(3) The third opinion is that the stars and Comets represent the great 
Comet which was seen by the Romans soon after the death of Caesar, and 
while his adopted son Augustus was celebrating games to Venus Genetrix in 
honor of Caesar, which Comet was the Julium Sidus. Pliny, Seneca, Sueto- 
nius and others speak of this Comet, and Pliny (Hist. Nat, lib. 11, c. 23) 
gives us Augustus' own words : — 

lis ipsis ludorum meorum diebus sidus crinitum per septem dies in regione coeli quae sub 
septentrionibus est, conspectum. Id oriebatur circa undecimam horam diei, clarumque et 
omnibus e terris conspicuum fuit. Eo sidere significari vulgus credidit Caesaris animam inter 
deorum immortalium numina receptam : quo nomine id insigne simulacro capitis ejus quod mox 
in foro consecravimus adjectum est. 

On those very days when I was exhibiting some games to the people, a Comet appeared 
for seven days and was seen in the northern part of the heavens. [In that part of the heavens 
which is under the Septentriones or the bright stars of the Great Bear. Halley, Synopsis 
Astron, Cornet^ It rose about the eleventh hour of the day ; it was a remarkable one, and 
visible all over the world. The common people believed it signified the reception of the soul 
of Caesar into the number of the immortal gods, on which account the image of the Star was 
added to the statue representing Caesar's head, which we have lately consecrated in the forum. 
{Whiston,) 

Suetonius (In Julius §88) giving a very similar account, says that the 
games were in honor of Caesar's deification. 

Periit sexto et quinquagesimo aetatis anno ; atque in deorum numerum relatus est, non 
ore modo decernentium sed et persuasione vulgi, siquidem ludis quos primo consecrates ei 
haeres Augustus edebat, Stella crinita per septem dies continues fulsit, exoriens circa undecimam 
horam, creditumque est, animam esse Caesaris in coelum recepti : et hac de causa simulacro 
ejus in vertice additur Stella, etc. 

He died in the fifty-sixth year of his age, and was ranked among the gods, not only by a 
formal decree, but in the belief of the vulgar ; for during the first games which Augustus, his 
heir, consecrated to his memory, a Comet blazed for seven days together, rising at eleven 
o'clock, and it was supposed to be the soul of Caesar now received into heaven, for which 
reason likewise a star has been placed above his bust. 



28 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [October, 

Nor are the poets silent as to this Comet. Ovid tells its story most 
elegantly (Metamorphoses, Book 15. ** The apotheosis of Caesar"). Venus 
having endeavored to avert the impending evil from her descendant Julius, 
Jove shows her that Fate is immutable ; and consoles her with an account of 
the wondrous deeds that Augustus (whom Ovid thus adroitly flatters) shall 
perform, and adds: (I quote from the English translation of Welsted, 1736.) 

Meantime your hero's fleeting spirit bear 
Fresh from his wounds and change it to a star ; 
So shall great Julius rights divine assume 
And from the skies eternal smile on Rome. 

The poet then thus beautifully describes the reception of Caesar s soul 
by Venus : 

Vix ea fatus erat ; media cum sede Senatus 
Constitit alma Venus nulli cernenda ; suique 
Caesaris eripuit membris, nee in aera solvi 
Passa recentem animam caelestibus intulit astris 
Dumque tulit, lumen capere, atque ignescere sensit 
Emisitque sinu. Luna volat altius ilia, 
Flammiferumque trahens spatioso limite crinem 
Stella micat, natique videns benefacta fatetur 
Esse suis majora, etc. 

This spoke ; the goddess to the Senate flew 

Where, her fair form concealed from mortal view, 

Her Caesar's heavenly part she made her care. 

Nor left the recent soul to waste to air. 

But bore it upward to its native skies. 

Glowing with new-born fire she saw it rise 

Forth springing from her bosom up it flew, 

And kindling as it soared a Comet grew. 

Above the lunar sphere it took its flight 

And shot behind it a long trail of light. — ( Welsted,) 

It is hardly necessary that we should at this late day re-open the discus- 
sion as to which of the stars or Comets is represented on the coins. He who 
would read, in Latin generally (and some rather crabbed Latin at that), some 
exceedingly learned, lengthy and tiresome discussions on the subject, can do 
so in the Numismatic works of Goltz, Vaillant, Morelli, Erizzo, Eckhel and 
others, besides some still more ancient (and long-winded) authors. To us it 
seems a very simple and probable solution to say that the coins which clearly 
bear the star with a hairy tail, the ancient method of representing a Comet 
(*' Stella crinita'* or hairy star), do refer to the great Comet, while the others, 
simply portraying a star without the tail, represent the stars spoken of. 
The probability is that all these various heavenly bodies were intended to be 
commemorated. Of the coins which are acknowledged by all authorities to 
represent a Comet, we therefore describe those which are admitted by the 
best modern authorities (Cohen and Babelon) to exist, and to be genuine ; 
adding a few found only in Morelli, who is probably more reliable than most 
of the older authors ; and rejecting all others as ill described, imaginary or 
counterfeit pieces, and of course making no mention of pieces with the simple 
star without a tail. 

I. Obverse, Laureated bust of Julius Caesar to right, above, a Comet. Legend, 
M SANQViNivs III. viR M. Sanquinius Triumvir (of the mint). 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 29 

Reverse, A priest standing, with a caduceus and round buckler. Legend, 
avgvst(vs) divi F(ilivs) LVDOS SAEc(vlares) (fecit understood). Augustus, the son of 
the deified (Julius), celebrated the secular games. Aureus, gold; Denarius, silver. 
Struck under Augustus. 

Cohen, Imp, 2d 'EA^^JuliuSf 4, 5 ; Ibidy Cons, Sanquinia^ and plate XXXVI, No. 2 ; 
Babelon,y«//V3r, 255, 256 ; Sanqtiinia^ i, 2. Our plate I, No. i (copied from Babelon). ' 

2, Obverse, Similar to No. i, and with the same legend. 

Reverse. Bust of Augustus to right. Legend, avgvstvs divi f Denarius. 

Cohen, Cons, Sanquinia, I, and plate XXXVI ; Sanq, i ; Babelon, Sanq. 'iijulia^ 
257; Cohen, Imp, Cesar and Octavey i. In his text Cohen says avgvst but engraves 
correctly as avgvstvs. Our plate I, No. 2 (copied from Babelon). 

3. Obverse, .... nivs • in • vir • m ' sanqvinivs Laureated head of Julius 
Caesar surmounted by a Comet. 

Reverse. Crown above, underneath which ob. civis servatos. 

This unique (.?) denarius is said by Boutkowsky, Dictionnaire Numismatique, Vol. I, 
page 46, to have been sold No. 2455, Fontana Sale, Paris, i860. It is unedited, and 
not in Cohen or Babelon. 

4- Obverse, Bust of Caesar to left, overhead a Comet. Legend, m sanqvinius. 

p. F. Ill VIR. 

Reverse. As reverse of No. 2. 

Engraved by Morelli, plate XXIX, 22. No where else. Evidently doubted by 
Cohen and Babelon. Distinguished by the p f (Pius Felix). 

5. Obverse, Bust of Augustus Caesar to left. Legend, caesar avgvstvs. 
Reverse, A large Comet or hairy-tailed star, dividing the words horizontally in 

field, Divvs — iVLivs. Denarius. 

Cohen, Cofis, plate XXIII, 70 ; also des. p. 93, et seq, ; Babelon, y«//a, 263. Not 
in Morelli ; Cohen, Imp, Octave Auguste, 97. Our plate I, No. 3 (from Babelon). 

6. * Obverse. Similar to No. 5, bust to rz^Aty with same head. 
Reverse, Similar to No. 5. 

Cohen, Cons, plate XXIII ; Julia, 6 ; Ibid, Imp,y 2d Ed., Aug,y 98 ; Morelli, /«//«, 
VII, E ; Babelon, ySw///z, 264. Our plate I, No. 4 (from Babelon). 

7. Obverse. Similar to No. 6. Bust differs somewhat. 

Reverse, Similar, but the word divvs is between the sixth and seventh ray, in- 
stead of between the seventh and eighth, and the word ivlivs between second and 
third ray. Unedited ? Our plate I, No. 5. 

Engraved from the specimen in my own collection. I entertain no doubt as to 
the genuineness of this denarius. It in a measure rehabilitates Morelli, Juliay pi. VII, 
V." except that the latter is entirely incorrectly drawn as to the position of the rays. 

8. Obverse, As No. 6 ; legend the same. 

Reverse, The Comet, with divvs above and ivlivs below. 

I One of the Editors of the Journal suggests that that in the specimens he has examined, the inscription 

the figure is that of a Salic priest bearing the ancile. of the reverse is sae not saec. M, de Schodt*s article 

Cohen says it is, but this is doubted by the learned is in the volume for 1887, 3d part; it is very lengthy 

author of an article on the subject in the Revue Beige and exceedingly erudite. The learned author goes mto 

de Numismatique hereafter spoken of (M. de Schodt). many very interesting discussions as to matters which 

He observes that the Salic priests had nothing to do do not concern our present subject : as, for example, 

with the ludos saeculares. Eckhel, who discards the whether certain wreaths are of oak or laurel, etc., and 

theory, and also that advanced by others, that the figure the exact date of issue of each coin. He does not des- 

is that of a fecial priest, says it represents the Herald cribe any coins not found in the standard authors we 

(praeco) who announced the games. The learned author quote from, but does mention everything Caesarean or 

above named agrees with Eckhel and also suggests that Augustan with any kind of a star, leaving the student 

the round buckler is not shaped like the ancile, which to make his own selections of those which refer to the 

was ichancri (sloping), as pictured on the coins of Pub. Julium Sidus. 
Lie. Stolo. (See Cohen, Licinia, 9 and 10.) He says 



30 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [October, 

Cohen, Cons.y XXIII, 68 ; Ibid.^ Imp,, 2d Ed., icx) ; Morelli, y«//i, plate VII ; Babe- 
Ion, y«//^, 262. 

9. Obverse, As No. 5. 
Reverse. Same as No. 8. 

Cohen, /;«/., 2d Ed., 99; Babelon, y«//tf, 261. (Our plate I, No. 6 from Babelon.) 

10. Obverse, Bust of Augustus to left as No. 5, and the same legend. 
Reverse, The Comet divides the words divvs ivlivs which run diagonally across 

the field. 

Morelli, Julian plate VII, 5. Nowhere else. 

The following, also, I find only in Morelli. They are engraved by him, 
but his plates being on the ancient plan of representing all the coins as of 
one size, and perfectly round, without regard to their real appearance or 
dimensions, they are not as trustworthy as they might be. Still he is a 
tolerably good authority. They are not included in Cohen or Babelon, and 
may be considered as needing '* corroborative evidence." See his plate XX of 
** Nummi Consulares." 

11. Obverse. Bust of Caesar to right. Legend, divos ivlivs. 
Reverse. A hairy-tailed star ; no legend. Silver. 

Morelli, plate XX, 13. 

12. Obverse. Similar to the last. Legend, divvs ivlius. 
Reverse. Similar to the preceding ; no legend. Silver. 

Morelli, plate XX, 14. 

13. Obverse. Similar. The Comet is over the head ; no legend. 
Reverse, divi ivli. The Comet. Silver. 

Morelli, plate XX, 15. 

14. Obverse, Bust to right, a lituus behind head. Legend, divi f imp pont. 
HI viR R p c For Divi Jilius, imperator, pontifex, triumvir, rei publicae constituen- 
dae. Son of the deified (Julius), emperor, pontiff, triumvir, for the re-establishing 
of the Republic. 

15. Obverse. Bust to right. Legend, imp. caesar divi ivli f. 

Reverse. The Comet. Legend, iii vir iter r p c Triumvir iterum, eta, 
as above. Aureus, gold. 

Morelli, plate XX, 18. 

16. Obverse. Bust to right, over the head a Comet. Legend, divi ivli. 
Reverse. Bust of Augustus to right. Legend, divi f caesar. Aureus, gold. 

Morelli, plate XX, 22. 

17. Obverse. Bust to right, over the head a Comet. Legend, divvs ivlius. 
Reverse. Bust of Augustus to left. Legend, imp caesar divi ivli f. Dena- 
rius, silver. 

Morelli, plate XX, 23. 

i8. Obverse. Bust to right, over the head a Comet Legend, divi ivli. 
Reverse. Bust of Augustus to right. Legend, caesar divi f hi vir r p c 
Explained above. 

Morelli, plate XX, 24. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 31 

11. THE COMET OF THE YEAR i. 

THE STAR OF BETHLEHEM. 

Whatever may be thought at the present time of this star, and the pro- 
priety of taking in a literal sense the portion of the New Testament in which 
it was spoken of, it was in mediaeval times, and until very recently, universally 
believed to have been a comet ; and to have doubted it, would simply have 
been to incur the reputation of heresy, with the attendant risks and penalties. 
There are a great number of coins and medals bearing representations of the 
Adoration of the Magi ; and in every case they show the star as a Comet 
with a tail. Of course it would be impossible to describe all the coins and 
medals of this class ; and as the Comet is merely an accessory, it would per- 
haps hardly be necessary. The following will serve as examples of the class. 
They are all of comparatively modern dates. 

!• Obverse. Bust of Pope Pius V to left. Legend, pivs v PONT(ifex) OPT(imus) 
MAx(imus) ANNO VI. Exergue, f. p. ? (Pius V, the best supreme pontiff, 6th year.) 

Reverse, The Adoration, the Comet over the Infant's head as He is held by His 
mother. Legend, illvminare hiervsalbm (To enlighten Jerusalem). Bronze. Size 
36 mm. 23 A. S. 

Was in my own collection ; stolen therefrom, August, 1889. 

2. Obverse, The stall and the finding of the Infant Jesus by the shepherds. 
The Virgin points to the infant, two shepherds kneel and one stands (or perhaps the 
standing figure is Joseph), two asses in the stall look on ; above all and directly over 
the Infant's head, the Comet as a star with long tail shows through the roof. Legend, 

PASTORES • IN • INVENIVNT * MARIA " lOSEPH Z. INFANTEM lESVM. POSITV. IN PRiE(sipio) 

Lvc. 2. (The three shepherds find Mary, Joseph and the Infant Jesus placed in a 
manger. Luke 2.) (See chapter.) While in. seems plain, yet it is probably a blunder 
for III. 

Reverse, The Virgin holds the Infant in her lap, the three magi offer rich gifts 
(the scene looks more like a palace than a stable), in left distance another building 
wtth male figure, over all the Comet as on obverse. Legend, magi ab oriente 

CHRISTO (MVNERA ?) DEFERVNT * AVRVM * THVS * Z * MYRRHAM. MA. II : (The Magi from 

the East offer to Christ gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh. Matthew II. See 
verses i-ii.) Silver Medal (Thaler). Size 48 mm. 31 A. S. Very elaborate design, 
cast, probably of the early part of the sixteenth century. MadQ at Joachimsthal. 
Was in my own collection. Stolen therefrom August, 1889.' 

3. Obverse. Bust of the Virgin. Legend, s. maria mater dei. (Holy Mary, the 
mother of God.) 

Reverse, The presentation by the Virgin to the three kings, overhead the Comet. 
Legend, s(ancti) CAs(par) melch(ior) v(nd) BALTH(asar). -Exergue, ietton. Brass 
spielmarke, or jetton. 

Was in my own collection. Stolen therefrom August, 1889. 

These are the names of the "three kings," as preserved by tradition ; and as 
they are the patron saints of Cologne, this jeton was probably struck there. The 
Comet here is an unmistakable long-tailed Comet in the ordinary form.* 

I There are dozens if not hundreds of German, Papal 2 All the medals next to be described of the Comet 

and other Religious Medals with same reverse, and in of 1558 (Comet of the death of Charles V, Roman Ger- 

fact many minute varieties of this medal. The Comet man Emperor) bear the adoration and show the Star of 

on all these pieces is drawn according to the rule of Bethlehem as a Comet, referring alike to that star and 

Heraldry for drawing a Comet as distinguished from an the aforesaid Comet. 
et(nle or mullet. See Note at conclusion of paper. 

[To be continued.] 



32 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [October, 



A NUMISMATIC WHIM. 

In the various complimentary effusions prefixed to L. Smid's ** Golden 
Coins of Rome," I find one which closes with the following ingenious distich, 
which I copy for the Journal : it runs thus : — 

RI R S D D 

Sc PTORUM ERUM UMMORUM ESPICE ICTA. 
UL V N R P 

ST QU R T NIT 

J A IDEM ISU ACIEMUS AM NDE ACEBUNT. 

LL F V F I V PL 

Using the superior letters of each line in reading them, the epigram 
may be freely translated, ** Regard not what the writers of history say ; their 
statements should be thrown aside with a smile, and they will be silent {i. e. 
will be forgotten) : " if however we use the inferior letters, the lines may be 
read, ** Regard as true the works of engravers of money (or die-sinkers). 
Their efforts we may rely upon when seen, and they will give us pleasure." 

This work of Smid's, by the way, has prefixed to each of its biographi- 
cal sketches a sort of compendium of the views of Suetonius, some of them 
elegantly written. Here is a liberal translation of what he says of Nero : — 
** Darest thou, oh pen, to write this name, or even to utter it? He stung 
with the pen those whom he would slay with the sword. He was a great 
man in private life, but the worst among the great. His abilities would have 
made him worthy to be a king, had he not worn a crown " m. 



RECENT ACCESSIONS TO THE MINT CABINET. 

The Mint Cabinet has lately come into possession of a set of coins, 
which in a little while will probably be reckoned among the rare coins of the 
world. They are those issued during the brief reign of Frederick, the silent 
Emperor of Germany, and comprise the twenty and ten mark pieces in gold, 
and the five and two mark pieces in silver. They are described as follows : — 

Gold Twenty Mark piece of Emperor Frederick of Germany. Obverse, Head of 
Emperor to right, ** friedrich deutscher kaiser konig v. preussen : *' Reverse, 
A crowned eagle, with a shield upon his breast, bearing the arms of the German 
empire, "deutsches reich 1888." In the exergue, "20 mark." On the edge, "gott 

MIT UNS." 

Gold Ten Mark piece. Same style, except that it has an ornamental scroll work 
on the edge. 

Silver Five Mark piece. Same type as Twenty Mark piece. 
Silver Two Mark piece. Same, but with reeded edge. 

Another recent addition is described as follows : — 

Gold Ten Mark piece of Otto, King of Bavaria. Obverse, His head to left, "otto 
KOENiG VON bavern." Revcrsc, Same as other Ten Mark pieces, with ornamental 
scroll work on edge. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 33 



TETRADRACHM OF SARDANAPALUS. 

A SILVER Tetradrachm in the British Museum, size 18 American scale (Mionnet 
9), has the head of King Antiochus VIII Epiphanes (B.C. 140) on the obverse without 
any inscription : but on the reverse is an edifice or shrine with the inscription on 
either side in vertical columns — 

^ ME Ein^ANOYS on the left, and BASXAEHS ANTIOXOY on the right, each in two lines. 

The monument in the centre has a basement consisting of a lofty podium with 
plinth, die and cornice ; the die is occupied by a large central panel, in which are 
suspended three festoons with four pendants at the points of suspension. From this 
pedestal rises a pyramidal mass, at the summit of which the margins on either side 
assume the forms of volutes with a disk between them ; up above, other similar volutes 
are formed without the disk. Then comes a circular pedestal, on which sits an eagle 
with outstretched wings. The panel of the pyramid is filled in with a bas-relief, 
representing at the base an animal supposed by some to be a lion with goat's horns. 
Before and behind it is a cap, like those of the Dioscuri, similar to the ones on a medal 
of Berenice, wife of Ptolemy Euergetes, and which have not as yet been accounted for 
by any antiquarian or numismatist. Above the animal rises a figure with his out- 
stretched right arm, in action resembling the Roman emperor when addressing an 
allocution to the soldiery or populace. In his left the figure holds some object as 
though transfixed on a sword. Behind him is a parazonium. From his shoulder 
floats, as it were, a robe or mantle, or as has been suggested, a quiver with arrows and 
the bow. The head has a long beard and a species of cap surmounted in front by a ' 
small figure, recalling altogether the character of an Assyrian monarch on the Nineveh 
sculptures. 

Until within a few years these tetradrachms were unknown, but a considerable 
number were discovered near Tarsus in Cilicia, thus connecting them immediately 
with the city, the brass coins of which were already known to possess the same 
emblem. There is a large variety of this type from Antiochus VIII Epiphanes to 
Demetrius II Nikator (A.D. 200) whose medal bears the inscription — 
BASIAEOS ' AHMHTPIOY • 0EOY • NIKATOPOS 

Strabo mentions Anchiale, which was about a day's journey from Tarsus, as 
situate a little above the sea, and Aristobulus states it to have been built by Sardana- 
palus, and that there was there a monument of Sardanapalus, the stone image of 
whom showed the fingers of the right hand as though they were snapping. There 
were, he observes, who said that there was inscribed in Assyrian characters the 
following sentence: — Sardanapalus, son of Anacyndaraxes, built Anchiale and Tarsus 
in one day, but do you, O stranger, eat, drink, and play, for all these are not worth 
that (a snap of the fingers.) After which are quoted six hexameter Greek verses, a 
lengthened paraphrase of the exhortation. 

Athenaeus gives another story about a monument of Sardanapalus, the inscription 
on which recorded that he built the two cities in one day "but is now dead,** which 
suggests a less profane reflection than the former. 

Arrian, who copies his description of the same monument from the writers of 
the age of Alexander, mentions the figure as having the hands joined in clapping. 
(Smith, ** Geogr. Diet." sub voce Anchiale.) 

Colonel Leake in his "Numismata Hellenica, Asiatic Greece," p. 129, describes 
these coins ; and in his " European Greece," p. 28, he notices the bronze coins of 
Tarsus, on which appears the same identical monument, placed under an arched 
canopy, which is upborne by a human figure at each end, as though the group formed 
the shrine in a temple. These date as recently as the third century. 

Sardanapalus seems to have been deified, apparently by the Assyrians, and had a 
place given him in the same temple with the Babylonian Venus at Hierapolis, the 
holy city. Smith (Biogr. Diet.) alludes to the identity of the god Sandon and the king 
VOL. xxiv. s 



34 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [October, 

Sardanapalus, which was first asserted by K. O. Muller, supported with further argu- 
ments by Movers. 

It appears, therefore, that the inhabitants of Anchiale had erected a tomb to 
their founder, and that at Tarsus also there was a shrine made to assume the firm 
proportions and features of the tomb erected to his memory, and which may possibly 
have been similar to the one erected at Nineveh or elsewhere in Assyria. Hence the 
reason of the adoption of the type on the bronze coins of Tarsus and on the silver 
tetradrachms of the race of the Antiochi. 

The form of this edifice is of peculiar interest, being of a type prevalent in those 
parts, the earliest of which were the stepped mounds of Assyria, in Nineveh, the city 
of Sardanapalus, and Babylon, etc. After these in chronological series came the 
Pyramids of Egypt, some of them also stepped, others with a smooth revetment. 
Then we have the description of the tomb of Mausolus at Halicarnassus as given by 
Pliny, having a lower peristyle, above which rose a pyramidal stepped roof crowned on 
the summit by the king in his chariot. All these show an unity of design. But of 
these examples this pyramid alone had an inscription, unless the one recorded by 
Herodotus on the pyramid of Ghizeh be admitted, and certainly our medal is the only 
record of a sculptured surface. 

Col. Leake and others consider without a doubt, that the figure stands upon the 
animal ; and Layard in his "Nineveh and its Remains " (8vo, London, 1849, P- 456)> 
gives a plate of the Hera or the Assyrian Venus from a rock tablet near the ancient 
Pterium, showing a figure standing on an animal, which occurs also on a medal. 

Another remarkable feature, connecting such a monument with the rogus of the 
Romans, that is the arrangement of the square pedestal with its central panel and 
festoons, exactly corresponds with the like distribution in the pyre of Antoninus on 
another piece ; and the eagle on the summit with outstretched wings is identical with 
the eagle which was let loose and flew away as the imperial corpse was consuming. 
Hence we may presume that the Roman pyre in its design was a tradition adopted from 
the East. 

The M and ME are merely the marks of the mint-masters. This dates previously 
to the Roman rule and far before the Christian era, and is the earliest medal extant 
which bears an architectural monument. 



TERMS USED IN DESCRIBING COINS. 

HoBLER, in ** Records of Roman History," seems to have been the first 
to give the more striking colors of the coins he describes. Such expressions 
as the following are extremely life-like and convey an excellent idea of the 
specimens : ** A fine green coin," ** a good bronze brown coin," " a good brown 
coin," ** a good, mottled green Campana coin," "a good, mottled green and 
red Campana coin," **a fine, dark-green coin," ** a good coin, mottled red and 
green," **a fine water, gold-colored Campana coin," **a red Cyrian copper 
coin," **a fine, gold-colored Campana coin," **a beautiful Campana green 
coin," ** a beautiful, red-bronze Campana coin," **avery beautiful Campana 
green-bronze coin," **avery good black coin," '*a red coin," "a very pale- 
green color," ** a beautiful grass-green Campana coin," ** a fine Campana coin, 
glossy black, mingled with green," ** raw sienna or drab coin," " a beautiful, 
pale, dove-color, Campana coin," ** a purple coin, with green, Campana tinge," 
** reddish or pale-orange color," ** reddish-brown coin," ** fine, emerald-green 
color," ** mottled red green," *Vextraordinarily beautiful purple-violet patina." 
Some of these expressions are not altogether clear to us, but upon the whole 
they give an additional vividness to coin descriptions. ex. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 35 

WASHINGTON MEDALS. 

By the kindness of Mr. Lyman H. Low, of New York, we are enabled to supply 
full descriptions of the various Medals which were struck for the Centennial of the 
Inauguration of Washington, and to illustrate two of them in the present number of 
the youmaL A priced descriptive Catalogue of these medals can be obtained on 
application to the Scott Stamp and Coin Company, 12 East Twenty-third Street, 
New York City. 

I. Obverse. Bust of Washington, to left. Legend, divided, pater patriae | m.d.cclxxxix. 
Behind the bust the fasces. In exergue, george | Washington. 13 stars around the border. 
Reverse, Heraldic eagle. Inscription in fourteen lines, e plvribvs vnvm | to | commemorate 

THE I INAVGVRATION OF | GEORGE WASHINGTON | AS FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE | VNITED STATES 
OF AMERICA | AT NEW YORK. APRIL XXXTH | MDCCLXXXIX — BY | AVTHORITY OF THE | COMMITTEE 

ON I CELEBRATION NEW YORK | APRIL XXXTH | * MDCCCLXXXix * Pendant from a bar inscribed 
NEW YORK I 1789 — GW (script) — 1889. Brouzc, size 22. From dies. The finest and rarest 
medal struck, commemorating the occasion ; it has never been on sale, but was distributed to 
members of the Committee only. Designed by Augustus Saint Gaudens. 

II. Same design as the preceding, but cast in bronze, size 70. This is the medal that 
was on sale by authority of the Committee. 

III. Obverse. Head of Washington to left, within a five-pointed star, around the edge of 

which, NEW YORK — CITY — APRIL 30TH — 1889 ( FIRST IN WAR — FIRST IN PEACE — AND FIRST — IN 

THE— HEARTS OF — HIS COUNTRYMEN. The wholc upou a circular, radiated field. Re^^erse. 
Blank. Pendant from a bar, with a shield at either end ; above, a spread eagle. On the bar 
CENTENNIAL | INAUGURATION with ribbon. White metal, oxidized. Size 31. 

IV. Obverse. Bust of Washington, three-quarters facing within an oval circle of dots. 
Legend, geo Washington first president of the u. s. Below the oval, 1789. Reverse. 
Busts of the President and Vice President facing, each in an oval ; on a label between, 
HARRISON AND MORTON. Above is a shield. Below, 1889. Pendant from a bar inscribed 
centennial, connected by a ribbon, with a second bar inscribed inaugural. White metal, 
bronzed, and also gilt and oxidized. See plate. Size 24. 

V. Obverse. Equestrian Statue of Washington. Legend, centennial celebration of 
the inauguration ; above the statue, george Washington i 789-1889. Retferse. Inscription, 
soldier's I MEDAL — PARTICIPATED. Picrced, with ring, ribbon and pin attached. White metal 
gilt. Size 26. 

VI. Obverse. Bust to right. Legend, george — Washington Plain raised border. 
Reverse. Washington inaugural new york — april 30 1889. Within a wreath, front view 
of the building in which the ceremonies took place in 1789. federal hall | wall st. 
Pierced, with eagle and pin. White metal, size 26. 

VII. Obverse. Bust to right. Legend, george — Washington. In exergue, 1789. 
Reverse. Double circle around the border, centennial anniversary of the inauguration 

NEW YORK APRIL 30 I789 — FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. In the field, ArmS Of 

New York within a wreath. Pierced and mounted with eagle and pin. White metal. Size 23. 

VIII. Obverse. Head to left. 1789-1889. Reverse. Inscription in five lines, souvenir 
I OF the I CENTENNIAL | FESTIVAL | APRIL 1889 Picrced, with ribbon. White metal. Size 25. 

IX. Obverse. Bust three-quarters facing, in oval. Legend, * george Washington first 
PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES * In excrgue, 1789. Reverse. Washington taking the 

oath * CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY OF HIS INAUGURATION NEW YORK *. In CXergUe, in tWO 

lines, APRIL 30 I 1889. White metal. Size 32. Frequently pierced, and pendant by a ribbon 
from a bar, as III. 

X. Obverse. Head to left. Above, george Washington; beneath, in two lines, first 
PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES | INAUGURATED APRIL 30, 1789. Revcrse. A circlc of thirteen 
links upon which are letters abbreviating the names of the original States. In the centre, the 
sun on an eleven-pointed star, backed by a radiated star of thirteen points. Legend, centen- 
nial OF THE inauguration OF THE FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES APRIL 30 1889 

within a circle of 42 small stars. Bronzed. White metal. Size 34. 



36 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [October, 

XI. Obverse, Naked bust to right. Legend upon a broad raised border, first presi- 
dent OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, and at the bottoni, DBo PATRI.SQUE FiDEus The border 
is engrailed with thirteen arches, and a star in each point. Reverse, View of the Brooklyn 
Bridge and East River ; above is the radiant sun and HiBc oum meminissb juvabit and beneath, the 
arms of New York city upon a mantling of crossed flags from which spring olive branches. 
Legend in double line, around two-thirds of border, to commemorate the Washington 
INAUGURAL CENTENNIAL | NEW YORK CITY 1789 — APRIL 30 — 1889. Bronzc and white metal. 
Size 33. (Dies by Lovett). See plate. 

The ribbons used with all these medals were usually the national colors, red, 
white and blue, arranged in perpendicular stripes. 



THE PASSION FOR COLLECTING. 

The Saturday Review says that when the late Sir Henry Holland was a very old 
man he regretted that in early life he had not taken to collecting, and he touched off 
its advantages in a few neat sentences. " The interest," he remarked, "is one which 
augments with its gratification, is never exhausted by completion, and often survives 
when the more tumultuous business or enjoyments of life have passed away.'* In 
short, he placed collecting where our fathers used to place whist. The young man 
who does not collect will be miserable when he is old. The inexhaustibility of the 
object adds immensely to the advantages of collecting. When Heber had all or nearly 
all the rare books he knew of, he began to gather duplicates. The print collector in 
the same way begins with ordinary impressions. He thinks he can get together a 
complete set of some master, perhaps, and succeeds prcftty well until in an evil — or 
shall we say a happy t — hour he comes upon a proof. Then all must be proofs. First 
states are rare, but all must be first states. As his eye grows in knowledge he perceives 
that no two impressions are exactly alike, and that while one is good for this feature, 
another is good for that. Against the particular collector may be set the universal ; 
but universal collecting has a serious drawback. It seldom approaches completion in 
any one branch. The omniverous collector is, as a rule, too easily pleased. It is 
impossible that he should be an equally good judge of all the things he buys — coins, 
gems, ivories, bronzes, embroideries, Elzevirs, pictures, scarabs, porcelain.s, etchings, 
and so on. A grain of special knowledge will be more useful than a catholic apprecia- 
tion of the beautiful in every form. 



THE MYSTERY OF COINS. 

Every coin has its story of human use, could it but speak. It has passed 
through hands long since reduced to dust, but the coin survives. It has been 
the purchase price of necessaries and of luxuries, the wages of the laborer and 
the pay of the soldier. Robbers perhaps have stolen it, perhaps have gained 
it at the expense of human life. It has been buried around the flag stafif on 
some battle field, or lost in some peril of the traveller, or buried in the earth 
by some miserly hand whence the rain-wash has exhumed it, or the plough- 
share, or the spade and pick excavating for a foundation wall. What inci- 
dents could any ancient piece add to the history of ages had an audible voice 
been given to it ! Possibly it fell from the hand of an Emperor, as he scat- 
tered his gifts on his coronation day ; perhaps it was the last stake of some 
gamester, by which he sought to recover his wasted fortune. What journeys 
it may have taken ; what distress it may have relieved ; what pleasure it may 
have given. Imagination fails in attempting to trace its possible experiences. 



.^rg^. 




No. IV. 





N(. XI. 



WASHINGTON MEDALS. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 37 



THE MEDALS, JETONS, AND TOKENS ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE 

SCIENCE OF MEDICINE. 

BY DR. HORATIO R. STORER, NEWPORT, R. I. 

[Continued from Vol. XXIV, p. i8.] 

The following are the descriptions of the three medals, our Nos. 6, 7 and 8, of 
the University of Bishop's College, Montreal, of the existence of which I learned 
as the April number of the youmaly which contained the medical collegiate series of 
Canada, was going to press. 

6. The Wood medal. Obverse, The University arms ; a spade-shaped shield 
surmounted by mitre, and plicated bands. Within shield a cross, upon centre of which 
the open Scriptures. Beneath, a scroll, twice folded upon itself, with the legend : 

RECTI — CULTUS PECTORA — ROBORANT' Inscription : EPISCOPI COLLEGII DE LENNOX- 
VILLE I MEDICINAE | FACULTAS | MONTE-REGIO 

Reverse, Inscription : orrinus c. wood. m.d. donavit Within field : (A space 
for name of recipient.) | adjudicatum | sessio. (A space for the date.) In the 
specimen from which the description was taken the name was F. R. England, and 
the date 1884-85. Gold. 26. Edge of obverse richly chased. 

For the description of this medal and a finely executed drawing of the obverse by 
Henry Birks & Co , of Montreal, I am indebted to Prof. A. Lapthorn Smith, M. D., 
Lecturer on Gynaecology in the University of Bishop's College. The medal is given 
annually to the student who having "attended at least two six months' sessions at the 
University, at the final examination has the highest number of marks on all the sub- 
jects of professional examination." Dr. Wood, its founder, was Professor of Chemistry 
in the faculty for five years, and then of Pathology for ten years longer. 

7. The Robert Nelson medal. Obverse, The University arms as on preceding, 
but much enlarged. Inscription, in very heavy letters : university of bishops col- 
lege I MEDICAL FACULTY. 

Reverse, Inscription : Robert nelson medal Within field : awarded | for | 
SPECIAL EXAMINATION | IN | SURGERY Beneath, a half crown of laurel leaves, with 
fold of ribbon in centre. Gold (value $60). 28. Edges milled. 

The description and impressions of this medal I owe to Prof. Smith. He has 
also sent me photographs, which contain the additional inscription : to | heber 
BISHOP, B.A. I . I APRIL | 1 882 It is given annually for the best special exam- 
ination in surgery, and is open for those who having "attended at least two six 
months' sessions at the college have taken honors in all the subjects." 

Dr. Charles Eugene Nelson, the founder, is a resident of New York. His father, 
the late Dr. Robert Nelson, thus memorialized, one of the oldest and most beloved 
practitioners of Montreal, took a leading part in the rebellion of 1837-8. 

8. The David medal. Similar to the preceding, save with the substitution of 
the word david upon obverse, and upon the reverse, within the field : for best pri- 
mary EXAMINATION Silver. 28. 

To Prof. Smith I owe the above description. Dr. Aaron H. David was Professor 
of the Principles and Practice of Medicine for thirteen years, and was long Dean of 
the Medical Faculty. He deceased about six years since. In 1889 the Faculty estab- 
lished a scholarship in his remembrance, but it was subsequently decided to confer the 
medal instead. It is awarded to the student " obtaining the highest number of marks 
in the primary examinations." 

The above three medals, had I known of them in season, would have been 
included also in the series of Personals, under the titles of Dr. Orrin C. Wood, Dr. 
Robert Nelson, and Dr. Aaron H. David, all of Montreal. The first of them, like the 
Starr medal of the University of Toronto, perpetuates the name of its founder; the 

I It would st;em that this verb should be in the singular. 



38 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [October, 

second is a filial tribute to the memory of a parent, in this resembling the Sutherland 
of McGill University, by which a widow has honored the devotion of her husband to 
his professional labors ; while the third, like the Holmes of McGill, places upon lasting 
record the fraternal esteem in which a teacher at the University has been held by his 
colleagues. 

Since the July number of the youmal, learning from the Calendar of Trinity 
Medical College, Toronto, that the University of Toronto had issued a medical medal 
besides that founded by the late Dr. Starr, I have succeeded in obtaining its descrip- 
tion. 

58. Obverse, Victory, to left, extending a wreath of laurel. Upon her left arm 
a leaf of palm. Inscription : MH AHTOI STE^ANOYSA 

Reverse, The name of recipient. Inscription, engraved : Universitas Toronto- 
nensis propter medicinam feliciter excultam. (This inscription is identical with a 
portion of that upon the Starr medal.) Gold, silver. 21. 

The obverse alone is given by McLachlan, Amerjour, of Nnmis,^ April, 1882, p. 
81, CCLXXIV; Ibid,, Montreal, 1886, p. 67; Lc Roux, p. 133, No. 746, fig. 

The reverse of this very beautiful medal seems to have been unknown to 
Le Roux, and to have been omitted by McLachlan because engraved. I owe the 
description and an impression to the Registrar of the University, Mr. H. H. Lang- 
ton, who has kindly sent them through Dr. J. Algernon Temple, M.R.CS. Eng., of 
Toronto. There were annually conferred one of the medals in gold and three in 
silver upon undergraduates obtaining the degree of M.B. with first class honors. 
They have now, however, been abolished by the Federation Act. 



The two following, of the Ste. Anne de Beaupri series, have been found by Mr. 
McLachlan since the last number of thQ Jounial, 

59. Same size and general design as No. 26, but the right spire of the church is 
directly under the e in sainte, while in the other it is nearly under the a in anne. 
The eave of the roof touches below the second a in sanctuaire, while in the other it 
is upon a level with the i. 18. 

Of this I have an impression from Mr. McLachlan. It was unknown to Le Roux. 

60. Same size and general design as No. 27. Upon obverse, the top of the 
porch to right of the church is opposite p in beaupre, while in the other it is opposite 
R. Upon reverse the ornament under the figure is less deep. 18. 

Mr. McLaren has sent me an impression of this also. It was equally unknown 
to Le Roux. I have myself detected another, so slight however in variation that I do 
not separately number it. It is similar to No. 13, save that there the enkegt was 
upon the obverse of the loop. In the present it is upon the reverse. This variety is 
unmentioned by either McLachlan or Le Roux. It is in my collection. 

There are six others of the same series that have been struck since my previous 
descriptions. I owe these also to Mr. McLachlan's kindness. 

61. Obverse, Within a circle, the new church, in an atmosphere of stars. 
Inscription : sanctuaire de sainte anne de beaupre 

Reverse. Within similar circle, Ste. Anne standing, with the youthful Virgin in 
her arms ; the remainder of thQ field filled with fleurs-de-lis. Inscription : o bonne 
sainte anne priez* pour nous Tin. 14. 

In my collection. 

62. As preceding, but with floreated crucial margin, and maple leaves upon 
extremities of the cross and four dots at each angle. The inscriptions also occupy 
more space. Tin. 14. Of triple thickness to the last. 

In my collection. 

63. As No. 62, but smaller. Tin. ii. 
In my collection. 



iSSg.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 39 

64. As preceding, but with floreated crucial margin, as in No. 61. In the field 
there are neither stars nor fleurs-de-lis. 

65. Obverse, Within a curved quadrilateral, the new church, surrounded by 
irregular stars. Inscription as the preceding, save sI5 for sainte. Two stars beneath 
the church. 

Reverse, Within a similar space Ste. Anne seated, instructing the youthful 
Virgin, surrounded by similar stars. Beneath, an angelic head, with wings. Inscrip- 
tion as on preceding, save s"^ In exergue, M Of curved quadrilateral shape. Tin. 12. 

In my collection. 

66. As preceding, but much smaller. One star beneath the church. Tin. 9. 
In my collection.* 

Devins and Bolton, Druggists, Montreal. 

6^, Obverse, Within a beaded circle, the laureated head of Queen Victoria to 
left. Inscription: dominion of Canada ( province of Quebec 

Reverse, Within a beaded circle, use | devins' | vegetable | -worm- | pas- 
tilles I I JULY. i5l- I 1867. Inscription: + devins & bolton. + | druggists, 

MONTREAL Edgcs beaded. Copper. 18. 39 mm. 

McLachlan omits the crosses before and after the name of the firm, the comma 
after druggists, the dashes and dot after pastilles, and the dot after july. Le Roux 
in his figure repeats the last two of these errors, and in his description omits commas 
on both obverse and reverse. The Coin-dealers' Catalogues frequently spell the 
firm names incorrectly. 

Weyl, loc, cit,f No. 112; Sandham, loc, cit,^ p. 39, No. 95 ; McLachlan, Amer,Jour. 
of Ntiniis,^ Jan., 1880, p. 76, LV ; Ibid,^ Montreal, 1886, p. 14 ; Le Roux, Numismatic 
Atlas for Canada, p. 28, No. 98, fig. ; Ibid,, Le Medaillier, etc., p. 192, No. 970, fig. 

This I own. It was unknown to Neumann, and is very rare, having been the 
first issue of the kind after the Canadian Confederation, and promptly suppressed by 
Government under the new Coinage Act, because the device upon its obverse quite 
closely resembled that of the Canadian cents of 1858 and 1859. I^s usual price, even 
in Canada, is stated by Le Roux to be a dollar. Sandham has affirmed* that the sup- 
pressed consignment of these tokens, eight thousand in number, is still held by the 
Canadian Customs Department, and that they may yet be placed in circulation. This 
token I described in my paper upon the medals, etc., of obstetrics and gynaecology, in 
connection with those illustrative of the nursery, infancy and childhood. 

68. DEVINS I & I BOLTON | — | MONTREAL 

This I own. Quite a number of Canadian coins, pennies, half pennies and 
Montreal bank tokens have appeared at American sales with the above counterstamp, 
which was employed after the suppression of the issue last described. It is not, how- 

I Mr. McLachlan has been good enough to send me shrine professing to engage in the healing art or in the 

the following additions and corrections to my previous miraculous, in the Montreal church, 

descriptions. " 47. The name of the engraver is Bourne." 

" 28 is a pattern piece. Only five or six specimens 48. I previously stated that this, the alleged smaller 

are known." of the two "r^roihe" cholera medals, was admitted 

34. Mr. McLachlan is corrrect in having sb, there wholly upon the authority of Le Roux, and that its exis- 

probabl^ existing none of this type as described by Le tence was denied by McLachlan. This gentleman now 

Roux with STB. gives the following reasons for his opinion : ** It is an 

** 35 has S. Anne, etc. The dots are large. error of Le Roux in placing hi« cuts. The obverses of 

" 39 should read, ' reverse as 29,' etc. his 632 and 634 have been transposed. If you will bring 

"40 should have the words *du P^l^rinage' after down the obverse of his 632, you will find it agree with 

* souvenir.* mine. The other medal, represented by the obverse of 

**4i. Obverse as 29. his 634 and the reverse of his 632, is a more modern 

**42. Obverse as 30. medal struck about 1870 for children, sometimes called 

** 43. Similar to 30, etc * Enfants de Marie,' connected with the convents." If 

'*44. Similar to 32, etc. in the face of this evidence, Dr. Le Roux is unable to 

'* 46. Notre Dame de Lourdes. There are a number show cause to the contrary, it should be dropped from 

of varieties of medals sold at the church of N. D. dc L., the list. I wotild add that through the fatality which 

Montreal, but all that I have seen have impressions of sometimes accompanies the most careful proof reading, 

the church at the original Lourdes in France, which the date upon No. 12 was given as 1S87, when it should 

belongs to a totally different order of architecture from have been 1877. 

hat in Montreal. I have never heard that there was a 2 This Journaly April, 1872, p. 75. 



io AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [October, 

ever, mentioned by McLachlan or by Le Roux in his very complete "Medaillier." 
Mr. R. J. Devins of Montreal, surviving partner of the firm, writes me as follows 
regarding this counterstamp. "When I was first in business, owing to the numerous 
and endless oddities of coins (coppers) then in circulation, I punched every one I got 
hold of with the words 'Devins & Bolton, Montreal* I kept count up to eighteen 
hundred dollars, but did not give up stamping, and kept on until I had them about 
most all thus labelled." 

It has been thought by some numismatists, even in Canada, that the tokens of 
Holloway of London, pennies and half pennies, of 1857 and 1858, "pills and oint- 
ment," were struck for the Canadian provinces. This, however, seems an error. They 
appear to have been issued for Australia, and in that case cannot be included in the 
special British North American series. 

A. W. Burke, Toronto. 

69. Obverse, Within two circles, the Western hemisphere, surrounded by the 
inscription : globe • electric • battery Beyond outer circle, the inscrip- 
tion : ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ PRICE Jil.OO ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ I A. W. burke. TORONTO. ONT. 

Reverse. Two laurel branches, fastened by a clasp. Above, a crown ; upon base 
of which, HEALTH In field, two circles ; within inner of which, upon an oblique paral- 
lelogram, with four stars above and below, anti morbific Edges milled. White metal. 
24. Dies cut by Ellis. 

Le Roux's description differs from his figure, by omitting in the former the dots 
after globe and electric, and substituting commas for the dots in the address upon 
the obverse, and by giving dots after the words upon reverse. 

Le Roux, loc. cit,^ p. 183, No. 972, fig. 

Mr. McLachlan writes me that this was intended to be struck in zinc, with a 
copper plug, and sold as a small battery to be placed in baths, but that none were so 
made. 

C. E. A. Langlois, Toronto. 

70. Obverse, In field, a crown. Inscription : c. e. a. | langlois 
Reverse, drink | ♦ | sT leon | water Edges beaded. Brass. 12. 
Le Roux, loc, city p. 183, No. 973, fig. 

I learn from Mr. McLachlan that this was used in the Toronto branch of the St. 
Leon Water Company. Two glasses of water were sold for five cents, and this check 
was given to save the half cent, when only one glass was taken at the time. 

As having connection with the medals of medicine must be mentioned certain 
"temperance" pieces which, as I have elsewhere stated,' "directly recognize that it is 
wholly within the province of physicians to determine what beverages, and the amount 
of them which, shall be considered within the bounds allowable for the preservation of 
health." Some of these contain the pledge, with this restriction : " Unless for 
Medical or Religious purposes." Such are, 

71. Torbay Total Abstinence Society, Newfoundland, 1879. 

McLachlan, Amerjour of Numis.y Oct., 1884, p. 34, No. DXLIII ; Ibid,, Mont- 
real, 1886, p. 116; Le Roux, loc, cit.. No. 324, fig. 

72. Newfoundland Total Abstinence Society. 

McLachlan, Amer.Jour of Numis,, Oct., 1884, p. 34, No. DXLI ; Ibid., Montreal, 
1886, p. 116; Le Roux, loc, cit,. No. 325, fig. 

71, St. Johns (Newfoundland) Total Abstinence Society. 

McLachlan, Atner.Jour, of Nutnis,, Oct., 1884, p. 34, No. DXLII; Ibid,, Montreal, 
1886, p. 1x6 ; Le Roux, loc, cit,. No. 326, fig. 

Others have : "Except used Medicinally and by order of a Medical Man." 

74. Halifax (N. S.) Roman Catholic Total Abstinence Society, 1841. 

McLachlan, Amer, Jour, of Numis., July, 1883, p. 17, No. CCCLXXX ; Ibid,, 
Montreal, 1886, p. 59; Le Roux, loc, cit,, No. 476, fig. 

I The Sanitarian^ April, 1888, p. 351. 



1889] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 41 

75. St. Peter's (Dartmouth, N. S. }) Catholic Total Abstinence Society. 
/h'd., No. 477, fig. 

76. Catholic Temperance Society, Kingston (Ontario), 1842. 

McLachlan, Canadian Temperance Medals, Canadian Antiquarian and Nnmis. 
Journal, XIII, April, 1886, p. 50; Le Roux, No. 740, fig. 

^^, Irish Catholic Temperance Society of Ottawa, 1846. 

Ibid,, No. 741. fig. 

And two others still, have the last restriction in French : " Excepte en cas de 
Maladie et par ordre d'lin M^decin." 

78. Soci^t^ d' Abstinence Complete i Cork. 1838. 27. 

McLachlan, Amcr. Jour, of Numis,, July, 1881, p. ^^, No. CXCIV : Ibid,, Mont- 
real, 1886, p. 49; Le Roux, loc, cit.. No. 876, fig. 

79. As the last, but 20. 

Le Roux, loc. cit,. No. 878, fig. 

At first sight, it seems strange to see an apparently Irish medal, in the French 
. language, struck for Canada, at Birmingham, but they are accepted by the authorities 
as authentic. There is a Cork settlement (late Acton) in York Co., New Brunswick, 
west of St. John, but the pieces in question were very likely an issue of the wide-reach- 
ing campaign of Rev. Father Mathew. 

There are doubtless among Canadian practitioners, and in the families of those 
deceased, personal medals, conferred in Great Britain, France and elsewhere, for 
scientific attainments, and professional service in the field and during epidemics, but I 
have failed to learn of any such, though making inquiries through leading physicians 
at Halifax, Quebec, and Montreal. 

Ot the seventy-nine pieces that I have now described, fourteen (the medals of the 
University of Toronto, Trinity Medical College, University of Trinity College, and 
the Toronto General Hospital, the six Lesslie, the Burke and the Langlois tokens, and 
a temperance medal) belong to the Province of Ontario ; fifty-nine (the two McGiil 
University medals, the three of the University of Bishop's College, the forty-four of 
Ste. Anne de Beaupri, the doubtful Montreal Lourdes and the two (if both stand) of 
cholera, the three Le Roux and the two Devins and Bolton tokens, and probably the 
two French temperance medals) to that of Quebec; two (temperance medals) to that 
of Nova Scotia ; one (the Prince of Wales medal) to the Dominion of Canada ; and 
three (temperance medals) to the Island of Newfoundland. 

I shall next consider the medical medals, etc., of the West Indies and Central 
and South America. 



CAPTAIN KIDD'S TREASURE. 

The Hartford (Ct.) Times says the incessant rains which have lately been falling, 
have washed away a large excavation on the south side of Long Beach, a short distance 
from the Lordship farm, in Stratford, and there is much excitement there among the 
older residents, owing to the fact that several English coins have been found in the 
trenches caused by running water. Mr. Thomas Fairchild, who is one of the most 
observing men in town and who has the history of all the old residents at ready com- 
mand, says there is little doubt that Capt. Kidd's gold is buried somewhere in the 
vicinity of the Lordship. He has always contended that the wealth stolen by the 
pirate vessels of Kidd was brought ashore on Long Beach, and the discovery of gold 
and silver coins, laid bare by the heavy rains, only strengthens his convictions. 

Many years ago the Spiritualists of Bridgeport, Huntington, and Stratford, gath- 
ered a hundred or more strong, and dug for thirty days in search of Capt. Kidd's gold. 
The excavation covered several acres in area, and is now to be seen near the Lordship. 
A medium of some note pointed out the locality as the true one, and great faith was 
placed in her ability to discover hidden treasures. The restriction was placed upon 
the company that, while they searched, no one should speak above a whisper. This 

VOL. XXIV. 6 



42 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [October, 

stipulation was rigidly adhered to until the thirtieth day, when one of the party struck 
another accidentally on the foot with a'shovel. The pain was so great that the injured 
man uttered a terrible oath and the spell was broken. Then all departed silently to 
their homes, firmly believing that they had been very near to the coveted money. 

The coins that have just been found are of gold and silver, and are very old, 
dating back some two hundred years. The Stratford Land Improvement Company 
have been for months digging a trench and throwing up a dike to keep the tide-water 
off the marsh in the rear of Long Beach, and when they continue excavations near 
the wash-out, careful search will be made not to overlook the millions (?) that are 
supposed to lie deeply buried in the sand. 



MASONIC MEDALS. 

[Continued from VoL XXIV, p. 19.] 

DCCLXXXVI. Obverse, Figure of De Molay, Grand Master of the 
Order of the Temple, erect and facing ; his head bare, with flowing locks, his 
right hand extended and his left throwing back his cloak which is lined with 
ermine, showing him in full armor, the cross of the Order on his breast ; he 
is standing on a funeral pile, the ends of the logs showing in front, while 
flames are bursting out at the sides ; in the left background is a small building 
and below the left corner of the pyre b. r. in small letters. Legend, sepa- 
rated by a circular line from the field, loge ecossaise de jacques de molay 
[Scottish Lodge, etc.] A small rosette of five pellets at the bottom. Re- 
verse, On the centre of the field a radiant triangle with the letter G, over 
which and dividing the legend, are the square and compasses. Legend, op 
the left, MEDAiLLE and on the right decernee au and below f.\ [Medal 
awarded to Bro.] followed by a space for engraving a name. The letters 
have the proper accents. A rosette at the bottom as on the obverse. Bronze. 
Size 23. Rare.' 

DCCLXXXVIL Obverse, Various Masonic implements, — the triangular 
level, into which are grouped the compasses, trowel, gavel, gauge, and square, 
and a sprig of acacia branching around it ; over the upper angle of the level 
the letter G in a radiant star of five points. Legend, separated by a circle 
from the device, loge n° i8 les sept ecossais unis [Lodge No. i8 of the 
Seven United Scotchmen] ; at the bottom, completing the circle, g.*.l.\s.'.e.\ 
(Perhaps for Grande Loge Sept Ecossais, though I have not learned that this 
Lodge claimed such rank.) Reverse, Two branches of acacia separated at the 
top, and the square and compasses upon their crossed stems at the bottom, 
surround the inscription in four lines, l.*. loge | Lbs 7 ecossais unis | Av ¥.'. 

(space for name) | | .*. i88i.'. [The Lodge, etc., to Bro. ] Some 

have a loop at top, with ring for suspension. Silver (?) gilt. Size 24.' 

I This Lodge was of Paris, and ranged itself under DCXXXIV) ; this is evidently a member's badge of the 
the ** Supreme Conseil pour la France,^* June 24, 1838, symbolic decrees, as CLVI is of the ** chapitrale." The 



as No. 64. It seems to have been **en sommetl** in 1804. Lodge by which it was struck was estiablished by the 

Its name does not appear in the Calendar of the Grand Grand Orient Feb. 4, 1809, as stated under LI II. Bro. 

Orient for 1835, and I have not learned the date of its Shackles mentions that ** about 1820 it distinguished 

Charter. itself by giving prizes to poor scholars of the elementary 

2 This I describe from an engraving in the Revue schools and was still working in 1846;'' it soon after 

Beige de la Numismatique for 1804 > ^ro. Shackles has became dormant, but was revived under the auspices of 

also sent me a rubbing. Several medals of this Lodge the Supreme Council of France in 1S55, ^"^ '^ ^^^^^ ^^ 

I have already mentioned (LIII, CLVI, DCV, and was recently active. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 43 

DCCLXXXVIII. Obverse, Medal of the " Loge des Coeurs Unis" of 
Paris. The square and compasses in laurel, and enclosing a star, with legend 
as on obverse of CXLVII, but without od.f. Reverse, An altar with two 
burning hearts, and legend, as on reverse of CXLVII, but without date in 
exergue. The □ has three dots. A loop and ring for suspension at the top. 
Silver (?) gilt. Size 17 nearly.' 

DCCLXXXIX. Obverse, An angel with long wings pointing down- 
ward, standing on a portion of a sphere; her hands uplifted hold a triangular 
level in which is a five-pointed star ; the compasses with points upward are 
placed upon the level ; the angel is surrounded by a glory of rays ; the globe 
on which she stands has paris 5880 under her feet, and the remainder is 
divided by parallels and meridians ; in one of the compartments at the left 
near the side a small B ; a wreath of acacia, slightly open at the top, sur- 
rounds the field, within which between the rays and the leaves is the legend, 
L a LES AMIS DU PROGRES [The Lodge Friends of Progress.] Reverse, A 
wreath of oak with acorns on the right, and olive with berries on the left, 
open at the top and tied at the bottom with a bow of ribbon, surrounds a 
field slightly raised, and bordered with a circle of dots, and left blank for 
engraving. At the bottom, outside the wreath, in very small letters, duseaux 
A PARIS. Most of the medals have a knob or ball inserted at the top, which 
is pierced for a ring. Silver. Size 32.' 

DCCXC. Obverse, Similar design to preceding, but there is no wreath, 
and the letters of the legend are very near the edge. Reverse, Similar to 
the reverse of LXXXV, the square and compasses in a wreath, etc., and no 
legend. Bronze and gilt. Size 23. 

DCCXCI. Obverse, As the preceding. Reverse, The field plain for 
an inscription, and surrounded by a circle of dots, outside of which the legend 
SOUVENIR de reconnaissance and a five-pointed star at the bottom. This, as 
is evident from the legend, is a token of recognition of membership; the name 
of the recipient was probably engraved on the field, when presented. 
Copper, gilt. Size 23.^ 

DCCXCII. Obverse, The square and compasses enclosing a radiant 
blazing star of five points on which is the letter G ; the rays from the star 
extend into the field and are surmounted by the emblems. Legend, above, 
NOVO QUE SPARSiT LUMiNE TERRAS [And sheds abroad over the earth a new 
light ^] and below, □ de la tolerance. (The Lodge-mark encloses three dots 
and the first e in Tolerance has the accent.) [The Lodge of Tolerance.] 
Reverse, The inscription in seven lines, o.*. | de paris | — | recompense | au 

ZELE MA90N.-. | | AU R.'. F.'. | LA TOLERANCE | RECONNAISSANTE | In the 

sixth line a space for engraving after the letters r. f. which in the impression 

1 This description is from the Medal in Bro. Shack- Lodge uses those of the " Tricolor," as I learn from 
les' collection. An impression was shown in the Ma- Mons. Brichaut, who has given much attention to French 
sonic Exhibition for Devon and Cornwall, England, and Belgian Masonics. 

June 27- July i, 1887, catalogued as No. 337, where it is 3 These two medals doubtless belong to the same 

stated it was struck about 1880. Lodge which struck DCCLXXXIX. I describe them 

2 This Lodge was chartered with its Orient at Paris from impressions kindly sent me by Mr. Frossard. 
by the Grand Orient of France, June 28, 1880, and in- My thanks are also due to Mons. Brichaut who has sent 
stalled the 12th of the following July. As has been me an engraving of DCCXC, and several other recent 
mentioned elsewhere, many of the French Lodges adopt Masonics. 

special distinctive ribbons of one or more colors ; this 4 See Aeneid, iv : 584. 



44 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [October, 

before me reads ch. t^"- eloi 15 juillet 1852 [Orient of Paris, The Lodge 
Tolerance awards this recompense to Res. Bro. Ch. Tre. Eloi, July 15, 1852, in 
recognition of his Masonic zeal.] (The letters have the proper accents.) The 
medal has a ball at the top, pierced with a ring. Silver. Size 17.' 

DCCXCIII. Obverse, Inscription in three lines, loge | des artistes | 
o.*. de PARIS. [Lodge of Artists, etc.] Reverse, A Roman lamp, the flame 
on the right. No legend. Silver. Size 16.* 

I have some information concerning other Paris Masonics, and hope to obtain detailed 
descriptions before the next number of the youmaL w. t. r. m. 



EARLY MEDALS OF THE SAVIOUR. 

In a former number of \\\^ Journal is a notice of a bronze medal which had lately 
been brought from Perugia, Italy, the Hebrew inscriptions on which had been trans- 
lated by one of our Hebrew scholars. A description of this medal may be found in 
Milman's "History of Christianity," in the chapter on "Earliest Images of the 
Saviour," in a note to Page 390, Vol. 3. 

The other is adduced in an " Essay on Ancient Coins, Medals and Gems, as 
illustrating the Progress of Christianity in the Early Ages," by the Rev. R. Walsh. 
This is a kind of medal or tessera of metal, representing Christ as He is described in 
the apocryphal letter of Lentulus to the Roman Senate. It has a head of Christ, the 
hair parted over the forehead, covering the ears, and fallino^ over the shoulders ; the 
face is long, the beard short and thin. It has the name Jesus in Hebrew, and has 
not the nimbus, or glory. On the reverse is an inscription in a kind of cabalistic 
character, of which the sense seems to be, "The Messiah reigns in Peace; God is 
made man." This may possibly be a tessera of the Jewish Christians, or modelled 
after a Gnostic type of the first age of Christianity. See Discours stir les Types Imita- 
tifs de VArt du Christianisme^ par M, Raoul Rochette, 

In this connection I take the following interesting extract from an article on 
" Portraits of Our Saviour," in Harper's Magazine for May, 1886, containing a descrip- 
tion of a medal in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, England : — 

" Small images in brass in the form of statues, and medals bearing the bust of 
Christ, with legends or inscriptions in Hebrew and Greek, were frequent in the earliest 
times. These are believed to be of Gnostic origin, and to belong to the first, second 
and third centuries. They probably were used as tokens or amulets. The discovery 
of an example of this medal in 1793, at Bryngwyn, in Wales, where there had been an 
ancient temple, and others, led to the study of the archaeology of the Christ medals. 
An eminent authority, Hottinger, says that such as these were produced in gold and 
silver, as well as bronze ; and some with Jewish inscriptions were made for the early 
Jewish converts, and were even continued into the midde ages. One shows the medal 
found at the ancient circus in Wales. The inscription is in Hebrew, and reads, * The 
Messiah has reigned. He came in peace, and being made the Light of man. He lives.' 
This relic is now in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, but is regarded as a copy of a 
more ancient original. These medals may be classed according to their inscriptions, 
which are in Hebrew, Greek and Latin. The Hebrew medals were for Jewish 
converts, and were generally what may be called the Messiah class, as they bore some 
motto or title referrin;2^ to Christ as the Messiah." 

Translations of the Hebrew inscription were made by Professor Young and two 
other Hebrew scholars, which differ somewhat from the above, but not essentially. 

R. s. 

I This Medal, struck by the Lodge named, seems to ported by Mr. Frossard), and I think the medal, from 

correspond to the " Past Master's jewel ** as used in its character, must be rare. 

English and American Lodges. I nave seen but one 2 I describe this from an impression kindly sent me 

impression, which is in Gen. Lawrence's collection, (Im- by Mr. L. H. Low, and the only one I have ever seen. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 45 

'' BLACK DOGGES." 

Mr. Crosby's query about Black Dogges has aroused considerable interest. We print 
a reply below, which is exceedingly ingenious, and until we received the note from Mr. D. L. 
Walter, which follows it, were inclined to accept the explanation offered. 

The trouble with the theory however is that French authorities assign the ** Crowned C " 
pieces of Cayenne to Louis XV, whose reign began some years after the term came into use, 
which seems to dispose of the conjecture as to the origin of the name, so far as it relates to 
them. Yet it is by no means impossible that the slang term had some such origin. 
Editors American Journal of Numismatics: 

The youmaliox April, 1888, (p. 96,) contained a query from Mr. Crosby, about 
" Black Dogges," to which a further reference was made in the number for October 
of the same year (p. 47). Looking over some old volumes of the " Coin Collector's 
Journal '* I came across the following, which may perhaps add some light ; (See April 
1887, page 52:) "There are only two coins of the Island of Tobago, and even these 
are borrowed. They are Cayenne Sous, stamped with the letters t b and tobago. 
These curious pieces passed current on the Island for many years, under the singular 
name of Dogs. The t b variety was of the value of one dog, while that counter- 
stamped TOBAGO was of the value of two dogs and a half." So far the Coin Collector's 
Journal. 

These pieces, I may add, even with the counterstamp are not very rare, and 
without it not uncommon. They are * black money,' that is, washed with silver, or 
billon ; they look like billon. They are probably of French mintage. If I may hazard 
the suggestion, may not the name "dogges " arise from some play on words, or misap- 
prehension of the words Cayenne and chien or chienne, that is, dog, male or female, 
which particularly as pronounced in X,\\q patois of the Franco-American Colonies, might 
easily be confused. Of course the billon Sou, with nothing on the obverse but C 
surmounted by a crown and reverse blank, is the one I refer to, not the 1789 Two- 
Sous pieces with the inscription colonie de cayenne, which are so common. Now 
the law Mr. Crosby quotes is of 1721, the very year of the issue of the "Colonies 
Fran9oises " pieces of copper with a cipher of two L*s crossed, and it might be inferred 
that they are the " black dogges," were it not for the fact that pieces so called (as 
appears from the first portion of his query) were in circulation as early as 1693. I 
merely suggest this because they were struck, as is admitted, for Cayenne, and the 
others, with crossed Ls, apparently for all the Colonies, and undoubtedly circulated in 
Cayenne. 

Tobago became a French possession in 1677, and Cayenne, originally a French 
colony, had various masters, but from 1675 and onward was under the rule of France. 
If the crowned C pieces can be assigned to the close of the seventeenth century, the 
alternate possession of Cayenne by French and English would perhaps give us a clue 
to the origin of the name "Black Dogges." If they were called, as we may not unrea- 
sonably suppose, by the French, Cayennois, (plural Cayen noises,) we see at once how 
easy the transition vulgarly to chiens noirs, or in English, "black dogs," to which 
the fact that they were "black money " gives additional plausibility. The billon may 
be the chieus noirs, and the copper the halves, particularly as they were of different 
values. These conjectures are offered for your consideration, as a possible answer to 
the query. l. 

From the note mentioned above from Mr. David L. Walter, of New York, on the subject 
of these " negrine canines," we take some extracts, which throw further light on the subject. 
After remarking that the term seems to be a popular designation of some piece, in the nature 
of "slang," which thought induced him to look over a Dictionary of Argot, and other similar 
works, he found in " A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, founded mainly on 
the Materials collected by the Philological Society, etc." (Oxford, 1888) of which the first 
volume only (Letters A and B) has yet been published, the following: — 



46 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [October, 

" Black Dog. A cant name in Queen Anne's time for a bad shilling or other base silver 
coin. Obs, 

• " 1706, Luttrell, in Ashton, Reign of Queen Anne, II : 225. *The Art of making Black 
Dogs J which are Shillings or other pieces of Money, made only of Pewter double Wash'd.' 

"1724. Swift. Drapier's Letters. Works, 1755, Vol. II : 44. * Butchers' Half pence, 
black dogSy and others the like.' " 

Mr. Walter then turned to the latter passage, which is in Letter iii, where it appears that 
the Commissioners had said inter alia that Wood's were better and heavier than the old current 
coppers. Swift, (the Drapier) answers that Wood produced the worst specimens he could find, 
such " as were coined in small quantities by permission to private men, such as butchers' Half 
pence, black dogs, and others the like, or perhaps the small St. Patrick's coin, which passes for 
a farthing, etc." 

Queen Anne succeeded William III in March, 1702, but the term Black dogs was in 
popular use, as has been shown, some years before. The reference to the "St. Patrick's 
pieces," otherwise known as Mark Newby's coppers, reminded us of the article by Mr. White- 
head on that coin, in the journal (Vol. VII, pp. 30, 31), and also of the papers in the same 
volume, on the origin of these coppers ; there we find that they were coined in Ireland about 
1675 ^^ earlier, and that large numbers were brought to this country, where they were placed 
in circulation by Newbie and his friends. Mr. Whitehead observes : — 

"It is well known that the early colonists suffered much inconvenience, for want of a 
sufficient circulating medium, and several instances are on record, of the adoption of measures 
to give to the imported coins a fictitious value, in order to retain them in America, and in West 
Jersey there was an act passed * for the enhancing or raising Coins of Money to greater rates.' 

"In New York, such a procedure was discountenanced by the Duke of York [Colonial 
Docs. Ill, p. 234], but his Secretary, when communicating this to Gov. Andros, added, * I'me 
told that noe law prohibiting ye sending our brass farthings thither, if it be worth ye while to 
carry ym thither.' This was in 1675, ^"^ ^^ circumstances may have .become known to 
Newbie before his embarkation, for we are told that he brought with him a great number 
[Smith's New Jersey, p. 153, says *a parcel'] of Irish half-penny pieces, [Mickle's Gloucester, 
p. 48, note^ which are understood to have been under weight, or of less value than the standard 
coin ; probably of a similar character with the * brass farthings ' referred to by the Duke of 
York's Secretary. The number brought by him must have been considerable, or he may, as 
some have conjectured, have continued the manufacture of them after his arrival, [Elmer's Cum- 
berland, p. 122] for in May, 1682, at the session when he took his seat as a representative, the 
General Assembly repealed the act above referred to, for enhancing the value of coins, and 
passed the following : — 

" * VI. And for the more convenient payment of small sums, Be it Enacted by author- 
ity aforesaid, that Mark Newbie' s half pence, called Patrick's half pence, shall, from and after 
the said Eighteenth Instant, [May, when the repeal of the previous act was to go into opera- 
tion] pass for half-pence current pay of this Province, provided he, the said Mark^ give sufficient 
security to the Speaker of this House, for the use of the General Assembly from time to time, 
being that he, the said Marky his Executors and Administrators, shall and will change the said 
half-pence for pay, equivalent upon demand, and provided, also, that no Person or Persons be 
hereby obliged to take more than Jive shillings in one payment.' [Grants and Concessions, 
p. 445-]" 

There is nothing improbable in the supposition that these brass farthings circulated also 
to some extent in Boston and vicinity, and as they seem to have been called Black dogs in the 
Mother country, they very likely bore the same name here. Until further information is gained 
we may therefore consider that the "Black Dogges" referred to in Mr. Crosby's query were 
very possibly the Newby coppers, of which there were two sizes, whether designed for pence 
and halfpence or halfpence and farthings, is not settled. As to the origin of the name we can 
offer no suggestion. Some of these coppers may have been put into circulation in Cayenne by 
the English, previous to its acquisition by the French in 1677, and there is of course a possibil- 
ity that the theory of our correspondent above may have some foundation after all ; but with 
our present knowledge we must regard it though plausible, as rather fanciful. w. t. r. m. 



1889.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 47 

NOTES AND QUERIES. 

FRANKLIN MEDALS. 

Can any Journal reader inform me whether there are any Medals of Franklin struck to 
commemorate him as a Printer 1 Blades in his "Printers' Medals," says that many "have 
been issued in memory of Franklin the Politician, the Patriot, and the man of Science ; but, so 
far as I can learn, not one has commemorated the fact most interesting to us — that he was a 
famous Printer," . caxton. 

FRENCH MINT-MARKS AGAIN. 

My thanks are due to R. S. for the kind reply to my Query in the January Journal 
concerning Mint-marks; — the "small mark or figure, such as a lion, anchor, etc.," is there 
explained as indicating under whose directorship a piece was struck. This is the point I am 
anxious to be informed upon : — Where can one find the names of the directors indicated by such 
marks, and the mints over which they presided ? If this can be ascertained, it would help 
me to approximately date and certainly locate a medal, which can be positively assigned to a 
given place and period in no other way that I have been able to discover, as it has nothing 
to indicate its origin but the little device. Norfolk. 

AMERICAN SHILLINGS. 

An inquiry from abroad asks " What is an American Shilling ? " The term is of long 
standing, and has often been explained as a relic of Colonial days. Possibly the best answer 
we can give is found in the following " clipping." 

There is no American shilling, and no generally accepted value of such coin now in any 
part of the United States, except as relating to the value of the English shilling. Up to about 
i860, from the depreciated currency of Colonial times, what was called a New England or 
Yankee shilling, though there was no such coin, represented a value of i6§ cents, and this 
value attached to the term in many other States ; in New York currency the shilling similarly 
represented 12J cents, in Pennsylvania currency 13^ cents, and in Georgia and South Carolina 
2 1 % cents. 

BEES ON COINS. 

The emblem of Honey Bees upon coins is suggestive. This insect above the head of a 
figure signified future greatness. Over the head of his horse, the bee prophesied for Dionysius 
a career of glory. As he attempted to mount his horse, a swarm of honey-gatherers flew around 
him, which was explained by Gallotas to prognosticate " great success in war." 

A COIN photographed BY ELECTRICITY. 

Mr. F. Greene recently proved that a fac-simile of a coin can be impressed upon the 
moist film of a dry plate by electricity. The current passed between the terminals of a battery, 
one of which had been immersed in an acid solution, and the other connected with and resting 
upon the coin laid on the film of the plate, the latter being also immersed in the solution. 
After the current had passed a short time, the coin was removed and the plate developed. 
Soon a distinct image of the coin appeared. The experiment shows that electric action is a 
substitute for light. Here is an interesting field opened for investigation. Cannot some scien- 
tist try the experiment of passing the current through some conductive subject at a distance 
from the plate. If this is successful, there then follows the possibility of taking photographs 
by wire in the same manner as sound is transmitted. It would seem that Mr. Greene has made 
a more important discovery than he is aware of. — Exchange, 

AFRICAN money. 

Among the African curiosities lately exhibited in London was the iron money formed in 
the shape of flat spearheads which is used among the countries between the Falls and Nyang- 
we ; one of the larger pieces, perhaps the native equivalent for a ;£'ioo note, was tall as a man, 
while it represents the market value of two slaves. 

THE " AVALONIA" COPPER. 

The Coin dealers refuse to forget the stupendous blunder of that wise nan who called 
the Glastonbury token a pattern piece of Avalonia. We have noticed several squibs of the 
Cataloguers " poking fun " at the erudition of the article alluded to. The latest is contained in 
Mr. Frossard's announcement of his 94th Sale, to take place October 18, where under No. 546 

he has " Avalonia The scholastic reputation of one of the most illustrious College 

professors of the country is intimately associated with this curious token ; it may be said to rest 
upon it firmly as upon a rock." 



48 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [October, 1889. 

COIN SALES. 

AMERICAN COINS IN ENGLISH SALES. 

Some of the finest and many rare American coins appear at the sales in London. In a late Cata- 
logue we noticed a New York Cent, 1787* obv., Eagle, E Pluribus Unum ; rev.. Excelsior, etc., fine and 
rare; Immunis Columbia, New York, 1787; Neo Eboracus, 1787, rev.. Liber natus, etc., v. f. and exces- 
sively rare; Nova Constellatio (3), v. f . ; New York, 1786, Non Vi Virtute Vici, rev., Neo, etc., v. f. 
and ex. rare. U. S. Cents, 1793. '4. '5». 1801 ; Half do., 1795, all v. f. ; New Jersey (2), Rosa Americana 
and other Americans (58^, Pine-tree Shillings (5), Virginia Halfpenny, Auctori Connec, Massachusetts, 
etc., etc. Medals of Washington, various ; Rhode Island and others. These brought excellent prices. 

Of the extent of these sales very few are aware. Among the lots were twenty-five Double (gold) 
Sovereigns of George IV, all very fine; of Crowns of George III, twenty-one, very fine: George II, Two 
Guinea pieces (11), all very fine ; ** Spade" Guineas, George III, some twenty-five ; and of other types a 
larger number. 

EDITORIAL. 

We have received a letter from Mr. Lyman H. Low, written from Amsterdam, where he 
has been attending a large sale of coins, held there early in September ; he was the only repre- 
sentative in person on the ground, of English or American coin dealers, though we learn that 
Mr. Chapman, of Philadelphia, had been there and left some bids, and doubtless others had 
correspondents who were present, since ** competition runs high at times. Coins," he says, 
" bring better prices here than in New York, and they can sell any number of high-priced 
pieces here, while with us the number of buyers of such coins and medals is much more 
limited. All English Medals are running very high, and Foreign Medals having reference to 
America go * way up ! * The sale is very tedious : I sat from 10 to 4 yesterday, and resumed 
at 7 P. M., remaining till 10, but the sale continued until 2. I have obtained some choice 
pieces for American customers." Mr. Low is proposing to look in on the dealers in Brussells, 
Paris, London, etc., on his way home, and expects by the middle of October to be ready to 
show his acquisitions to his American friends. He mentions that the buyers of Masonics 
have apparently cleared the market of the scarcer pieces, and that they will probably bring 
better prices here, in the near future, than ever before. 

Our thanks are due to friends and correspondents abroad for favors received, in the 
form of Catalogues and announcements of coming sales. Messrs. Adolph Weyl, of Berlin, 
Otto Helbing of Munich, J. Schulman of Vienna, and Giulio Sambon of Milan, have frequently 
remembered us. Mons. Hoffman of Paris, and the Messrs. Lincoln of London, are always 
ready to advise us of coming sales when American coins are to be offered. From Leipzig we 
receive regularly the " Numismatischer Verkehr," published by C. G. Thieme, a very full Cata- 
logue of coins, medals, " orders," books, etc., particularly rich in ancient coins, for sale at 
fixed prices. Mr. Thieme will willingly send copies to American correspondents who may 
desire to purchase, if they will forward their addresses, and his prices as a rule are very 
reasonable. Masonic Collectors will generally find a list of fifteen or twenty pieces in each 
issue. His address is Gewandgasschen No. 5, Leipzig. 

By some accident we have failed to receive the continuation we expected of the bright 
papers entitled Gleanings, with which Mr. Tasker-Nugent has favored the Journal for severa 
numbers. We hope to resume before long the publication of another series. 



CURRENCY. 

A penny saved is better than a dollar invested in a Louisiana lottery ticket. 

A MODERN instance of transmutation is that of a man who is engaged in turning ducks 
into ducats. 

Every word we speak is the medal of a dead thought or feeling, struck in the die of some 
human experience. o. w. holmes. 



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January, 1890. 




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CONTENTS. 

Medallic Memorials of the Great Comets, . 49 Engraved Virginian Medal, . ... 64 

The Armada Medals, 56 Masonic Medals, 65 

Brass Cash and the Age of Bronze, . . 56 Coin Sales: 

The Medals, Jetons, and Tokens illustrative Frossard's Sale, 70 

of the Science of Medicine, • • . 57 Chapmans' Sale, 70 

Washington Medals, ... . . . 62 Book Notices, 71 

Gleanings : Archaeology : 

Napoleonic Medal relating to the Louvre, 63 Remains of the Mound Builders, . . 71 

A Royal Collection of Medals, . , . 63 Editorial 72 

** Not Worth a Rap," . . . . 64 Currency, 72 



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The American yournal of Numismatics has probably done more than any other single 
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investigation of such material as this Quarterly furnishes, would come with the freshness of a 
revelation. Few sciences bear directly or indirectly upon so many human interests, or throw 
light into so many dark corners, as this study of coins, medals, and tokens. It is the daughter 
of metallurgy no less than of fine art, the handmaid of histor}', economics, and archaeology. 
The American Journal is rich in its original matter, as well as in its selections from the 
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AM ER IC AN 

JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS, 

AND 

Bulletin of American Numismatic and Archaeological Societies. 
Vol. XXIV. BOSTON, JANUARY, 1890. No. 3. 

MEDALLIC MEMORIALS OF THE GREAT COMETS, 

AND THE POPULAR SUPERSTITIONS CONNECTED WITH THEIR APPEARANCE. 

BY DAVID L. WALTER. 
[Continued from Vol. XXIV, p. 31.] 

III. THE COMET UPON A VERY RARE MEDAL OF CARDINAL HIPPOLYTE 
DEI MEDICI, BORN 151 1, DIED 1535. 

HiPPOLYTE de' Medici was a natural son of Julian II, and great-grandson 
of Cosmo de' Medici. He was born in 1511 ; and in 1529 his cousin, Pope 
Clement VII, notwithstanding his youth — he being then only eighteen years 
old — his illegitimacy, and his dissolute habits, which totally unfitted him for 
such positions, appointed him Cardinal, Vice Chancellor of the Church, and 
Administrator of the Bishopric of Avignon. An extraordinary appointment 
truly, even for a Medici ! Hippolyte appears to have been an exceedingly 
strange ecclesiastic otherwise. Sent to the Emperor Charles V, as an Envoy 
to induce him to declare war against the Turks, he himself raised a regiment 
of Hungarians and fought in Hungary against the unbelievers. This, accord- 
ing to historians, was the only creditable action of his career. He spent 
the remainder of his short life in debauch^ and in conspiracy against 
the Popd, Paul III, who had refused him some favors, after Hippolyte as 
Cardinal had been instrumental in his election to the pontificate ; and Alex- 
ander de' Medici, whom Hippolyte thought was unjustly preferred to himself 
in the government of the Republic. The latter, Hippolyte attempted to 
assassinate by means of an infernal machine. Betrayed by an accomplice, he 
fled to a place near Tivoli, where, while in concealment, he died at the age 
of twenty-four years ; not without suspicions of his having been poisoned by 
Alexander de' Medici. When to these details of so short a career historians' 
add that he always dressed like a cavalier, wore a sword, went to the hunting 

I See Nouvelle Biog. Gen. ; Varchi, Istoria Fiorentina; Auberi, Histoire des Cardinaux. 
VOL. XXIV. 7 



so AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [January, 

field, visited the theatres very often, and the Church very seldom, a strange 
picture of a Prince of the Church is presented. The medal is thus described. 

Obverse, Bare-headed bust to right. Exergue, a wreath. Legend, hippolytvs 

MEDICIS 

Reverse. A Comet with a long tail amid many stars. Legend, inter omnes. 
Size 46 mm. About 29 A. S. 

A specimen of this rare and possibly unique medal was in my collection when 
this paper was written, and was with nearly all my medals of Comets stolen therefrom 
August, 1889. It is of bronze, cast (and tooled.^) and has a very heavy corded rim, 
which appears to have been cast with the medal, but may have been soldered on. 

The reverse legend is evidently from the verse of Horace quoted in the descrip- 
tion of the Julian Comet (^.t;.), "Micat inter omnes,** etc. It is possible that this 
inscription was chosen because his father's name was Julian. 

Armand speaks of this medal ; says he had heard of it but never saw it. While 
a Comet might aptly enough typify the erratic course of Hippolyte, the base flattery 
of the inscription on the reverse of the medal (evidently intended to convey the idea 
of his shining like the star of Caesar) is characteristic of the low condition of the 
public sentiment of the day, and the venality of the medalist. 

IV. THE COMETS OF 1556 AND 1558. 
COMETS OF THE .(ABDICATION? AND) DEATH OF THE EMPEROR CHARLES V. 

(WITH NOTICE OF COMETS OF 1506 AND 1539). 

The greatest monarch of the age casting off his regal robes and assum- 
ing those of a monk ; changing his palaces for the monastery of St. Justus ; 
and his title of Emperor for that of Brother of the Order ! What wonder 
that the civilized world of the time, full of faith in the mysteries 'of divine 
revelation, and belief in the direct interference of God in the affairs of the 
great of the earth, sought for some sign of supernatural origin to account for 
the extraordinary occurrence. 

The Comet! what better sign could there be? And most writers are 
agreed that the Comet of 1556 and the fear that it indicated his approaching 
end, induced the Emperor to retire to the monastery. M. Guillemin quotes 
the Cometographie, to the effect that when the Emperor saw the Comet he 
doubted not that his end was near. He is said by another writer to have 
exclaimed, ** His ergo indiciis me mea fata vocant" (This is a sign to me 
that my fate calls me) , and that therefore he ceded the imperial crown to his 
brother Ferdinand a few months later, having already given the throne of 
Spain to his son Philip. On the other hand, it is asserted that he abdicated 
in 1555, and could not have been affected as above described by the Comet 
of 1556. Van Loon, quoting good authors, gives the date of his investiture 
of Philip as King of Spain and the Netherlands, October 25, 1555. 

The author of a rare and curious little work entitled ** Epitome de la 
Vida y Hechos del Invicto Emperador Carlos V," which work was originally 
published in 1622, and from which we shall have occasion to quote freely, 
says that the formal renunciation of the Emperor was on the i6th of January, 
1556 (that is, of the empire), so that it is possible that his giving up the 
empire was caused or hastened by the Comet, and the inscriptions on the 
medals would be very appropriate to his state of mind and apprehension of 



1890.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 51 

approaching death if such were the case. But as only one medal is dated, 
and that is of 1558 (date of his death), we will describe them together. 

As to the great Comet of 1558 there is no dispute. It unquestionably 
announced the death of the Emperor according to all the contemporaneous 
writers. It was seen in the Netherlands (according to Van Loon) about the 
end of August. (It was visible in England August 4th.) The author of the 
Epitome thus refers to it: ** Predixo la muerte de Carlos . . vn Cometa: al 
principio de la enfermedad se inclino al Setentrion, al fin se fixo en il mismo 
Monasterio, y desparecio en muriendo Carlos," etc. (The death of Charles 
was foretold by a Comet. At the beginning of his sickness it inclined to 
the north, at the end it became fixed over the Monastery itself, and disappeared 
when Charles was dying.) It is related that this terrible Comet announced 
not only the death of Charles, but of three kings, four queens, the Pope, the 
Doge of Venice, ten cardinals, two electors, and many others of high degree, 
who all died during the same fatal year (Van Loon, quoting Ulloa, Leven van 
K. Karel, i, e. Life of the Emperor [Kaiser] Karl). Van Mieris gives in 
Dutch an account of this Comet almost identical with that of the Spanish 
author above quoted from.' The medals may be described as follows: 

1. Obverse, The Comet as a blazing five-pointed star, surrounded by rays, and 
crowned. Legend, monstrant • regibvs * astra • viam (The stars show to the kings 
the way i. e, to heaven.) 

Reverse, A cypress, the emblem of mourning, dividing the date in field 15-58. 
Legend, aeqvitas v aeqvalitas •> v v v "¥ •> (Equity Equality).* Size 30 mm. 19 
A. S. Copper. 

The idea is somewhat obscure ; the meaning may possibly be, that in death there 
is equality, and thereafter equal justice. 

Our plate II, No. i. Van Loon I, 23. 

2, Obverse, Adoration oi the Infant by the three kings ; overhead the Comet. 
Exergue, * monstrant • | • regibvs • ast | ra • viam • (The stars show to the kings the 
way,) referring alike to the Comet then visible and the Star of Bethlehem. 

Reverse, (The Judge of the Universe.) God in judgment over a man and woman 
and the world. Legend, redde • rationem | villicationis | tve • lvc. * 16. * (Render 
an account of thy stewardship. Luke 16 : [2.]) Copper jeton. 30 mm. 19 A. S. 

Van Mieris, III, p. 442, No. i. Neumann, 34,053. Our plate II, No. 2. 

$• Obverse, Bust of Philip II surrounded by a wreath instead of legend. 

Reverse, As obverse of No. 2, Copper jeton. 30 mm. 19 A. S. 

Van Mieris, III, p. 442, No. 2. Neumann, 34,054. Our plate II, No. 2 A. 

There is a jeton of 1562. 

4. Obverse, Bust of Philip II to right. Legend, g dv bvreav des finances. 
1562 (Jeton of the Finance Bureau.) 
Reverse, As obverse of No. 2. 

I Van Loon, quoting Strada, says that a like Comet believe that these warnings contain any certainty ; that 

had api>eared before the death of the Emperor's wife in ;he experience of thousands of years has given credit 

1539; he might have added, and before the death of his to them is unquestionable.) 

father Philip in 1506. The "Epitome" gives a very As to the Comet of 1539, the same work says, speak- 

curious account of the latter Comet, as follows : Pro- ing of the death of the Empress Isabel : No faltado 

nostic6 su muerte vn Cometa palido, que dias ante se las senales que suelen prevenir tan grandes sucessos 

mostr6 al Poniente, y el mismo Rey lo obseru6 en pues aquel dia huo eclipse de sol y aparecio uno 

Tudela. Que contengan certeza estes anuncios no lo Cometa notable. (The signs that usually foretell such 

creo, que la experiencia de millares de afios les ha grave events did not fail that day, there was an eclipse 

dado credito, es sin duda. (His death was foretold by a of the sun and a notable Comet appeared.) 

pale Comet which appeared in the West days before, 2 We represent the ornaments on these pieces as 

and the king himself observed it in Tudela. I do not closely as possible with the type obtainable. 



S2 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [January, 

In my own collection, probably the old die used for reverse or copied. Our 
plate II, No. 2 B. 

Van Mieris says, "Dewyl eene Ster, toen de Zaligmaaker der Waereld gebooren 
was, den Wyzen uit het Oosten den weg wees, en aantoonde op welke plaats zy dien 
Koning der Jooden konden aanbidden, heeftmen de Star en de gemelde Wyzen, op de 
voorzyde van den eersten, hunne gaaven aan den Zaligmaaker offerende afgebeeld ; en 
omdat diergelyke Star ook den Keizer Karel tot eenen voorbode zyner Hemelsche 
reize streckte, en sommige willen dat de voomeemde Wyzen koningen geweest zyn, 
leestmen, zoo in opzigt van de zelven als van andere gekroonde Hoofden, dit byschrift 
op den vorgroond monstrant regibvs astra viam. 

" Op de keerzyde is het laatste Oordeel en de opstand der Dopden afgescheft, en 
dewyl ieder rekenschap van zynen handel moet geeven, en de Keizer tot dit einde twee 
jaar in eenzamheid geleeft hadt, om zich met zynen Hemelschen Vader te verzoenen, 
vindtmen ter vermaanige van alien, inzonderheid van die in *t bestier der Landen zyn, 
onder het beeldwerk deezen Bybel spreuk, redde rationem villicationis tue.*' 

(Because a Star, when the Saviour of the world was born, showed the way to the 
place where they could worship the King of the Jews to the wise men out of the East, 
the star and the wise men offering their gifts are portrayed on the obverse of the first 
medal [our No. 2,] and because a like star also served as a harbinger of his heavenly 
journey to the Emperor Charles V, and some will have it that the wise men were 
kings, they added the inscription referring as well to them as to other crowned heads, 
monstrant, etc.. The stars show to the kings the way.) 

(On the reverse is the last judgment and the resurrection of the dead, and as 
every one must give an account of his doings, and the Emperor had lived two years in 
solitude for the purpose of reconciling himself with his heavenly Father, we find as a 
warning to all, and particularly to those in whose hands the government of countries 
is placed, the Scripture text, redde, etc.. Render an account of thy stewardship.) 

V. THE COMET OF 1577-78. 
COMET OF THE ARCHDUKE MATHIAS. 

The Dutch jetons commemorating this Comet (I know of no other 
medallic memorials) , at the same time celebrate the coming into the Nether- 
lands of the Archduke Mathias, brother of the Emperor Rudolph. Mathias 
had been invited by many Catholic noblemen, who feared the ascendency of 
the Protestant Prince of Orange, and yet were opposed to Don John of 
Austria, the Governor for Philip II of Spain, to come into the Netherlands 
and assume the Governor-Generalship ; Mathias being the nephew of Philip 
as well as brother of the Emperor. Mathias, still under age, fearing that the 
Emperor, his brother, would be averse to the scheme from dread of offending 
Philip II, and would prevent his acceptance of the office, slipped out of his 
chamber at night (October 3, 1577), in his nightdress and barefooted, and left 
Vienna the same night disguised as a servant, with his face blackened. 
He arrived at Cologne attended only by two gentlemen and a few servants. 
Don John of Austria (the Governor) was naturally furious, and the Emperor 
(Mathias* brother) affected to be so, although some writers seem to think 
tnat he was not so ignorant of Mathias* journey as he pretended to be. 

The Queen of England (Elizabeth"), who was the ally of the States at 
the time, informed the States General tnrough her minister, that she would 
withdraw her aid from them if the Prince of Orange were deposed from the 
leadership, ** for on him only did she rely for a favorable result of the war and 
the troubles in the Netherlands." The representative of the States General 



1890.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 53 

answered, that **the great nobles thought that by making Mathias Governor- 
General, with a Council of native Netherlanders, the liberties of the country 
would be safe, and that through the influence of his brother, the Emperor, 
who would no doubt be easily reconciled, the Spanish king might be induced 
to acquiesce, and thus all further trouble avoided." The English representa- 
tive answered emphatically, that unless the Prince of Orange was appointed 
Lieutenant-General for the Archduke, the Queen would withdraw her aid. 
The medals described hereafter were no doubt struck by the Catholic party ; 
those of 1577 when Mathias first came into the Netherlands. They are 
dated November 14, and that according to Van Loon was the date on which 
the Prince of Orange met Mathias and solemnly welcomed him to Antwerp. 
Other historians give other dates to this event, as the nth and 21st Novem- 
ber, and still others the 1 7th of December. (See them quoted by Van Loon.) 
And this is history ! ! 

The medals dated 1578 were probably struck when Mathias made his 
Triumphal Entry into Brussels in that year, after being reduced to a mere 
figure-head by his signature to the Declarations which the States General 
and the real ruler (Orange), had demanded of him. The details of the career 
of Mathias in the Netherlands are most accessible to English readers in the 
great work of Motley. Particularly noticeable are the accounts of the entry 
of Mathias into Brussels, which is also described with great detail in the 
"Triumphante Inkomst van Mathias," by Jean Houwaart, a sort of Dutch 
Lord Chesterfield, who arranged the reception ceremonies, as he had done 
on the occasion of the entry of the Prince of Orange. Besides the aforesaid 
valuable work, Houwaart had also composed many plays and poems, and 
sixteen books, prescribing to young folks the rules of duty which they ought 
to follow when married. So vivid are the descriptions of the Triumphal 
Entry, that when we read them we seem to witness the scene itself. We 
almost hear the music of the many bands, the gorgeous cavalcade passes 
before us, we behold the fair ladies in the balconies from which hang the rich 
stufis of the Orient, the blazing torches, although it was broad daylight, and 
the streets strewn with flowers, although it was January. Twenty-four thea- 
tres were erected upon the square, filled with the allegorical tableaux which 
the Dutch ** Rhetorical Societies " were so fond of representing. And the 
Comet was seized upon by the medalist as a fitting reverse, for did it not 
portend good in this instance ? 

On the other hand, there is a very curious letter still extant in the 
archives, which is quoted by Motley also. It was written by the Protestant 
Landgrave William of Hesse to John Casimir, the Prince Palatine, who had 
asked his advice as to marching into the Netherlands. The Landgrave 
dissuades him from intermeddling in the confusum chaos of Netherland poli- 
tics, particularly as the Duke d'Alen9on had invaded the country ; and says : 
" Summa der Comett und die grosse prodijia so diesz jahr gesehenn zverden 
wollen ihre wirckung haben. Gott gebe das sie zu eynen gufen ende lauffen!' 
(Above all the Comet and the great prodigies seen this year will have their 
effect. God grant that they may lead to a good ending.) Again, when 
John of Nassau, brother of William of Orange, asked the advice of the 
worthy Landgrave (which he did not follow when he got it) as to taking 
office in the Netherlands, he counselled him in his usual homely fashion 



54 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [January, 

'* not to dip his fingers in the olla podridar He believed that the horrors of 
the rule of the Duke of Alva and Requesens were but a prelude to the 
misfortunes yet to befall the Netherlands, and as a reason for his cheerful 
prediction again assigned "the Comet."' 

Van Loon, Vol. I, 239-247 ; Motley (Harper's edition). Vol. Ill, 343-349. 

As to the Comet itself the details are meagre, Van Loon only saying 
(French edition) that the reverses of the medals allude to a frightful Comet 
(une Comete affreuse) that commenced to appear in the heavens the nth of 
November at the 15th degree of Aries. It was as large as Venus and drew 
after it a tail of fire thirty degrees long and extending from the East to the 
West. 

The medals are as follows, all Holland jetons of copper, and all size 
30 mm., about 19 A. S., except when otherwise noted. 

A. MEDALS WITH DATE NOVEMBER 14, 1577. 

I. Obverse, The Archduke in a chariot (quadriga) driving four horses at great 
speed ; underneath are clouds, in his left hand is a whip, one of the horses rears, and 
his head is visible above those of the other three ; overhead is the sun. Legend, 
SPEM >< PERT ^ MATHiAs 1S77. 14. No(vember) + (Mathias brings hope) ; no signs of an 
inner circle. 

Reverse, A landscape by the sea, two pieces of land, one in the bottom, small, 
with a tower or lighthouse, and one larger above, also with towers ; between them the 
sea, and in the upper land the mouth of a river ; above all an immense Comet, under 
which are clouds and in the centre a dot. Legend, offensi x nvminis • astrvm • 4- 
(the star of offended divinity.) Traces of an inner circle. 

Plate II, fig. 3, from a specimen in my own collection. 

2. Obverse, Very similar to No. i. The sun is in the upper centre of the coin, 
no small piece of land above the letters in exergue. Legend, • spem • •:• • pert • •:• • 
MATHIAS • 1 577 • 14 • NO : + . 

Reverse. Similar to No. i, but the landscape is better executed, with more 
clouds, no inner circle and no dot. The legend commences on the left hand side, not 
on the top as in No. i ; • offensi • + • nvminis • + • astrvm • + • 

Van Loon, I, 239 I ; our plate II, No. 4. 

There is a variety described in Pestilentia in Nuntntis, which differs from 
the above in having only a dot after astrvm, and a little lily on the reverse (which is 
like our No. i), but it has simply periods between the words of the obverse (in which 
it varies from our No. i). 

3. Obverse. An entirely different design, representing the Archduke in a 
chariot, etc., as before, within a sharply defined inner circle of fine dots. Legend, 
between the outer and inner circles, spem • pert * mathias •.' a2. 1577 : 14 n(o.^) 
(The only variety with aP = Anno). 

Reverse, Within an inner circle, an entirely different landscape, and a differently 
drawn Comet, with a tail like a feather. Legend, between the inner and outer circle, 
offensi • nvminis • ASTRVM .«. Coppcr. 28 mm. 18 A. S. 

Our plate II, No. 5, from a specimen in my own collection. 

I The poor index to Motley's great work contains author of this paper, in fact, having an indistinct idea 

absolutely nothing by which this quotation could be that years ago he had found some allusion to a Comet in 

verified. There is no reference to 'Cornet/ * Hesse,* Motley, had to search the whole work carefully to dis- 

•William,* * Landgrave,* or anything relating thereto. The cover it. Another instance of the value of a good index« 



1890.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 55 

This is a rather extraordinary piece. All the others, of 1577 and 1578 alike, 
have a family resemblance, being the ordinary Dutch jetons on thin planchets, and 
struck from a die. This is on a very thick planchet, and cast. It is, however, unques- 
tionably original and of the period, probably an imitation. The workmanship, were it 
not cast, would be better than that displayed on the others. 

B. MEDALS DATED 1578. 

4* Obverse, ' The Archduke in a chariot as before, whip in his hand, rearing 
horse, etc. Legend, commencing on the left hand, low down, spem -x* pert 
•X- MATHiAS. Exergue, 15 +78. 

Reverse. Very similar to No. i, but has no lily in legend, and the Comet's tail 
is more spread. Legend, commencing in left hand corner, • offensi • x • nvminis : 
ASTRVM • X • The punctuation marks a little uncertain. 

Plate II, No. 6, from specimen in my collection. This looks as if the die was 
altered from 1577. 

5. Obverse, The Archduke in a chariot drives more leisurely, no whip in his 
hand, and no sun above. Legend, • spem • adfert • mathias • 

Reverse, The Comet among many clouds, over a walled and many-towered 
city (no sea), all within an inner circle. Legend, offensi • nvminis • astrvm. • 
1578 : 

Van Loon, I, 239 II ; our plate II, No. 7. 

There are no doubt many minor varieties, differing only in punctuation. These 
medals must have been struck in great quantities and except No. 3 are not rare. 
Neumann describes altogether six varieties. After much study I am unable to identify 
them, as he only distinguishes them by the punctuation, and very few specimens are 
in fine enough condition to make that a reliable guide. They are probably all de- 
scribed above. See Neumann, Nos. 34,217-34,222. Neumann also (No. 34,186) gives 
a piece similar to those described, with the date 1574! ! ! as being in his own collec- 
tion. I cannot consent to recognize this. Mathias' coming had never been heard of 
at that time, nor is there any record of a Comet that year. Van Loon says that these 
jetons have been restruck (.^) in later times (dans des tems post6rieurs ont ^t^ renouvell6s 
^ differentes reprises), and probably if this 1574 exists, it is a counterfeit of later 
fabrication. 

6. Obverse, An armed figure bearing a lance (emblem of war), trampling down 
growing flowers, which, however, spring up all around (representing the liberties of 
the people trampled on by the armed Spaniard and yet springing up again). Legend, 
attrita recresco (trampled down, I grow again). 

Reverse, The Comet over a many-towered city, within an inner circle. Legend, 
offensi • nvminis • astrvm • 1.5.7.8. 

Van Loon, I, 247 ; our plate II, No. 8. 

This medal, like all those of 1578, was probably struck on the occasion of the 
great banquet given to Mathias at Brussels, January 21, 1578, at which, after the 
manner of the country, two actors addressed the guests with rhetorical speeches. One 
of them represented " The heart that sighs after a good which it expects," and the 
other, the " Consolation of the people." The reverse inscription, it is said by some, 
referred to the wrath to be expected, as a result of the frivolity of some citizens who 
had the hardihood to represent the Comet in the procession of the Triumphant Entry 
by paper lanterns. It bears no inscription alluding to Mathias, and was probably 
struck by the extreme anti-catholic party. 

[To be continued.] 



56 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [January, 



THE ARMADA MEDALS. 

At page 89 of the April number (1889) of th^ Journal, I stated that I hoped to 
find room for a note respecting the designer of the large medal a, and a further mention 
of the Tapestries. Ill health and enforced absence from home, books, and manuscripts, 
have been causes potent in delaying the promised communication, which, however, I 
now proceed to make. 

I have good reason to conjecture that the designs, if not the rtianipulative execu- 
tion, of medal a, and probably b and c, should be assigned to Nicolas Hildeyard, or 
Hilliard, best known as Queen Elizabeth's miniature painter. Now, bearing in mind 
that Hilliard was brought up to the craft of a goldsmith ; that, after the Queen's de- 
cease, James I appointed him, by patent, his principal drawer of small portraits and 
" embosser of medals in gold ; *' that he had previously been appointed ** goldsmith, 
carver, and portrait painter" to Queen Elizabeth, the following extract from the Do- 
mestic Papers of her reign, dating four years only before 1588, demonstrates, precisely 
enough, that Hilliard was then employed upon art work akin to these medallic concep- 
tions : 

"1584. July 8. Richmond. The Queen to Derick (Dirck?) Anthony, graver to the 
mint, and to Nicholas Hildyard. As our Great Seal, by much use, waxes unserviceable, we have 
resolved that a new one shall be made. We therefore desire you to emboss in lead, wax, or 
other fit stuff, patterns for a new one, according to the last pattern made upon parchment by 
you, Hildyard, and allowed by us ; and by the same pattern to engrave and bring to perfection 
with speed a new Great Seal in silver, of convenient massiveness, in form as near as may be to 
the former, and when finished, deliver it to our Chancellor, to be by him brought to us." 

No other names, of which I am aware, are in documentary existence as being, in 
1584, connected with the production of art-work at the Queen's mint ; and if Anthony 
and Hildyard were bracketted for such employment as designing and completing a 
Great Seal in that year, why should they not have been engaged, four years later, upon 
the production of these Armada medals } 

In respect of the Tapestries I have not yet been able to learn how they were 
secured by the House of Lords ; but part of their history is as follows : 

After the departure of the Spaniards, Howard of Effingham, desirous to commem- 
orate the British exploits performed under his leadership, ordered ten pieces of hang- 
ings to be executed in Flanders, where they were woven by one Francis Spiering, from 
designs of Cornelius de Vroom. That they were in possession of Lord Howard, in 
1602, appears from the following excerpt from the State Papers, Rolls issues : 

" 1602. Dec : 23. John Chamberlain to Dudley Carleton. Mention made that * the 
Lord AdmiraFs presents to the Queen on feasting her were less precious than was expected, 
being only a suit of apparel, whereas it was thought he would bestow his rich hangings of all 
the fights with the Spanish Armada in 'ZZ' " 

WM. TASKER NUGENT. 



BRASS CASH AND THE AGE OF BRONZE. 

The familiar little brass cash, with the square hole for stringing them together 
on a thread in the centre, are, strange to say, the lineal descendants, in unbroken order, 
of the bronze axe of remote Celestial ancestors. From the regular hatchet to the 
modern coin one can trace a distinct, if somewhat broken succession, so that it is im- 
possible to say where the one leaves off and the other begins — where the implement 
finally merges into the medium of exchange. Here is how this curious pedigree first 
worked itself out. In early times, before coin was invented, barter was usually con- 
ducted between producer and consumer with metal implements, as it is still in Central 
Africa at the present day with Venetian glass beads and rolls of red calico. Payments 
were all made in kind, and bronze was the commonest sort of specie. A gentleman 



1890.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 57 

desirous of effecting purchases in foreign parts went about the world with a number 
of bronze axes in his pocket (or its substitute), which he exchanged for other goods 
with the native traffickers in the country where he did his primitive business. At first, 
the early Chinese in that unsophisticated age were content to use real hatchets for this 
commercial purpose ; but, after a time, with the profound mercantile instinct of their 
race, it occurred to some of them that when a man wanted half a hatchet's worth of 
goods he might as well pay for them with half a hatchet. Still, as it would be a pity 
to spoil a good working implement by cutting it in two, the worthy Ah Sin ingeniously 
compromised the matter by making thin hatchets, of the usual size and shape, but far 
too slender for practical use. By so doing he invented coin, and, what is more, he 
invented it far earlier than the rival claimants to that proud distinction, the Lydians, 
whose electrum staters were first struck in the seventh century B. C. But, according 
to Professor Terrien de la Couperie, some of the fancy Chinese hatchets which we still 
retain, date back as far as the year one thousand (a good round number), and are so 
thin that they could only have been intended to possess exchange value. And when 
a distinguished Sinologist gives us a date for anything Chinese, it behooves the rest 
of the unlearned world to open its mouth and shut its eyes and thankfully receive 
whatever the distinguished Sinologist may send it. In the seventh century, then, these 
mercantile axes, made in the strictest sense to sell and not to use, were stamped with 
an official stamp to mark their value, and became thereby converted into true coins — 
that was the root of the "root of all evil." Thence the declension to the "cash '* is 
easy ; the form grew gradually more and more regular, while the square hole in the 
centre, once used for the handle, was retained by conservatism and practical sense as a 
convenient means of stringing them together. 



THE MEDALS, JETONS, AND TOKENS ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE 

SCIENCE OF MEDICINE. 

BY DR. HORATIO R. STORER, NEWPORT, R. I. 

[Continaed from Vol. XXIV, p. 41.] 

II. BERMUDA AND THE WEST INDIES. 

F. Irregular Practiiioners, 
I. BERMUDA. 

80. Obverse, To Berkeley Every Virtue Under Heaven. St. Paul's College 
Bermuda. Incorporated A. D. 1726. 

Reverse. God Hath Made All Men Of One Blood. Acts XVII. 26. Pewter. 

Amerjour, of Numis,^ Oct. 1873, P- 45- 

I do not like to class the Rt. Rev. Geo. Berkeley, D. D., Bishop of Cloyne, 
among "irregular" medical practitioners, and yet he was a great dabbler in medicine, 
in his own case, and as prescribing for his friends. His " Siris, a Chain of Philosophi- 
cal Reflexions and Inquiries concerning the Virtues of Tar Water,'' and " Farther 
Remarks on Tar Water," certainly admit him to our present list. 

The medal described above was obtained by Mr. C. F. Allen of Denver, while in 
Bermuda as United States Consul, and is now in the possession of President Gilman, 
of Johns Hopkins University. It is apparently very rare. 

There is another, an Irish medal, connected with Berkeley, which I shall here- 
after refer to in its appropriate connection. 

3. CUBA. 

In elsewhere describing the medals, etc., of Sanitation, which is but the depart- 
ment of preventive medicine, I gave, so far as then known to me, those illustrating 
the Water-Supply of cities. Among them was the following. 

Havana. Inauguration of the Water Works in 1858. 

VOL. XXIV. 8 



SS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [January, 

Obverse, The arms of the city. A crowned shield, surmounted by Neptune in 
quadriga drawn by spouting sea-horses. 

Reverse, An inscription of twenty-three lines, with names of Captain-General 
Concha and others. Bronze and tin. Oval, of size varying from 39 x 44 to 33 x 36. 

Frossard's Sixteenth Sale, Oct. 21, 22, 1880, No. 1420; Ibid., Forty-second do., 
April 10, 1885, No. 518 ; Storer, Medals, etc., illustrative of Sanitation, The Sanitarian^ 
August, 1887, P- 164, No. 112. 

I have recently learned of another. Neither of them, however, do I include in 
this serial enumeration of Medical medals, as regards numeration. 

Matanzas, 1872. 

Obverse. The city arms. A crowned and laureated shield, with the legend : 
NOBLE-Y MUY-LEAL Abovc and bclow, inscription in five lines, of official names, 
ending with that of King Amadeo I of Spain. 

Reverse. A river-god, with trident and urn. Beneath, f. crones. Inscription : 

INAUGURACION DEL ACUEDUCTO BURRIEL ExCrgue .* MATANZAS l6 MAYO 1 872 Gilt 

copper. 40 mm. 

Weyl Sale, Berlin, Oct. 14, 1878, No. 165 1. 

3. HAYTI. 

In the sale of the collection of Dr. Carson of Canandaigua, N. Y., May 27, 28, 
1886, there was offered, though not regularly catalogued, the Seal of the Surgeon-in- 
chief of the military forces of the island, which, though not a medal, is yet collaterally 
of sufficient interest to justify my inserting it here. I owe an impression of it to the 
courtesy of the Messrs. Chapman of Philadelphia, who possibly may still possess the 
original. 

81. Obverse. A wreath of plume-like leaves, united by a sinuous line. Inscrip- 
tion : LE MEDECiN EN CHEF DE l'arme" de | s*^ | domingu" (the latter two words 
within field.) 

Reverse. Blank. Silver. Oval. 21 x 27. 34 x 42 mm. 

III. CENTRAL AMERICA. 

X. MEXICO. 
A. Personal Medals. 

82. A gold medal has been conferred upon Dr. P. Bustamente of Guadalajara, 
Jalisco. I as yet merely know of its existence, through Dr. J. W. Bastow of Coliraa, 
who has promised to obtain for me its description. 

B. Medical Colleges, Hospitals, etc, 

83. Obverse, Nude bust of the Emperor Iturbide to right, with military badge 
(the "Guadaloupe"). Beneath shoulder, e. gordillo. Inscription: august (rosette) 
mex (rosette) i (rosette) imperator (rosette) constitut (large rosette). 

Reverse, A blazing star. Beneath, protomedicatus | ejus ' que • sodales | 

OBLATAM • jam " FIDEM | EXIGUO ' HOC ' MUNERE | DENUO * TESTANTUR ' 1 823. Silver, 

bronze. 26. 39 mm. 

Weyl, Fonrobert Catalogue (Mexiko), No. 6553, fig. 

This medal is very rare. It is in my collection. A specimen was in the Anthon 
Sale, Part V, No. 1419. Mr. H. H. Bancroft of San Francisco, the Historian of the 
Western Coast of America, has kindly searched out for me its origin. He writes me 
as follows : "It is commemorative of Augustin I (Iturbide) in his efforts to revive the 
utility and efficiency of the * protomedicato,' after the general relaxation of all branches 
during the long revolutionary struggle. The protomedicato was the office of a proto- 
m^dico, or physician acting by royal appointment in a district. Later it was a tribunal 
authorized to examine and license physicians, surgeons, pharmaceutists, and phleboto- 
mists. At one time it acted also as a board of health. The office of protom^dico 
existed from an early day after the conquest of America. In 1570 the king resolved 



1890.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 59 

to send out protom6dicos generales, who had to reside in a place having an audiencia, 
and during the residence of such officer no other protomddico could act within the 
district of that audiencia. The duties of the protom^dico general were to procure 
information relative to the advancement of medical science, to write the natural 
history of his district, and to license competent persons applying to him for permission 
to practice any of the above mentioned professions. He was often charged with the 
duty of introducing reforms. 

"The protomedicato was suppressed by royal order in 1830, and * juntas supe- 
riores de medicina, cirurgia y farmacia* were created. These juntas were in their 
turn done away with in 1839, their functions being merged in the *direccion general 
de estudios.' I believe that most, if not all, of the Spanish American republics have 
followed that example." 

84. Obverse, Front view, with rounded dome and pillars, of a military asylum. 
Before dome, a trophy. Inscription : asilo a la constancia y | al valor militar 
Beneath, to left, l. R(ovira). 

Reverse, Inscription : se coloc6 la | primera piedra | por el exmo. sen | 

PRESIDENTE CIVD. | ANTONIO LOPEZ | DE SANTA-ANNA | EN 2/ DE SETIEMB. | DE 1 843. 

Silver, bronze. 26. 40J mm. 

Ibid,^ No. 6644. A specimen was in the Anthon Sale, Part V, No. 1426. 

This very rare medal is also in my collection. To Mr. Bancroft, of San Fran- 
cisco, I owe the following account of its history. "This Santa Anna medal is com- 
memorative of the laying of the corner stone of a Veteran's Home on the plan of the 
French H6tel des Invalides, a report on which may be found in the ' Memoria de 
Guerra y Marina, 11 de Enero de 1844.* " 

Unlike Poor and Work-Houses, these asylums for the incurably wounded, crip- 
pled and prematurely decrepit, fall within the group of hospitals. In this instance 
there is also chronicled a medical event, so that the piece might be grouped in two of 
our subdivisions. 

3. GUATEMALA. 

B. Medical Colleges^ Hospitals^ etc, 

85. Inscription : hippodromo del hospital general de Guatemala. A token 
for fifty centavos. Brass. 22. 

86. As preceding, but for twenty-five centavos. 

87. As preceding, but for ten centavos. 

The above three tokens appeared in the Leavitt Catalogue of May 11, 12, 1886, 
No. 226. I presume that the circus, or race-course or bull-ring, referred to, is an 
example of the many ways employed to obtain funds for benevolent purposes, which 
are so common in certain foreign countries. 

IV. SOUTH AMERICA. 

X. VENEZUELA. 
A. Personal Medals f 

88. Obverse, dr. alacombe Puerto cabello % 
Reverse, Blank. Tin. 

This is in the Government (formerly the Lee) Collection. Of its history I have 
as yet been able to ascertain nothing. I presume that the individual commemorated 
is a regular or irregular practitioner of medicine, though were it a European medal, 
this would be far from certain, for many that have been thought medical have been 
found, upon investigation, to be of jurists and general philosophers. In the United 
States there are similarly quite a number that I have thus far failed to find explained. 
What, for instance, is to be said of the Dr. Selleck, whose name appears upon one of 
the tokens of Chesebrough, Stearns & Co. (silk goods), of New York, in my collection. 
And what of the unifaced Dr. Mark (and his little men), which I also have. 



6o AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [January, 

With reference to the true character of the above piece, I may add that I have 
received the following general statement from Prof. A. Ernst, of the University of 
Caracas, Director of the National Museum of Venezuela. 

"There were never any such (medical of any kind) medals struck in this country. 
The only thing that comes near to it is perhaps a bronze statue which was erected in 
1883 to the memory of Dr. Jos6 Vdrgas, a most eminent physician and sometime 
Rector of our University." 

3. COLOMBIA. 

F. Pharmacists^ etc. 

Santa Cruz de Mompos. 

89. Obverse, The staff of Aesculapius, crosswise. Behind, a branch of laurel. 
Upon the staff, a patera, from which the serpent drinks. Inscription : ribon herma- 

NOS I ♦ MOMPOS 4 

Reverse, A flag, upon which a seven-pointed star ; in centre of this, within a 
circle, rh Above, 2}^ centavos Exergue : hadin a paris Copper. 30 mm. 

Weyl, Fonrobert Catalogue (Siid-Amerika), No. 8215, fie;. 

My knowledge of this piece I owe to the courtesy of Mr. Lyman H. Low, of 
New York. 

3. brazil. 

B. Medical Colleges^ Hospitals^ etc. 

Rio de Janeiro. 

90. Obverse, Bust of the Emperor to left, in military coat covered with Orders. 
Inscription : d. pedro ii imp. const. — e def. perp. do bras. 

Reverse, View of the Hospital. Inscription in exergue : LAN90U a • pedra 

fundamental I DO NOVO HOSPITAL DA SANTA | CAS A DA MISERICORDIA | l8f 4O 

Bronze. 33. 

This extremely rare medal, upon laying the corner stone of the new Hospital of 
the Sacred House of Mercy, has been given me by Senhor Cicero Peregrino of Per- 
nambuco. I have also a specimen through John Gordon, Esq., of Rio de Janeiro, from 
the Baron de Maya Monteiro of the latter city. 

The City of Recife. 

91. Obverse, A large building, cross-shaped, with central cupola, seen obliquely 
from above. 

Reverse. Inscription : reinado do (the reign of) senhor d. pedro ii. In field, 

A I FUNDA9AO I da I CASA de DETEN9AO I DA | CIDADE DO RECIFE | NO DIA 8 | DeJ 

DEZEMBRO | 1 850. Silvcr, coppcr. 34. 

A portion of this "Detention House" is a hospital. The medal is excessively 
rare. I have impressions of it from Senhor Peregrino of Pemambuco. 

F. Tokens of Pharmacists^ etc. 

Rio de Janeiro. 

92. Obverse, Three beaded circles. Within the smallest, the Brazilian arms ; 
a crowned shield half encircled below by branches of laurel and bay, tied by ribbon ; 
upon the shield, the hemisphere encircled by pearls. Inscription between the central 
and inner circles: granado & .c^ | (rosette) | rua i9 de marco. n^«i2 (rosette). 
Inscription between the outer and middle circles : fornecedores | ♦ ♦ ♦ da casa 

IMPERIAL ♦ ♦ + 

Reverse. Three circles, the outer and inner beaded, the middle one lined. 
Device, a pentagonal hollow star ; within, • | marca (curved upward) | registrada 
(curved downward) | • Inscription between inner and middle circles : deposito geral 
00 LicoRTiBAiNA | (roscttc) RIO db JANEIRO (roscttc). Inscription between outer and 
middle circles : (rosette) + imperial drogaria + (rosette) | + e Pharmacia + Copper. 
18. 

In my collection. 



1890.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 61 

4. PERU. 
F. Pharmacists^ etc, 

Callao. 

93. Obverse. A mortar, with pestle. Inscription : m. r 
Reverse, mitad (One half [real]) Bronze. 24J mm. 
Weyl, Fonrobert Catalogue (Siid-Amerika), No. 9184. 

Lima. 

94. Dr. Barstow, of Colima, Mexico, writes me that he has in his collection, but 
now mislaid, a brass token, about the size of a Mexican real, from a Lima druggist. 
I shall hope eventually to obtain its description. 

5. BOLIVIA. 

A. Personal, 

95. Obverse. Bust of President Belzu, to left. Inscription : el ministS eje- 

CUT^ AL PROF« DE MEDIC^ Y CIRUji PEDRO ASCARRUNS. 

Reverse, Aesculapius, with serpent-entwined staff. Inscription : en premio 

DE SUS SERVICIOS AL PRESIDENTE CONSTITUCll!' DE BOLIVIA. Silver. Oval. 22 X 2/. 

37i X 44 mm. 

Ibid,, No. 9456. 

96. Obverse, As that of preceding. 

Reverse, Laurel branches, bound below by ribbon, forming a wreath above. 

Before this, an open book, upon which, to the right, cons | titu | cign | and to 

left, BOLi I VI AN A (an anchor) Inscription : libre por la constitucion. Silver. 
Oval. 37i X 44 mm. 

Ibid,, No. 9457. 

Dr. Ascarruns, commemorated by these two medals, was Staff Surgeon in 1850 
to Gen. M. Y. Belzu, President of Colombia. 

6. argentine republic 

B. Medical Colleges^ Hospitals^ etc. 

Buenos Ayres. 

97. Obverse, A hospital building. F. Zuccotti (fecit). Inscription': hospital 

ESPANOL BUENOS AIRES. % 

Reverse. Inscription : la sociedad espanola de beneficencia. con memora 
LA inauguracion de LAS OBRAS DE ensanche (of the works of enlargement) de su 
HOSPITAL 15 DE AGOSTo 1 884. Silver. 20. 

In the Government (formerly the Lee) Collection. 

The above description I owe to the kindness of Surgeon J. S. Billings, of the 
U. S. Surgeon-General's office. 

7. PARAGUAY. 

A. Personal Medals. 

City of Asuncion. 

99. Obverse. Beneath the imperial crown, the double-headed eagle of the 
thirty-third degree, holding a sword in its talons. Above, a radiant star, with the 
letter G. Beneath the sword, the All-seeing eye. On the left of the eagle (S.-. and 
on the right ©.•. Legend, on a circle surrounding the field, above, benemerenti 
PRiEMiUM ; and below, Asuncion i<^ de abril de 1872 (e.\ v.*.) 

Reverse, Within a circle, the inscription (in seven lines, the second of them 
curved): medalla | de benemerito de la or.*. | oprecido | al sup.*, gr/. maes- 
tro.'. I GR.-. COM.'. I D" JUAN ADRiANO | CHAVES. Near the edge of the circle, in minute 
letters, s. caccia.*. Legend, outside the circle, •por los miembros del g.'. o.'. y 
SUP.'. • CON.'. DE LA REP.'. DEL PARAGUAY. Gold or silver, lead. 28. 

Marvin, The Medals of the Masonic Fraternity, CCCCXCI. 

As to whether the Dr. Chaves above commemorated is an M. D. or LL.D., I am 
as yet uncertain, but in the absence of further evidence presume the former, although 
it may prove, as in the case of many other generally considered medical medals, that 
the Doctor is in reality of the legal profession. 



62 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [January, 

F. Tokens of Pharmacists^ etc. {as yet unidentified). 

I thus far know of but six Portuguese and Spanish- American druggists* tokens. 
Four of them are of Colombia, Brazil and Peru, and three have been described above, 
Nos. 89, 92 and 93. Whether the following are of the Southern or Northern conti- 
nent I am as yet uncertain. 

99. Obverse. A mortar and pestle. Inscription : rafael ballestas. 
Reverse, mitad (one half [real]) Copper, nickel, brass. 16. 

Low's Fifth Cat., Feb. 3, 4, 1885, No. 75. 
This is in my collection. 

100. Obverse. Device as in preceding. Inscription : r. m. 
Reverse. As preceding. Copper, brass. 

Ibid.y No. 97. 

Possibly this may prove the same as that from Callao, our No. 93, though Messrs. 
Weyl and Low are equally noted for their accuracy in description. 

In my next I shall commence the enumeration of the medical medals, etc., of the 
United States. 

[To be continued.] 



WASHINGTON MEDALS. 

Editors of the Journal of Numismatics : 

I FIND among my Washingtons a few " Inauguration Centennials " not described 
by Mr. Low in the October Journal. The list I send may be of interest to collectors 
of Washington medals. I have no idea that it is complete, and would be glad to 
hear from some other collectors if they have any more. 

I continue the numbers from Mr. Low's list, putting pieces with reverses described 
by him first, and ending with a store card or advertising medal of Black, Starr & Frost, 
of New York City, which, although it may not properly belong in this list, was struck 
for the same occasion, and is a much handsomer medal, both in design and execution, 
than most of the others. No. II was pictured in "Harper's Weekly " about April 30, 
last ; but No. I, which varies slightly from it, in arrangement of legend, etc., has, I 
believe, never been illustrated. 

I have twenty-seven pieces, in various metals, nearly all white metal, which include 
the entire list of twenty-two pieces. 

J. H. TEN-EYCK BURR. 

Cazenovia, N. K, Nov., 1889. 

XII. Obverse as obverse of IV, but without the legend. Reverse. Same as reverse of IV. 
Same bars and ribbon. Same metals and size (24). 

This was used as a campaign medal, but with an eagle pin. It was sold in Washington 
during the inauguration of Harrison and Morton. 

XIII. Obverse. Bust to right within a quatrefoil. Legend, george Washington. 
Reverse, Same as the reverse of VI. Pierced, bar and ribbon. White metal. Size 26. 

XIV. Obverse, Naked bust to right. Legend, george Washington ; in exergue, 1789 
Reverse. Same as the reverse of VII. White metal. Size 23. 

XV. Obverse. Naked bust to right. Legend, on a raised border, george Washington 
FIRST president OF THE UNITED STATES ♦ 1 789 * Reverse, Same design as the reverse of IX. 
Pierced, bar and ribbon. White metal. Size 24. 

XVI. Obverse. Naked bust to right. Legend, centennial inaugural celebration, 
NEW YORK ; on either side of bust, 1 789-1889 ; in exergue, april 30. Reverse. View of Fede- 
ral Hall. Inscription in five lines, federal hall wall st. n. y. | where Washington was | 
INAUGURATED | FIRST PRESIDENT | APRIL 30. 1789 Pierced. White metal. Size .20. 



1890.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 63 

XVII. Olfverse. Naked bust to right. Legend, inaugurated new york april 30. 
1789. Reverse, View of Brooklyn Bridge. Inscription in five lines, new york. Brooklyn | 
PROGRESS OF | loo YEARS | THE EIGHTH | WONDER Pierced, ribbon and bar, the bar a hatchet 
inscribed, i cannot tell a lie. Brass and white metal. Size 16. 

XVIII. Obverse. Naked bust to right, within a wreath (leaves of which I cannot make 
out) on which are thirteen five-pointed stars. No legend. Reverse. Inscription in five lines, 

WASHINGTON | INAUGURAL | CENTENNIAL | « 1 789 ' 1889 * | NEW YORK CITY PicrCCd. White 

metal. Size i6. 

XIX. Obverse. Naked bust to right, within a double circle of dots and stars, surrounded 
by legend, centennial inaugural celebration, new york april 30 1889 Reverse. View 
of Federal Hall, N. Y. Inscription above, where he was inaugurated first president of 
the u. s. I APRIL 30. 1789; below, federal hall I wall ST. I N. Y. Pierced. White metal. 
Size 15. 

XX. Obverse. Naked bust to right. Legend, geo. Washington first pres't u. s. ; 
in exergue, * 1789 * Reverse. Inscription, centennial of his inauguration * | new york| 
APRIL 30, I 1889 Pierced. Brass. Size 12. 

XXI. Obverse. Busts to right, jugata, of Washington and Harrison. Legend, washing- 
ton - HARRISON ; in exergue, 1789 - 1889. Reverse. A square tablet surrounded by a wreath of 
olive and oak. Inscription in seven lines, centennial of the | inauguration of | george 

WASHINGTON | AS FIRST PRESIDENT | OF THE UNITED STATES | NEW YORK APRIL 30. | 1789 

Pierced, bar and ribbon. White metal. Size 24. 

XXII. Obverse. View of the Sub-Treasury Building, Wall Street, New York. Legend, 

THE CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION OF WASHINGTON'S INAUGURATION* In CXCrgue, 1789 - 1889 

Reverse. Two U. S. flags crowned, one having thirteen and the other thirty-eight stars in the 
field. Above the flags in four lines, compliments | of | black starr & frost | new york ; 
below are branches of olive and oak crowned and tied at bottom with a ribbon. White metal. 
Size 32. 

This is a Store Card of Black, Starr & Frost, Jewellers, of New York City. The dies are 
better cut and the whole medal is of better workmanship than any except No. i. 



GLEANINGS. 

NAPOLEONIC MEDAL RELATING TO THE LOUVRE. 

At the period when Napoleon was collecting antique statues and paintings from 
vanquished Europe, there might be seen at the Louvre, in company with the Apollo 
Belvidere and the Nine Muses, those grand works in plastic art, the Dying Gladiator, 
the old river gods Nile and Tiber, Laocoon and his Sons, and first, perhaps, in all eyes, 

**The statue which enchants the world," 

the Venus de Medici. She especially was considered the trophy most worthy of the 
conqueror, who had described her to the Directory, in July, 1796, (the figure was not 
carried off until about 1800), as ^ la cilibre Venus qui manque d notre museum and with 
whom that museum is lastingly associated in one form of art. For it is a curious indi- 
cation of the times that, on Bonaparte's State visit to the Louvre, in 1803, Denon, 
then General Director of Art, presented him with a medal bearing his profile on one 
side, and the figure of the Venus de Medici on the other. 

A ROYAL COLLECTION OF MEDALS. 

From a paper dated July, 1856, in the Edinboro' Review, I gather that "foremost 
among English numismatists, in point of time as well as most illustrious in station, we 
must place Prince Henry, the accomplished and unfortunate son of James I. He pur- 
chased a noble collection, amounting in number, as Scaliger informs us, to 30,000, of 
which 4,000 were gold, from the Flemish numismatist, Gortceus, who describes it as 
having been formed with infinite pains, and as consisting chiefly of Greek coins. The 
collection passed into the hands of Henry's brother, Charles, who was distinguished as 



64 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [January, 

a munificent patron of art in all its branches. Learned foreigners of the period men- 
tion Charles's cabinet of coins in conjunction with and at the head of his other valuable 
works of art ; and one of these foreigners, Charles Patin, assigns to him a place before 
all the contemporary sovereigns of Europe in regard to his taste and munificence as a 
collector. The royal example had its effect upon the nobles of the Court. Villiers, 
the favorite ; the stately Thomas, Earl of Arundel ; and William, the high-minded Earl 
of Pembroke, were all collectors of coins. To these names may be added that of Laud, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, whose collection, having been presented by him to the 
University of Oxford, escaped the plunder and dispersion which was the fate of his 
sovereign's in the civil wars. In fact, it is the only one of these early cabinets which 
remains intact." 

N. B. The Pembroke collection survived until 1848, say two hundred years, the 
longest period of existence of any private cabinet of coins in England with which I am 
acquainted. 

Horace Walpole, in 1757, printed, at Strawberry Hill, a catalogue of Charles Fs 
pictures and medals, compiled from manuscripts by Vertue, the engraver, and others. 

"NOT WORTH A RAP." 

In the Swiss Cantons a Rap, in 1783, was equivalent to .0417 of a penny. Ergo, 
not to be worth a Rap was to be worse off than a penniless pauper ; in fact, the most 
utterly impecunious individual conceivable. I give this note with some hesitation, as 
I never heard the expression used in the States. It is out of fashion here in these 
days, but was a popular phrase in the days of my youth. 

Wimbledofiy Oct. 25, 1889. wm. tasker nugent. 



ENGRAVED VIRGINIAN MEDAL. 

Mr. R. a. Brock, of Richmond, has given us the following account of a curious engraved 
Virginian medal, which is interesting from several points of view, but especially in the use of 
the word primum in the obverse legend, for quartum which was early employed. From its 
device it seems to date to the early days of the Revolution. While Virginia did not inflict the first 
wound on the British lion, the honor of which belongs to Massachusetts, yet she was, by the 
appointment of Washington as the first General of the Continental Army, entitled to be re- 
garded as first in a certain sense, among the opponents of the crown. 

There is now in the possession of Mr. S. G. Crockburn Harvey, Huntington 
Valley P. O., Montgomery county, Pennsylvania, a very curious medal of fine gold, so 
faithfully engraved that impressions printed from it, which furnish the accompanying 
descriptions, have the soft effect of fine copper engravings of the last century. The 
medal was preserved from destruction by the former husband of Mrs. Harvey, Hon. 
Edward A. Turpin, a native of Virginia, but a citizen of New York when in 1858 
appointed Minister to Venezuela, where he remained until 1861. He found the medal 
in the shop of a jeweller, in Maracaibo, and purchased it at its metal value, $23. How 
it got to South America, or how or by whom it had been preserved intact and unin- 
jured so long, he failed to ascertain. It is oblong in shape, measuring two and one- 
eighth by one and five-eighth inches. Its description is as follows : — 

Obverse, On a field azure, within an escutcheon of scroll and floral borders, a 
female figure, erect, with head helmeted, bust bare, and remainder of figure in outline 
drapery, save the fore legs and feet, which are bare. The left leg extended forward, 
left hand grasping double-headed spear, held perpendicularly — the right arm holding 
a shield bearing a Medusa-head with serpent locks, possibly denoting that of a tyrant. 
The whole surrounded with the legend in Roman letters : city of williamsburgh 

X VIRTUTE ET LABORE FLORENT RESPUBLICiE X 



1890.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 65 

Reverse, A male figure in armor, head almost in profile, body half turned to the 
front, the right arm raised and bent, the hand grasping a spear which is thrust into 
the breast of a lion rampant, its .head bearing a crown (Britain), its paws drooping, 
the tail turned down between the hind legs. Motto beneath in Roman letters : en 
DAT VIRGINIA PRiMUM Above the figures, the firmament with a circle enclosing 
thirteen stars, and above, the motto, in Roman letters : in hoc signo vinces. 

I am without information as to the origin of this medal, but may conjecture that 
it was designed by John Page, who was one of the committee appointed by the Vir- 
ginia Convention of 1776 to devise a Seal for the Commonwealth. Where executed, 
and by whom, are matters of curious interest. The devices and mottoes of the Great 
Seal of the State, as offered by George Mason, another member of the committee, 
and the author of the '* Bill of Rights," were entirely different. They were adopted 
and have remained unchanged, save that in 1779 the motto of the reverse of the Seal 
was changed from Deus nobis haec otia fecit to Perseverando. The whole history of 
the Great Seal of Virginia has been lucidly and circumstantially given in a report 
made by Col. Sherwin McRae, and communicated by Gov. William E. Cameron, Feb. 
25, 1884, to the Speaker of the House of Delegates of Virginia [House Document 
No. xi]. 

MASONIC MEDALS. 

[Continued from Vol. XXIV, p. 44.] 

DCCXCIV. Obverse, Within a serpent-ring a triangle surrounded by 
formal rays, having on its centre a globe belted with the zodiacal signs, showing 
Virgo, Libra and Scorpio. Legend, outside a circle of points which encloses 
the serpent-ring, above, G.*. o.'. de France and below, congres maconnique 
[Grand Orient of France, Masonic Congress]. Between de and France is the 
All-seeing eye; dividing the legend, on tablets, are 1789 at the left and 1889 
on the right. A second circle of points outside the legend. Reverse, Within 
a chain of love-knots is an equilateral triangle, one angle pointing downward; 
the extended compasses on the upper side so arranged with the triangle as to 
give the effect of a six-pointed star, within which is a Liberty-cap ; over the 
joint of the compasses is a radiant five-pointed star, with another on each 
side of it : the field between the emblems and chain is filled with sprigs of 
acacia and a circle of dots surrounds the whole. No legend. Silver and 
bronze. Size 32.' 

Obverse, Minerva with helmet, spear, and level; Masonic implements near her: 
anc} legend ; apparently from the obverse die of DCXXI : Reverse, lycee republi- 
CAiN DE PARIS. Silver. Size 19 nearly.' 

This last obverse is also muled with a die bearing a bust of Louis XVI, as 
described on page 250 of my work, and is found in silver, size 19. Possibly it may 
have some connection with the Lodge which issued the following, but I see no good 
reason for calling either Masonic. 

DCCXCV. Obverse, Bust of Louis XVI to the right. Legend, lud. 
XVI. REX CHRiSTiANiss. [Louis XVI, Most Christian King.] Reverse, Appar- 

1 This is a recent piece, struck on the occasion of 2 This piece was exhibited in the Worcester, Eng- 

the gathering of a " Masonic Congress ** in Paris during land, Exhibition in 1884, ^s Masonic ; the obverse seems 

the summer of 1889. I am enabled to describe it by to be such, and was described under DCXXI, the 

the kindness of Bro. Ambrose Webster, who happened place of mintage being then unknown ; this mule locates 

to be in Paris at the time the Congress was in session, it, but I cannot accept it as anvthing but the issue of 

and was presented with an impression, which I believe some Society, who used the Masonic obverse from 

is the only one in America at present. The device of fancy. See note 450 in my volume, and that on DCCXV, 

the obverse is substantially the same as DLXXXVII. below. 

VOL. XXIV. Q 



66 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [January, 

ently the same as that of CLXXXII, having the same inscription. Silver, 
Size 19 nearly. Rare.' 

DCCXCVI. Obverse, As the obverse of CLXVII, (a wreath of laurel) 
but without the inscription, the field having been left blank for engraving. 
Reverse, As the reverse of the same medal, (an altar, phenix and legend). 
These pieces have a square under the trowel at the right of the altar, which 
was not mentioned in the previous description. Silver. Size 19.' 

DCCXCVII. Obverse, A lyre between two branches of laurel, etc., as 
obverse of DCXXXVI. Legend, loge olympique de la parfaite estime a 
floral ornament at the close of the legend. [Olympic Lx>dge, of Perfect Es- 
teem.] Reverse, Masonic working tools as on reverse of DCXXXVI.^ 

DCCXCVIII. Obverse, As obverse of LIII, but the cross is Teutonic, 
and sable, and is surmounted by a smaller cross, or, having fleurs-de-lis on the 
ends, and on the centre an escutcheon bearing a double-headed eagle. The 
legend is somewhat diff*erently arranged. Reverse, As reverse of LIII. 
Copper. Size 19 nearly. Struck by the Lodge Sept Ecossais of Paris.'* 

DCCXCIX. Obverse, An acacia bush, etc., as obverse of CCXLIV. 
Reverse, A star of rays, with Masonic tools, (square, compasses, etc.,) as 
reverse of the same number. Silver and brass, octagonal. Size 14. Struck 
by the Lodge Jerusalem, of Paris. 

I have seen a medal closely resembling CCCXXXVII, and as it is possibly the 
same piece, I hesitate to number it, though my impression is that the obverse at 
least is from a different die. The temple has three doors and on the frieze philonomes ; 
over the left door, nord [north,] over the centre, orient [east,] and over the right, sud 
[south.] The legend differs from the other only in that the words o.*. de paris below 
the temple curve to complete the circle, instead of being " in the exergue,** as 
described. It is of silver, and size iS.s 

DCCC. Obverse, On the centre of the field two N*s in script, the sec- 
ond retrograde and entwined with the first to form a cipher, but the letters are 
not superimposed ; above is the Imperial crown enclosed within branches of 
laurel, the stems crossed beneath ; below the cipher the Imperial eagle grasp- 
ing a bar, and his wings extended as if in flight ; at the right of the cipher a 
triangular level, over which is the radiant sun ; at the left a level of different 
form, over which is the crescent moon. Legend, above, loge de napoleon 
LE GRAND and below, • or.', de fontainebleau • [Lodge of Napoleon the 
Great. Orient of Fontainebleau]. Reverse, The square and compasses 
enclosing a star of six formal rays proceeding from the letter G,' and surrounded 
by a wreath open at the top and crossed and tied at the bottom with a narrow 

1 This medal, which I have not seen, I describe from possibly about 1804. There is an impression in the 
a sale Catalogue of R. Dupriez, (Bruxelles, without Lawrence Collection with the obverse engraved, show- 
date, but No. II, of his series). It was struck by the ing the intention of the Lodge in preparing the die. 
Lodge St. Louis of Martinioue, of United Brethren, 3 I have seen this piece, but do not recall the size or 
whose Orient was at Paris, and others of whose medals I the metal ; it seems to have been struck, probably near 
have already given. These various mules of pieces the close of the last century, by a Lodge in Paris, 
bearing the bust of the King whom the French Royal- 4 This piece may not be correctly described as to its 
ists regarded as a martyr, are thus connected with a reverse ; the obverse I think is correctly given, but in 
Lodge in Paris, and were struck, I should judge, by my brief opportunity to examine it, I was unable to 
some admirer who obtained the use of the dies, as sug- obtain a satisfactory description. I have seen no other 
gested in the preceding note, and may give a clue to impressions. 

the origin of those with the figure of Minerva. It is 5 This medal was shown me by a dealer, while 

difiicult to account for them satisfactorily. that previously described was in the Pythagoras cabi- 

2 The device on the reverse enables us to assign this net, now scattered, so that I was unable to compare 
medal. It was struck by the Lodge Phenix, of Paris, them. 



1890.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 67 

ribbon ; the right side formed of oak and the left of acacia ; on the head of 
the compasses is a small star of five points. No legend. Copper and proba- 
bly other metals. Size 23.' 

DCCCI. Obverse, A wreath of acacia, tied at the bottom with a bow 
of ribbon and close at the top, enclosing the inscription □ vraie reunion 
DESiREE I o.'. DE GRAY in two Hnes, the first semi-circular. [Lodge of Desired 
True Union. Orient of Gray.] Under the bow in minute letters massonet 
ED. [The die-cutter*s name.] Reverse, The All-seeing eye within a triangle, 
formal rays from which fill the field. On the sides of the triangle liberte 
EGALITE FRATERNiTE. [Liberty, etc] There is no legend ; the rim is nearly 
level with the field, and the edges are smooth. Silver, bronze and white 
metal. Size 26.* 

DCCCn. Obverse, The compasses extended on a graduated arc of sixty 
degrees and enclosing a level, square, rule, gavel, trowel, and plumb, inter- 
laced ; at the top is the radiant sun ; under it, and falling below the head of 
the compasses, through which it passes, is a loop of ribbon, on which are the 
words NGN MORiTUR. [It does not die, or It is immortal.] Legend, outside a 
circle of dots which separates it from the field, loge de l heureuse reunion 
A l'orient de LILLE. [Lodge of the Happy Union, Orient of Lille.] Reverse, 
A flight of seven steps, on either side of which stands a pillar with capital ; 
between the pillars the compasses extended, their points resting on the 
ends of a square, and enclosing a star of five points on which is the letter 
G ; at the top is the tetragrammaton on a radiant triangle which illuminates 
the field behind the columns: A rope border surrounds the field on both 
obverse and reverse. No legend. Silver. Size as engraved,^ 18. 

DCCCIII. Obverse, A youthful warrior in Roman armor stands facing, 
and rests on his sword, his right hand placed upon his breast ; a helmet lies 
at his feet on his left, and a stump of a tree with one branch bearing leaves at 
his right. Legend as the preceding. Reverse, A bee-hive on the centre of 
the field, around which fly seven bees. Legend, below, curving upward, 
ATTRAHiT DULCEDO [Sweetness attracts.] Silver, octagonal. Size as engraved, 
22.3 Struck by the same Lodge as the last. 

DCCCIV. Obverse, Between two branches of laurel, crossed and tied 
with a bow of ribbon at the bottom and open at the top, a cipher of the letters 
A R in script, and interlaced. (For amis reunis). Reverse, A semi-circular 
flight of seven steps ; on the upper step rests the angle of a square, with the 
points of the extended compasses resting upon the ends ; within is a five- 
pointed star, on which is the letter G ; on either side, at a little distance from 
the steps is a column, that on observer s right bearing the letter B and the 

1 This reverse is very similar to the obverse of seen these medals, which must certainly be rare in 
DCCXLV, and is no doubt of recent date. In the America, if indeed an impression is to bemund here, of 
Lawrence collection. either of them. From the volume named 1 learn that 

2 There is nothing to show the date of this medal, the Lodge which struck them was formed by the 
which was struck by the Lodge named, chartered July " Happy union," in 1775, of the first Lodge established 
8, 1836, having its Orient in Gray, a town at the head of at Lille, November 6, 1744, under the name " Saint- 
navigation on the Saone. For an opportunity to exam- Jean " with another, established in 1764, under the 
ine a set of proof impressions of this piece, I am authority of the Prince " Comte de Clermont," Grand 
indebted to Mr. Lyman H. Low, who recently obtained Master of France from December 11, 1743; whose first 
them abroad. They are now in the Lawrence collection. Master was Mons. B. Panckoucke de la Motte, and 

3 I describe these medals from a plate in ** Numis- whose name was La Triomphante. All the medals 
matique Lilloise," etc., by Ed. Vanhende, published at struck by Lodges at Lille, which I have described, 
Lille, in 18^, a copy of which has been kindly loaned are illustrated on Plate LV, figs. 510-514, of the work 
me by Mr. L. H. Low, of New York. I have never cited. 



68 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [January, 

Other J ; at the top is a radiant delta, bearing the tetragrammaton. An orna- 
mental border surrounds each field. Silver. Size as engraved, i6 nearly. 
Rare/ 

The Lodge Fidelite, in Lille, which was closed by municipal authority in Decem- 
ber, 1851, was chartered in 1781, taking precedence from May 21 of that year. It 
struck no medal, but had a " Piece of recompense," engraved on silver, for its members, 
and a "Lodge jewel " of copper, of triangular form, and bearing a dog, seated, as its 
device.' 

DCCCV. Obverse, Enclosing a star of seven points is a triangle ; on its 
left side, f^ le ; on the right, 2 mai and on the base 1783 [Founded, etc.] ; the 
field is apparently roughened. Legend, above, reg/. loge la candeur and 
below, o.\ DE LYON [Regular Lodge of Candor, Lyons.] Reverse, The square 
and compasses enclosing the letter G and surrounded by a wreath of acacia, 
open at the top and tied with a ribbon at the bottom. Legend, above, soxjve- 
NiR Du CENTENAIRE and below, * 21 ocTOBRE 1 883 * [Centennial souvenir, 
October, etc.] Bronze and no doubt other metals. Size as engraved, 20.' 

DCCCVL Obverse, On the field is the inscription in four lines, la r.\ 
□ I paix et union I au t.'. c*. f.-. I 5866 v.'.L.'. a space for a name between 
the third and fourth lines. [The Regular Lodge Peace and Union to Very 
Dear Bro. — 1866, year of True Light.] Legend, above, a la gl.\ du gra.\ 
ARCH.-. DE L*UN.'. and below, *o.'. de nantes. * [To the Glory of the Grand 
Architect of the Universe, etc.] Reverse, A wreath of olive or laurel, tied at 
the bottom with ribbon and having the square and compasses enclosing the 
letter G between the ends of the branches at the top ; inscription within 
the wreath, in three lines, assiduite | travail | devouement [Assiduity, labor, 
devotion.] At the bottom of the inscription are three five-pointed stars, one 
over two. Silver, copper and white metal. Size 26.^* 

DCCCVn. Obverse, Three clasped hands emerging from clouds ; below 
is a line, which is treated as if to represent the ground, and serving at the 
same time to separate the exergue, which contains the date 5812. Legend, 
on the left, triple; on the right, union (the name of the Lodge). 
Reverse, The square and compasses surrounded by rays proceeding from the 
face of the sun in the centre ; outside the rays a circle of twelve stars. 
Legend, above, orient de rheims and below, filling out the circle, two 
branches of laurel. Silver. Size 17. Scarce.^ 

DCCCVin. Obverse, The All-seeing eye. Legend, above, l.-. de 
l'union parfaite and below, o.*. de la rochelle [Lodge of Perfect Union, 

1 This medal I describe from the same plate as the an article on recent Masonics by Bro. Brichaut, who 
preceding. I am informed that all three of the fore- kindly sent me a copy of his reprint of the same, 
going are used as " jetons de presence." This Lodge, Other medals of this Lodge I have already described, 
which struck the large medal, CC LI V, (which was given 4 This Lodge was established April 2, 1776, and I 
"in recompense for meritorious actions,") and also that believe is still working. For proof impressions of the 
described in full in this Supplement as No. DCL, had medal I am indebted to Mr. Lyman H. Low. The 
its Orient in Lille, and was mstituted in 1766, but has Lodge mark is a rhomboid instead of the usual form 
been "en sommetl" since December, 1851, when it was (which I use in the text for lack of the S5mibol on the 
closed as a result of the Coup iTetat of Louis Napoleon, piece,) and encloses three dots. The branches of the 
From this I infer that all its medals may be considered wreath are conventional in form, and I am uncertain for 
scarce. which they are intended. There are no berries, or I 

2 This description is from Numismatique Lilloise, p. should call it olive. The letters have the proper ac- 
193 et seq.y which states that the other Lodges of Lille cents. Although bearing the date 1866 I have never 
have struck no medals. Fidelity was closed at the same till now seen it, and the impressions shown me are 
time as Amis Reunis. apparently just from the dies. 

3 This I describe from an engraving originally 5 This medal, which was imported by Mr. Fossard, 
printed in the Revue Beige de Numismatique^ 1884, in is now in the Lawrence collection. 



1890.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 69 

Orient of Rochelle.] Reverse, A circle inscribed within a triangular level. 
Legend, bon pour un kilo de pain ♦ [Good for one kilo of bread.] Bronze. 
Size 16.' 

DCCCIX. Obverse, A burning altar similar to that on CCXIX, but with 
nine five-pointed stars on the band below the top ; under the clasped hands 
on the front of the altar is a pomegranate within a wreath of acacia tied by a 
ribbon ; on the right of the altar the compasses and a rough ashlar, on the 
left a trowel and perfect ashlar with pyramidal top ; — the altar is on a mosaic 
pavement, below which in exergue, in very small letters, f. breviere. Legend, 
COEUNT IN FOEDERA DEXTR^E. [Right hands clasped in alliance.] Reverse, 
A group of emblems — a triangular level, at the top of which is a gavel, 
erect, the plumb line of the level falling perpendicularly with the handle 
of the gavel, and crossed horizontally by a rule, all surrounded by a wreath 
of oak leaves bound by a ribbon ; a burning torch to the right, and a sword 
in an ornamental scabbard to the left, cross each other in the wreath, and a 
ribbon passes around the sword, and projects to the left. Legend, l.'. 
DE LA SINCERE AMiTiE o.'. DE ROUEN 5822. • Silver, nine-sided. Size from 
side to opposite point, 22.* 

DCCCX. Obverse, Legend, l.-. de la Constance eprouvee surround- 
ing o.-. I DE I rouen in three lines. [Lodge of Tried Constancy, etc.] 
Reverse, The square, compasses, and rule interlaced ; no legend. Brass, 
decagonal. Size 14. Doubtless a jeton de presence of the Lodge named.^ 

DCCCXL Obverse, A temple on a high platform approached by seven 
steps in its front; there are four pillars and three windows on the side 
towards the observer, and one pillar on the front corner of the other side ; 
between the pillars and under the pediment, garlands are suspended ; the 
" door is closed ; in the pediment is a small device which is not distinguishable ; 
on the left of the temple in the back-ground is an olive tree; on the right, n 
front of the temple, is a monument in the form of an obelisk on a square 
plinth ; on the plinth is a phenix on a pyre, its wings uplifted and the smoke 
ascending on each side of the monument ; above it is a small five-pointed 
star, enclosed within the square and compasses ; at the top is an ornamental 
terminal, somewhat resembling a spear-point : over the temple is a blazing 
star, on which is the letter G, very small ; on the right, above the front 
of the temple, is the crescent moon in clouds, and on the left, just above 
the corner of the roof, the radiant face of the sun. Legend, loge de sT jean 
a l? de sT quentin constituee en 1744 [St. John's Lodge, Orient of St. 
Quentin, constituted 1744.] Reverse, A pelican vulning herself, her young 
in front of her on a rock, her wings outspread ; above her is a delta in clouds, 
from which proceed rays. Over all, and filling the remainder of the field, is 
a tasselled cable-tow with three knots and a loop between each knot. Legend, 
URGET prolis AMOR [Love of offspring compels me]. Silver. Size 18 nearly. 
Rare.^ 

1 The legends show the Lodge which struck this of the obverse seems to be an improved rendering of 
piece, and its purpose, but the date of its issue I have the obverse of the former. From an impression in the 
not learned. I describe it from a rubbing sent me by Lawrence collection. 

Wor. Bro. Shackles. Shown in the Plymouth, Eng- 3 Probably identical with a " yellow copper " piece 
land, Exhibition, No. 366. with the same inscription, mentioned in Schulman*s 

2 This is a medal of the same Lod^e which struck Catalogue (Amersfort, August, 1887). 

CCXIX, and I think a later issue, as it bears a more 4 This is in the Lawrence collection, and from its 
elaborate and tasteful device on the reverse, while that style probably belongs to the last century. 



70 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [January, 

DCCCXII. Obverse, The square and compasses enclosing the letter G 
on a small five-pointed star ; a wreath of acacia, open at the top and crossed 
at the bottom, surrounds the emblems and fills the field. Legend, above, r.'. 
L.\ l'independance francaise j^Respectable Lodge of French Independence,] 
and below, + o.-. de toulouse. + Reverse, A field, plain, for engraving an 
inscription, and surrounded with a wreath of acacia open at the top and 
having a small square and compasses at the bottom where the stems cross. 
Silver. Size 19 nearly. A ring at the top in form of a wreath inserted in 
the edge.' w. t. r. marvin. 

[To be continued.] 



COIN SALES. 

FROSSARD»S SALE. 



December 24, 1889, Mr. Frossard held his Ninety-seventh Sale, in the rooms of the Messrs. Leavitt 
& Co., New York. The Catalogue contained many Spanish and Franco-American Coins, Medals and 
tokens, especially a very complete set of the rare jetons struck for the American Colonies under Louis XV, 
a complete set of the Medallic Thalers of Bavaria, rare Scotch and English coins, Crowns and Double 
Crowns of German Cities and States, and the collection of American Coins and Medals made by Mr. 
J. v. Palmer, of Seneca Falls, N. Y., with some choice Ancient Coins from private hands. The Cata- 
logue, 34 pages and nearly 600 lots, was prepared by Mr. Frossard, and a few copies were issued with aji 
autotype plate. Among the pieces sold, we note the following: Medallic Thalers, of Ludwig I, of Bava- 
ria, forty-one pieces ; the set brought $82 : Dollar of Christian Vll, of Denmark, struck for Greenland, 
1777, extremely rare and fine, 6.35 ; the Franco-American jetons of Louis XIV and XV, 21 pieces, some 
in silver and others in copper, brought from 5.50 to 31.00, the latter price being paid for that with 
undraped and laureated bust of the King, by the younger Roettiers, and with Mars and Neptune on the 
reverse, and legend Parat ultima^ etc., which was in very fine condition; an Aureus of Marcus Aurelins, 
Victory crowning the Emperor, 25.00; one of Commodus, draped bust, and Security seated on reverse, 
superb and excessively rare, 27.00; a Solidus of Maximianus, also very rare, 39.00; Stater of Ptolemy I, 
Soter, 120.00; rthe only other specimen ever sold in America brought $305.) Gold Medallion oif 
Ptolemy II and Arsinoe, with Ptolemy I and Berenice on rev., brought 85.00. A beautiful Decadrachm 
of Syracuse, with head of Arethusa and quadriga on rev., 85.00. Amon^ the medieval coins we note a 
Hardi of Edward the Black Prince, which sold for 10, and a Five-Guinea piece of William III, for 38 ; a 
** Lion" of Mary Stuart, 22; a Pound piece (XX shillings), of Charles I, 52; and the last piece in the 
sale, a pewter token of four pence (Canadian) of Lauzon, 1021, sold for 16.60. Altogether the sale must 
have been very satisfactory. 

CHAPMANS' SALE. 

The Messrs. Chapman sold the collection of Mr. £. Shorthouse, an English collector, at the rooms 
of Messrs. Bangs & Co., in New York, on the 6th of December. Mr. Shorthouse is a resident of Bir- 
mingham, and a member of the LondoA Numismatic Society. It contained many **gems,'* rarely we 
suppose to be found in English Cabinets, of early Colonials, many fine Dollars, and some fine and rare 
Cents ; there were also of course some fine and rare foreign coins, the first piece in the Catalogue being 
one of Six Thalers, of Christian Louis of Brunswick, 1654, which brought $20. A rare silver medal of 
the Council of Dort, with date i6i5[, sold for 7.75; the curious **Nelsonic Crimson Oakes," with many 
Masonic emblems, but which Marvin rejects as a Masonic, though its history, up to the present time, 
has not been made clear, 6.00; this dates from 1809, and was probablv the issue of some private society, 
which adopted Masonic emblems from fancy ; we know of but one other impression, which we believe is 
in Gen. Lawrence's cabinet. A Penny bearing the legend **The Theatre of New York in America," with 
a view of the building, presumably, sold for 4.75. A Birmingham Sixpence, with view of the Work- 
house, uncirculated and believed to be the only one in America, dated 181 3, sold for 50.00; one has 
sold in England for 102, and Mr. Batty, the compiler of an extensive work on English Copper Coinage, 
has been offered and refused 97 for one in his collection. A side-view Bank Penny, of Montreal, 33 ; 
another, 1839, 24; N. E. Shilling, NE in punch mark, 30; and other early Massachusetts coins at very 
good prices ; Baltimore Shilling, 30, and Sixpence, 22 ; three Elephant pieces, the lot, 145 ; New York 
Cent of 1786, **Non Vi," 76; do., 1787, *• Liber Natus," 126; Myddelton Token, 22; Quarter of I7q6, 
v. f., 40; Dime of same date, 10; the Cents brought excellent prices. One of '93, chain, ••Ameri," 85: 
'05, lettered edge, unc, 40; '96. Liberty cap, unc, 63; Proof set of \8, lacking the ^c, 45.25; the 
Libertas Americana medal, ex. f., 27. The sale amounted to $3,174, for the 700 lots. It was a very 
interesting one, and we might quote many more prices, did space allow. 

I From an impression imported by Mr. Low, now I legend as nearly as type will admit. As previously 
believe in the Lawrence collection : doubtless intended stated, R, on the obverse, may stand for Resptctable or 
as a member's jewel. I give the crosses in the obverse Reguliere, 



1890.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS, 71 

BOOK NOTICES. 

Medallic Illustrations of the History of Great Britain and Ireland to the death of 
George III. Compiled by the late Edward Hawkins, F. R. S., F. S. A., and edited by 
Augustus W. Franks, F. R. S., F. S. A., and Herbert A. Grueber. Printed by order of 
the Trustees of the British Museum. . . . London, 1885. 2 vols. 

The volumes with this title form a very important and very interesting numis- 
matic work. The preface gives an account of the origin of the work and the accidents 
attending its course toward publication, while in the introduction we find a concise 
statement of the history of medallic art in Great Britain, with some account of the 
artists and subjects of the more important medals. The whole number described in 
the work is 2624, of which 455 belong to George II, and 370 to William and Mary, 
while Charles I, Charles II, and Anne claim each nearly 300. The really interesting 
part of the work begins with the reign of Elizabeth, in which are several on the defeat 
of the Spanish Armada. Under Charles I, are three medals of Cecil, second Lord 
Baltimore, one supposed to be unique, while on another is a curious map of Maryland. 
Under James II, are two medals commemorating the recovery of the silver treasure by 
Captain, afterwards Sir William Phips. Under William III, more than sixty numbers 
are devoted to medals on the peace of Ryswick. Under George II, we find our old 
friend Admiral Vernon celebrated in no less than 95 numbers, and some pieces in the 
cabinet of the reviewer are not found among them. The most interesting American 
medal is number 292 of the same reign : " the Tuesday club of annapolis. May, 
1746. Liberty, as a naked youth, holding a staff surmounted by a cap, seated near an 
altar inscribed, libertas et natale solum. (Liberty and my native land.) Leg, 
carolus cole armiger PRiESEs. (Charlcs Cole, Esquire, President.). Rev, Two 
hands united in a heart : inscription across the field, the Tuesday club in Annapolis 
Maryland ^kY 14, 1746. Leg. concordia res PARViE crescunt. (By concord small 
things increase.) 1.7. (See woodcut.) m.b. sl. Extremely rare." A short note 
records all that is known of this club. No other specimen of the medal is known to 
the writer. A continuation of this work is doubtful, but is sincerely to be desired. 
The next reign swarms with American medals. w. s. a. 



ARCHAEOLOGY. 

remains of the mound builders. 

Professor F. W. Putnam of Cambridge, recently read a paper in Boston on 
** Recent Researches in American Archaeology." It was remarkable in its scope, and 
the suggestions which it afforded. A brilliant series of lantern views illustrated the 
work of Professor Putnam both here and in the Ohio Valley. The animal mounds 
were shown and discussed as well as the burial mounds and fortifications. Relics 
from them were pictured, and most interesting of all, the charred traces of prehistoric 
cloth, preserved by the exercise of extraordinary care by Professor Putnam himself. 
The Serpent Mound was fully shown in a series of superb photographs. This has 
been bought and has been made into a park, through the munificence of Boston ladies. 
Other mounds, among them the largest one in North America, have been barely 
saved from destruction by the personal influence of the lecturer. 

The latest work of Professor Putnam proved of greatest interest — the Turner 
Mound. This was investigated most recently and has many peculiar and unexplained 
features. This mound contains within it a circular wall of the local stones laid up in 
a rough manner, in a niche of which was discovered the skeleton of the person on 
whose account the mound was constructed. Within this circle there was an altar, 
where fire was kept burning evidently for a considerable time, and on this altar was 
one of the most remarkable discoveries known to the American archaeologist. Here 
it is clear this prehistoric people offered as sacrifices to the fire-god their choicest 



72 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [January, 1890. 

personal effects, and the relics found on the altar gave evidence of the skill in the arts 
of the mound builders. Among the things found there were ornaments, copper, 
silver, and in one instance plated with gold, curious artistic forms of copper and of 
mica, and sheets of mica of a size which would to-day be notable. Sea shells from the 
Atlantic coast, of the genus oliva, mica from North Carolina, obsidian from Colorado 
and copper from Michigan, found among these relics, testify to the value of articles 
which had been transported such a long distance. Among the most remarkable 
objects were the pearls, which were found in enormous quantities, sixty thousand at 
least. These are the fresh water pearls, found in the shells of the river clam (unio) 
and were perforated, evidently for the purpose of stringing into necklaces and other 
ornaments. Teeth of animals, the bear, the wolf and even of the grizzly, which is not 
known east of the Rockies, were found, perforated for ornamental purposes. Evidence 
of the use of iron by the mound builders was also found, the meteorites themselves, 
then partly hammered, and finally beaten into plates for ornamental purposes. It was 
even beaten into a thin covering for earrings, for which it was valuable from its 
brilliancy. Any one of a dozen different topics suggested by these pictures could 
have been made the subject of an evening's talk, so full was the lecturer of facts and 
information. 

The artistic status of the mound builders was touched upon. Pictures of objects 
from the Turner Mound were shown, terra-cotta figures of accuracy and considerable 
artistic skill, and one in particular, very suggestive of the art oi the Egyptians in 
posture, features, and even in the shape and ornaments of the headdress. The Turner 
Mound in its pits, a feature not observed before, presents a puzzle to the investigator. 
The curious structures, shaped not unlike reverberating furnaces, with very small 
chimneys, were found to a considerable number placed about the centre of the mound, 
and pointing inwards. No hint as to the purpose of these pits can yet be given. 



EDITORIAL. 



The desirability of bringing to as early a conclusion as possible the various descriptive 
lists, now publishing in the yournal^ has induced us to give somewhat more space than usual 
in the present number to these matters, thereby excluding the notices of Society Meetings, 
which have been furnished us by their Secretaries. These lists are of special value to collectors 
of certain groups of medals, and the completeness with which the youmal has given them, has 
elicited much commendation abroad ; we do not lose sight, however, of the other objects of the 
yournaL We are glad to resume our ** Gleanings" in the present issue, and in the next 
number we hope to give our readers a portion of an interesting paper on Alchemical Medals, 
and to resume the Notes and Queries, etc. 

The prevaihng epidemic has been very serious in the Boston Printing offices ; some of 
the larger offices have been greatly demoralized, and many of the smaller ones might as well 
have closed for the time, from lack of workmen ; it has been very prevalent in the building 
where the youmal is printed, " laying off " a large number of employees, and death has been 
busy among them. We mention this as a part of the history of the winter, and as explaining 
the lateness of publication of this number. 

Wanted. The Coin Collector's Journal for October, 1888. Address Wm. S. Appleton, 
18 Somerset St., Boston. 

CURRENCY. 

A St. Louis Police Judge, who is a terror to evil doers, one day had a gambler on trial before him. 
The prisoner denied having played for money, but said chips were used. The Judge fined him $10, 
however, saving that ** chips" were money. After the docket had been disposed o^ the Judge was 
approached by the poker player, who asked if the Judge still thought that chips were money. On receiv- 
ing an answer in the affirmative, he said : *• Well, I suppose I will have to pay my fine." Coolly counting 
out ten chips, he laid them on the magistrate's desk, and before the Judge had time to recover his equi- 
librium, disappeared. The fine was afterward remitted by the Judge, but the "chips" are still in his 
possession as a reminder of his ruling that chips were money. 



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April, 1890- 




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CONTENTS. 

Contributions of Alchemy to Numismatics, . 73 Transactions of Societies : 

Medallic Memorials of the Great Comets, 84 Boston Numismatic Society, ... 96- 

Amer. Numis. and Archaeol. Society, 97 

Gleanings : Masonic Medals, 97 

British Museum Coin Catalogues : Roman A Royal Collector, 98 

Medallions, . . . . . . 91 Archaeology: 

The Medals, Jetons, and Tokens illustrative Ancient Aboriginal Mining, ... 99 

of the Science of Medicine, ... 92 Book Notices, 99 

How Nickels and Pennies are Made, . 95 Editorial, 100 

Money in England in 1560. .... 96 Currency, 100 

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The American yournal of Numismatics has probably done more than any other single 
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higher idea of numismatology than a more or less systematic hoarding and trading of coins, an 
investigation of such material as this Quarterly furnishes, would come with the freshness of a 
revelation. Few sciences bear directly or indirectly upon so many human interests, or throw 
light into so many dark corners, as this study of coins, medals, and tokens. It is the daughter 
of metallurgy no less than of fine art, the handmaid of history, economics, and archaeology. 
The American yournal is rich in its original matter, as well as in its selections from the 
writings of the highest authorities at home and abroad. It comes in fine dress, clearly printed 
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Fig. 2. Fig. a B. 

THE COMET OK CHARLES V. 




Fig. 3. 



Fig. 4- 





Fig. 5. 



Fig. 6. 




Fig. 7. Fig. 8. 

THE COMET OK THE ARCHDUKE NIATHIAS. 



MEDALLIC MEMORIALS OF THE GREAT COMETS. 

R Iv A.T E II. 




AM ER I C AN 

JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS, 

A X D 

Bulletin of American Numismatic and Archaeological Societies. 
Vol. XXIV. BOSTON, APRIL, 1890. No. 4. 



CONTRIBUTIONS OF ALCHEMY TO NUMISMATICS. 

BY HENRY CARRINGTON IJOLTON, PH. I). 

The doctrine of the transmutation of metals prevailed in many nations 
at an early period of their intellectual development. It seems to have been 
an outgrowth of primitive notions concerning the constitution of matter, one 
element or principle being regarded as fundamental and capable of giving 
birth to the others. Water, air, fire and earth were severally regarded as the 
first principles of all things by Greek philosophers, and these four were 
adopted by Aristotle. He held, moreover, that these elements are mutually 
convertible, each having two qualities, one of which was common to some 
other element. Thus he wrote : 

Fire is hot and dry. 
Air is hot and moist. 
Water is cold and moist. 
Earth is cold and dr)\ 

In each element one quality was dominant, and by changing the propor- 
tions of the qualities, one element could be changed into the other. This 
doctrine was afterwards extended to metallic bodies, and a race of alchemists 
began to investigate it experimentally. We do not read of attempts to 
change gold into silver, nor either of these metals into lead, for avarice acted 
as a mighty stimulus in adv-ancing the inquiry, and a false philosophy sus- 
tained it through many hundred years. 

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the belief in the possibility of 
converting lead into gold and silver was well-nigh universal, and the pursuit 
of alchemy was followed by persons in every station of life ; physicians vainly 
hoping to discover the Elixir of Life, merchants and tradesmen seeking a 
short road to riches, peasants and noblemen, beggars and princes with whom 
avarice was a common motive, each and all courted the fascinating folly. 
The belief was not confined to the ignorant and unlearned, but was held by 
the men of science, the theologians, the warriors, and the statesmen of that 



74 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [April, 

pericrd. Some who professed to have accompHshed the ** great work," as 
the transmutation was called, were undoubtedly self-deceived, owing to the 
occurrence of certain phenomena which modern chemists have no difficulty 
in explaining, but which to the experimenters of the Middle Ages seemed 
conclusive proofs of the wonderful transformation. On the other hand there 
were many unprincipled impostors who gained a precarious livelihood by 
pretending to a knowledge of the hermetic art, and who practiced their 
profession at the bidding and costs of wealthy and credulous devotees of 
Mammon. These hired laborers in alchemy, anxious to maintain their 
reputation and to please their patrons, fostered this belief by many tricks 
and clever impostures. The learned and crafty Dr. John Dee, who enjoyed 
the patronage of both Rudolph II, the Emperor of Germany, and of Queen 
Elizabeth of England, when about to seek favors from the latter, sent her 
a small disc of gold which he claimed to have made by hermetic art from 
a copper warming-pan ; and shortly afterA\^ards Dee forwarded to the Queen, 
as an unimpeachable witness, the warming-pan itself, having a hole in the 
copper bottom of the exact size of the piece of gold. 

Leonhard Thurneysser, a noted German physician and alchemist, on the 
20th of November, 1586, in Rome, performed a miracle with a common iron 
nail ; the nail was dipped into the melted philosopher's stone, and the iron so 
far as immersed was transmuted into gold. All of which was solemnly testified 
to by a Cardinal of the Church ; besides, was not the nail itself, half iron and 
half gold, a tangible witness convincing to the most skeptical ? 

Believers in the transmutation of metals had however far more satisfac- 
tory and authoritative evidences than these questionable specimens, to which 
they could point with assurance ; these were the medals and coins of silver and 
of gold, duly stamped with the records of the transmutation, commemorating 
the power of the adept and honoring hLs noble patron. The number of these 
hermetic rarities in numismatics is surprisingly large ; to catalogue them all 
would be no easy task ; we herein describe forty-three pieces mentioned in 
literature or preserved in cabinets abroad. 

The chief source of information concerning hermetic numismatics is a 
scarce little quarto published at Kiel in 1692 by Samuel Reyher, and bearing 
the title ** De Nummis quibusdam ex chymico metallo factis!' It is a disser- 
tation presented to the Faculty of Jurisprudence of the University. In its 
144 pages it includes thirty-seven chapters ; the titles of the first five are as 
follows: Cap. I. De Nummis Aureis. II. De Nummis Argenteis, III. De 
j^Enigmatibus nonnullis Chymicis, IV. De Auro ex Auripigmento , Y. De 
^gyptiorum Chrysopceia et de Aureo Vellere, 

As may be inferred from these allusions to the '* Enigmas of Chemistry," 
and to the ** Alchemy of the Egyptians and the Golden Fleece," the author 
was imbued with the credulous spirit that pervaded all branches of philosophy 
and science at that period. He writes as a historian, but is not thorough, 
since he fails to catalogue many pieces existing prior to his time. 

In the first two chapters, on gold and silver coins respectively, he gives 
representations of five gold and four silver pieces, besides naming some others. 
These will be described in their chronological place. We may be pardoned 
for remarking that Reyher lived and wrote about a century too soon, for after 
his day a much larger number of these evidences of transmutation and credu- 



1890.] AMEklCAM JOlTRiSTAt OP NtlMlSkAtlCS. fi 

lity appeared, which would have greatly added to the size and interest of his 
essay. 

Additional information is found in the works of J. David Kohler {^Histo- 
rise her Munzbelustigungen, Niirnberg, 1 729-1 750, 24 vols.), David Samuel 
Madai {Vollstaendiges Thaler- Cabinet. Konigsberg, 1765), Schulthess-Rech- 
berg {Thaler- Cabinet. Wien, 1840, 3 vols.), and other numismatic treatises: 
our chief reliance, however, is on works that belong rather to an alchemical 
than to a numismatic library ; these we shall mention in passing.' 

I. (13th Century). — Among the earliest of the coins, whose undisputed 
existence was regarded as visible proof of hermetic labors, were the so-called 
Rose nobles made from gold artificially prepared by Raymund Lully. This 
celebrated alchemist (1235-13 15) was invited by Edward II, King of England, 
about the year 13 12, to visit his realm ; on his arrival he was furnished with 
apartments in the Tower of Lx)ndon, where he transmuted base metals into 
gold ; this was afterwards coined at the mint into six millions of nobles, each 
worth more than three pounds sterling. These Rose, or Raymund nobles as 
they were also called, were well known to the antiquarians of the sixteenth 
century, and were reputed to be of finer gold than any other gold coin of that 
day. On the obverse of these coins is represented in a very rude fashion a 
ship floating on the sea decorated with a royal ensign and carrying the king, 
who bears in his right hand a naked sword and on his left arm a shield. 
Around this design: edward d[e]i gra[tia] rex ANGL[r/E] z franc[iae] 
d[omi]n[u]s ib[erni^]. (Edward by the grace of God King of England 
and France, Lord of Ireland.) 

On the reverse a conventional rose surrounded by four lions and ducal 
crowns, alternating with four lilies. The inscription on the outer circle reads: 
jHs. aut.[em] transiens. per. medium illor.[um] ibat. (But Jesus passing 
through the midst of them went His way.) St. Luke iv : 30. (Wiegleb, Unter- 
such. Alchemie. Weimar, 1777, p. 217.) 

Rose nobles are figured by Lenglet du Fresnoy in his Histoire de la 
Philosophie Hermetique (Paris, 1741, Vol. II, p. 8.), who remarks, **They are 
less rare in the north of England than in the capital ; one of my friends had 
several, some of which weighed ten ducats." * These coins are said to have 
been worn as amulets to preserve from danger in battle, and to have been 
used as touch pieces in connection with the gift of healing by royal touch. 
(Pettigrew, Superstition in Medicine and Surgery. London, 1844, p. 129.) 

Lully himself, in his ** Last Testament," declares that while in London he 
converted twenty two tons' weight of quicksilver, lead and tin, into gold. 
This relation is vouched for by Cremer, Abbot of Westminster (Maiers Tri- 
pus Aureus. PVancofurti, 1618, p. 183), and the Raymund nobles are described 
by William Camden, the English antiquary {Britannia sive regnorum Anglia 

1 Since mv first paper on ' Alchemy and Numismatics' The valued communication of Dr. Hans Riggauer, 

{Amer.yonrnal of Numismatics XXI, p. 77), Mr. David of Munich, I acknowledge elsewhere. 

I>. Walter, one of the Vice Presidents of the American 2 Numismatists classify Rose nobles into the old 

Numismatic and Archaeological Society, has contrib- and new, the former being coined prior to 1500. Some 

uted some notes on the subject, including a brief list of of them bear the image of a rose resembling a star with 

authorities. To this communication I am indebted for long points and crowned, others the image of a ship (as 

a few points. above); the latter are also known as ship-nobles. 

In the preparation of this article, Mr. Lyman H. Low, (Kohler, Vol. VI, 327 ; Kenyon's Gold Coins of Eng- 

of New York, granted me the use of his library, and land, p. 17. Also Ruding's Annals of the Coinage of 

made several bibliographical suggestions ; his courtesy Great Britain, London, 1840, which reviews the alchem- 

and kindness I thankfully acknowledge. Utical legend of Lully.) 



76 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 



[April, 



descriptio, 1586), and by John Selden {^Mare Clausum, 1635). Robert 
Constantine, in his History of Medicine (1545), states that he found public 
documents confirming the report that Lully made gold in the Tower by order 
of the King, and Dr. Edmund Dickenson relates that the workmen who 
removed the cloister which Lully occupied at Westminster found some of the 
powder, by which they enriched themselves. Historians who do not believe 
in transmutation, point out chronological discrepancies which throw doubts 
on the pretensions of Raymund Lully. (See Wiegleb, op. cit.) 

The alchemists clothed their writings in a mystical, enigmatical lan- 
guage, and illustrated them with very extraordinary symbols and hieroglyphs, 
only a part of which are decipherable ; whether the remainder really had any 
rational significance is doubtful. These symbols included those used in 
common to designate the seven known planets and the seven known metals, 
an association that dates from the first centuries of the Christian era. 



Symbol. 



Metal. 

Gold 

Silver 


Isi 


Symbol. 
U 


Metal. Planet. 
Tin Jupiter 
Iron Mars 


h 


Copper 
Lead 


Venus 
Saturn 


9 


A!ercur>' Mercur>' 
Antimony (added later) . 



These symbols were in common use in alchemical manuscripts and 
printed books for several centuries, and are naturally found on coins and 
medals whose history is connected with transmutation.' 

Alchemists attempted to explain chemical facts known to them, and 
especially the constitution of bodies by this theory:. All bodies, they said, are 
made up of three elementary principles named and symbolized thus: ^ Sul- 
phur, volatility ; 9 Salt, fixedness ; g Mercury, metalHcity. This mercur)^ 
they distinguished from the metal by calling it the ** Philosophical Mercury." 
All bodies are formed of these imaginary principles combined in various ways, 
and the predominance of any one determined the degree of volatility, of 
fixedness in fire, or of metalHcity. Thus gold, they argued, had little sulphur 
and much salt and mercury, while lead had much sulphur, no salt, and a large 
share of mercury. They further believed that by changing the proportions of 
these principles one metal might be transmuted into another ; thus to convert 
lead into gold, it was necessary to remove its sulphur, increase its metalHcity, 
add salt, and change its color. Besides these the literature of alchemy 
abounds in curious signs ; every substance, every apparatus, and every 
operation (such as fusion, distillation and filtration,) had its appropriate sign ; 
some were pictorial and abbreviative, some symbolical, but the majority were 
arbitrary. (Bolton, Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sciences, Dec, 1882 and March, 
1883). A mere catalogue of them fills a book of many pages; the Alchetn- 
istisches Oraculum, (Ulm, 1772,) contains over 2,000 such symbols. 

In their writings the alchemists further used metaphors to denote mate- 
rials and operations. Thus nitre (saltpetre) was a ** venomous worm," a 
** scorpion " and a ** dragon ; ** antimony was a ** wolf" {lupus metallorum)\ sal 
ammoniac an ** eagle;" and pictorial representations of these objects were 



I Modem Numismatists, I am informed, use the fol- 
lowing abbreviations for the metals indicated : A'' gold, 
yR silver, Ld lead, W M or w m white metal, B brass, 
T tin, N nickel. Van Mieris, in his handsome work on 
the Coins of the Netherlands {Historider Nederlandsche 



VorsteHy 1735, *j Gravenhagt^ 3 vols, folio), uses the 
first five symbols in the preceding table for the re- 
spective metals in connection with the engravings. 
Also Schulthess and others. 



1890.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 77 

employed to designate the underlying chemical facts. Hence lead, being 
Saturn, was represented by this god of mythology, usually as the Greek 
ChronoSy or Father Time, with his wooden leg and a scythe and hour-glass. 

This enigmatical method of expression is quite common in the manu- 
scripts and books of certain authors. The works of Michael Maier,' physician 
to Rudolph II of Germany, and of Basil Valentine, an obscure (perhaps 
mythical) monk of the 15th century, afford striking examples. 

These symbols, hieroglyphs and pictorial metaphors, enter into the 
designs of the gold and silver pieces coined to commemorate '' the great 
work," thus giving them a character at once significant and easily recognizable. 

Metallic talismans also frequently contain the symbols of the seven 
metals, signs of the zodiac and magical characters, but these are devoid of 
true alchemical association, and form no part of our study. The curious may 
consult the plates in the third volume of Appel's Repertorium zur Munzkunde 
des Mittelaiters (Wien, 1824;) also the essay on Medallic Amulets and 
Talismans by David L. Walter in Proceedings Am. Numismatic and Archaeo- 
logical Society of New York, for 1886. (p. 38). 

II. ( 1 604) . — A good example of the fantastic representations mentioned 
is the oval piece of silver bearing the date 1604 and figured by Reyher 
in the work named (p. 15). 

Obverse, Rude figures of the four animals of prophecy, the lion, the 
calf, the man and the eagle (Rev. iv. 7) supporting in their midst a spotted 
fleece. Above these are three crowns ; on the first rests a young man hold- 
ing a sword in one hand and a cross in the other ; on the second rests an old 
bearded man wearing a pointed helmet and holding the Reichsapfel or Imperial 
Globe ; on the third crown rests a dove. Around these symbolic figures of 
the three persons of the Trinity are the words : 

Tria mirabil.[ia]. 
Deus et homo. 
Thin, [us] et t'N.[us]. 
Mater et virgo. 

(Three marvels : God and man : three and one : mother and virgin). This 
inscription is found also on other coins of hermetic association. 

On the Reverse, in the centre, a conventional and modified symbol 
of mercury supports a pelican feeding its young ; within the lower circle of 
the symbol stands an eagle. The lower part of the symbol is made up 
of $ (copper), the centre of J (antimony), and the top of the caduceus of 
Mercury, intertwined. On the right stands a young man holding in one 
hand the symbol ^ (sulphur), and in the other a nondescript object: on the 
left stands a young woman, holding 9 (mercury) in one hand and a cornu- 
copia in the other. The inscription reads : above the figures, ess[entia] una 
(One essence); below the same, ritrt. g. i. w. and lower down sic volvere 
FATA (Thus the fates have decided.) Beneath is 1604. Around an outer 
circle, natur[a] uN[rrA] usu r[e]nata modo tot[a], T7 fueram, nunc 
clar[issimumJ exto. (Originally one in my nature, now entirely regenerated, 
I was lead, behold me most brilliant gold.) 

I Atalanta fugiens^ Oppenbeim, 1618; Symbola au- (/a n'um c/iyf/iirum by Slo]c'ms dc Stolcenburg, Franctv 
rra mensa duodecim, Francofurti, 1617. Also: Viri- furti, 1624. Long i2ino. 



78 AMEfelCAW JOURNAL Ot NUMISMaTICS. [Ai»riL, 

III. 1617. — Samuel Reyher, in the work described, says he possesses 
through the liberaHty of Dr. Johann Ludolph Ringelmann a golden piece 
which he shows in a wood-cut without giving its history. Its description is as 
follows : — Obverse, Figures of a man and a woman apparently in a savage 
state on either side of an ornamented shield ; the inscription around the outer 
circle is: mo.[neta] no.[va] argentea civrrAXis ereford. (New silver 
coinage of the city of Erfurt.) 

On the reverse a shield quartered like a coat of arms surmounted by a 
cherub's head in clouds, with the date 16 17 and the signs ^ (sulphur of the 
alchemists), and § (mercurj^). Around the edge the inscription: date caes- 
ARis CAESARi ET QtVE DEI DEO. (Matthew xxii : 21. Render therefore unto 
Caesar the things that are Caesars and unto God the things that are God's.) 
(Kohler, [J. D.J op, cit,. Vol. 21, p. 65. Madai, No. 2219). 

Two specimens of this Erfurt thaler of 161 7 are preserved in the Royal 
Bavarian Cabinet of Coins, Munich, as I learn from Dr. Hans Riggauer. 

IV. Another coin of the same date is briefly mentioned by Tenzel. It 
was stamped with a phoenix, and beneath this fabulous bird the words in 
TERRis RARissiMA SED TAMEN. (Most rare in the earth, yet nevertheless I do 
exist.) The origin of this coin was unknown to him. (For Tenzel, see coin 
of 1687, this article.) 

V. (1622.) — Dr. George Wolfgang Wedel, Professor of Medicine in the 
University of Jena in 1673, niember of learned societies, and court physician, 
was a frequent contributor to alchemical literature. Of unimpeachable 
character, his assertions were of great weight among his compeers. Wedel 
(also called Wedelius) describes a silver piece struck by the city of Erfurt of 
the date 1622, and distinguished by the characters^ (sulphur) and 9 (mer- 
cury). The full description is as follows: 

Obverse, mo[neta] no[va] arg[entea] civit[atis] erfford. 1622. 
(New silver coinage of the city of Erfurt, 1622) surrounding a wheel with 
scrolls, and the signs ^ and § (sulphur and mercury). 

Reverse. The arms of the city of Erfurt and the inscription : nach dem 
alten schrot und korn. (Of standard weight and fineness). 

Wedel, however, points out that in 1622 there were two masters of the 
mint in Erfurt named Ziegler and Weismantel, and the latter to distinguish 
his coinage from that of the former, employed the well-known signs given. 
without any intention of attaching to them a hermetic meaning (Reyher, p. 6 ; 
Buddeus, §21). To this category obviously belong the German coins of the 
fourth century mentioned by Reyher. Dr. Hans Riggauer informs me that 
three specimens of the Weismantel coins are preserved in the Royal Bavarian 
Cabinet, Munich. 

VI. (IV Century). Quoting Tilemann's Munz-Spiegel, (i. 3. r. 4 
p, 91,) Reyher says : At that time it came to pass that the people had coins, 
but the most of them were thin and hollow {hole^ for the convenience of the 
common people. Afterwards the Kings and Princes [in Germany] coined 
silver and gold pieces, but of small value, from 20 to 25 Eschen, like the 
Roman Semis and Tremis. The gold, however, was of unequal fineness, 
some, perhaps the most ancient, being of 22 carats, some of 18 and others. 
perhaps the most recent, of 12 carats. These had busts of various monarchs 



1890.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 79 

on one side and on the other a figure of Mercury, the messenger of the gods, 
holding the symbol ? in his hands ; that is to say the upper part of the sign 
reversed 8 in his right hand, and the cross + in his left : from this it appears 
that the coins were struck by the Suabian rulers, for as Tacitus remarked, 
Mercurius was specially honored by the Suabians. So far, Tilemann. 

A poorly executed and diminutive woodcut in Reyher s work shows the 
coin as above described, and an almost undecipherable inscription. 

The alchemists sought the philosopher s stone in the three kingdoms of 
nature, animal, vegetable and mineral; but the chief object of their efforts 
was the liquid metal, quicksilver ; this had great weight, and the paradoxical 
property of fluidity ; they argued that if it could be changed to a yellow color 
and ** fixed," that is, deprived of its fluidity, it would become gold. Mercury, 
therefore, is constantly symbolized on the hermetic coins, but to claim every 
coin as proof of transmutation that has the impress ^ is obviously absurd. 

Josef Neumann {Beschreibung der bekanntesten Kupfermiinzen. Prag, 
1858^ names several coins bearing the symbol for copper $ to indicate the 
metal of which struck. Nos. 2649 and 2650 are of the date 1767, and were 
coined by Stanislaus, King of Poland. A third copper coin named by Neu- 
mann (1203^) bears the symbols ^ ® ? o'^ one of three shields. This is 
an Austrian coin of the year 1652. We merely note these in passing, as addi- 
tional pieces in evidence that the planetary symbols were used by mint-mas- 
ters without any thought of attaching to them an alchemical significance. 

VII. (1630). — A silver thaler of handsome design, coined in Mainz, is 
catalogued by Madai as alchemical, probably because it is stamped with the 
symbol ?. 

Obverse, A portrait bust of Anselm Casimir (Elector and Archbishop 
of Mainz) wearing a standing collar, with the words : anselmi casimiri d.[ei1 
g.[ratia] archiep[iscopi] mog[untinensis] s.[acri] rom[ani] im[perii] per. 
germ[aniam] arch [i] can [cellarii] p[rincipis] e[lectoris.] (Anselm Casi- 
mir, by the grace of God Archbishop of Mainz, Arch-chancellor, Prince and 
Elector of the Holy Roman Empire.) 

Reverse, The Prince's arms with three helmets and archbishop's staff" and 
sword. Inscription, moneta nova argentea moguntina. 1630. d. 5. (New 
silver coinage of Mainz. 1630). The sign d. ^ is believed to be that of the 
mint-master. This piece occurs in two styles, round and eight-cornered. 
(Madai, No. 402.) 

VIII. (1634.) — Several gold and silver coins stamped with the efiigy of 
Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, or with his royal arms, are regarded by 
alchemists as evidence of transmutation, their claim being based on the cir- 
cumstance that the coins bear the venerated hermetic signs for mercury § 
and sulphur ^. John F. Buddeus and other historians do not consider this 
claim valid, and attribute the designs to the fancy of the royal coiner. ( His- 
torisch und politische Unter sue hung von der Alchemie, in Roth-Scholtz 
Deutsches Tlieatrum Chemicum, Erster Tkeil. Niirnberg, 1728.) 

Reyher, quoting the traveler Monconys (/////. part 11, p. 381), relates the 
following circumstances : 

*• The apothecary, Strobelperger, told me that a certain merchant of 
Lubeck, not very successful in business, yet who knew how to * fix' lead and 



So AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [April, 

to convert it into gold, presented to the King of Sweden, then traveling in 
Pomerania, a mass of gold weighing one hundred pounds, prepared by himself 
through hermetic art. Gustavus Adolphus caused ducats to be made of this 
gold, bearing his likeness on one side and the royal arms with the characters 
for mercury and sulphur on the other. • He gave me (continues Monconys) 
one of these ducats and said that after the death of the merchant, who did not 
seem to be very wealthy, and had long since discontinued trade, one million 
seven hundred thousand crowns were found in his house." (Reyher, Cap, i, 
/. 4.) The coins referred to are figured by Reyher and by Buddeus : 

Obverse, Bust of Gustavus Adolphus, head in profile crowned with a 
wreath; around the edge the inscription: gustavTus] adolph[us] d[ei] 
g[ratia] suec[orum] goth[orum] vand[alorum] r[ex]. (Gustavus Adol- 
phus, by the grace of God, King of the Swedes, Goths and Vandals). 

Reverse. The royal arms of Sweden, with ^ and ^ on either side, and 
the date 1634. On the edge the inscription : pr[inceps] finl[andiae] dux 
ETH0N[iit] ET carel[i^] dom[ixus] iNGER[MANNii4i:]. (Priuce of Finland, 
Duke of Esthonia and of Carelia, Lord of Ingria). The size of the coin is 
given by Reyher in a circle 22 mm. in diameter. 

IX. (1632.) — A double ducat of Gustavus Adolphus of the date 1632 
is also claimed by the votaries of Hermes. This gold coin has on the obverse 
a human skull resting on a bone ; out of the skull issue serpents, together 
with a grape-vine, on the branches of which hang many clusters of 
grapes. Around this emblem is the inscription : ezech.{iel] am. xxxvii 
cap.[itel] und am. VI NOVEMBER 1 63 2. (Ezekiel, Chapter 37, and on 
November 6th, 1632.) In an outer circle the words: gustavus adolphus d. 

G. SUEC. GOTH. VAND. RE *. 

Reverse, The royal arms of Sweden, with the year 1633, and the signs 
for sulphur^ and mercury § on either side. Around this: dv men[sJch 
[en] kind meinst auch dass di[e]se beine wid[er]leben werd[en]. (O 
son of man, believest thou that these bones will live again). And in an 
outer circle: pr[inceps] finl[andi^] dux ethon[l4£] et carel[l«] dom 
[iNUs] iNGE[RMANNiyE.] (Prince of Finland, Duke of Esthonia and Carelia. 
Lord of Ingria.) The reference to Ezekiel, chapter 37, relates to the vision 
of the dry bones, to which the alchemists gave a mysterious hermetic interpre- 
tation. (Joh. Heinr. Scheler, Beschreibung derer zu Ehren des Koenigs in 
Schweden, Gustavi Adolphi, mit dem Signo Sulphuris et Mercurii 1632 zu 
Erfurt gepraegten zweierlei Thalern, etc. In Hirschius [J. C], Bibliotheca 
numismatica, Norimb. 1760. Reyher, op, cit, p. 9. Madai, No. 218). 

X. (163 1.) — A third coin of silver by Gustavus Adolphus has on the 
obverse the Tetragrammaton mn^ or sacred name of Jehovah in Hebrew 
characters within rays of glory, and beneath this are the words : a domino 
FACTUM EST isTUD. (By the Lord has this been done). 

Reverse, The mscription in eleven lines : dec ter oftimo | maximo 

GLX)RIA ET LAUS | QUI GUSTAVO ADOLPHO | SUECORUM GOTHORUM | VAND[aLIAE] 
QUE REGI CONTRA | CAESAREANUM AC | LIGISTICUM EXERCITUM | VICTORIAM TRI- 

BUiT, I AD LiPSiAM DIE | VII SEPT. ANNO M. D. c. XXXI. (Glory and praise 
be to God, thrice best and greatest, who gave the victory to Gustavus Adol- 
phus, King of the Swedes, Goths and Vandals, against the imperial army and 



1890.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 81 

the Ligistians at Leipzig on the seventh day of Sept. 163 1.) Beneath this 
inscription is the character $ (mercury), but Reyher, who gives a represen- 
tation of the coin, remarks that this sign probably denotes the day of the week 
(Wednesday) and not the metal that formed the basis of hermetical operations. 

The Royal Cabinet of Coins of Bavaria, at Munich, possesses several 
examples of these Gustavus Adolphus pieces, to wit : Of the 1634 ducat, six 
pieces ; of the double ducat of 1633 ^^ silver, one piece ; of the thaler of 1631, 
one piece ; also two of the same date without the symbol, and one golden 
piece of this coinage. Dr. Hans Riggauer, Director of the Cabinet, to whom 
we are greatly indebted for a list of the alchemical treasures preserved in 
Munich, also mentions an Erfurt double thaler, of the date 1631 ; obverse : the 
signs ^ and § in a decorated coat of arms, and Gustavus Adolphus ascending 
to heaven in a two-horse chariot. 

Reverse. Gustavus Adolphus on a bed of state. (See Schulthess, 2048.) 

XL (1647). — The pursuit of alchemy does not appear to have been 
followed in Denmark at so early a period as elsewhere. Christian IV, who 
ascended the throne in 1588, (died, 1648) had in his employ an alchemist 
named Kaspar Harbach, who had the very useful knowledge of transmuting 
the products of Norwegian mines into gold ; Danish ducats of 1644 and 1646 
were shown, which were said to have been made of artificial gold. Some per- 
sons, however, were incredulous, and to vindicate the honor of his private 
alchemist. King Christian caused new ducats to be coined. These bear on the 
obverse a full length figure of the King in armor, surmounted by the words : 
CHRiSTiANUS, d.Fei] g.[ratia] DAN.[iyE] r.[ex] . (Christian IV, by the grace 
of God King of Denmark). The reverse has a rather large pair of spectacles 
and the legend: vide mira domi[ni]. 1647. (See the wonderful works 
of the Lord ). (Figured in Kohlers Miinzbelustigungen, Theil xii : p. 145, 
1740). 

XII. (1647). — In the same year an adept named J. P. Hofmann per- 
formed a transmutation in the presence of the Emperor Ferdinand III, in 
Nuremberg. From this hermetic gold the Emperor caused a medal of rare 
beauty to be struck. It is figured in the work of an anonymous author 
entitled : Niitzliche Versuche und Bertnerkungen aus dent Reiche der Natur'' 
and published by Georg Bauer in Nuremberg in 1760. This exceedingly rare 
piece bears on the obverse two shields in one of which are eight fleurs-de-lis, 
and in the other a crowned lion highly conventionalized. In an outer circle 
occur the words: lilia cum niveo copulantur fulva leone, and in an 
inner circle : sic leo mansuescet, sic lilia fulva virescent. 1647. (The 
yellow lilies lie down with the snow white lion ; thus the lion will be tamed, 
thus the yellow lilies will flourish). The two shields are linked above by a 
crown, over which are the letters i. p. h. v. n. f., denoting: — Johannes 
petrus hofmann vasallus norimbergensis fecit ; and on the right the letters 
T. G. V. L., denoting: TiNcruRi^ GUTTi« v. libram, which refer to the fact (?) 
that five drops of the ** tincture " transmuted a whole pound of the base metal. 
This power of the tincture is also indicated by the letters v. g., (^quinque 
guttae,) that appear between the two shields below. 

On the reverse, in the centre is a circle containing the figure of the war- 
rior Mars holding the symbol S in one hand and a sword in the other, and 
VOL. xxiv. II 



82 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [April, 

surrounded by the inscription : arma furens capiam rursusque in praelia 
SURGAM. (Enraged I shall take up my arms and again rush into the battle.) 
This refers to the circumstance that the active agent in transmutation was 
made in this case from iron. Around this central circle are six smaller ones ; 
the first contains the symbol for lead T?, with the words a marte ligor. (By iron 
am I bound.) The second, that for tin If, with the words a marte defendor. 
(By Mars I am protected.) The third, the sign for copper ? , and the words 
MARTE CONJUNGOR. (By Mars I am united.) The fourth, the sign for mercury 
5, and the words pedib[us] mars, ars scidit alas. (Mars goes on his feet, art 
has torn away his wings.) The fifth, the sign for silver (^, and the words mar- 
tis horrore deficio. (I am slain by the fear of Mars.) The sixth circle con- 
tains the symbol of gold with the words a marte obscuror. (I am hidden 
by Mars.) 

George Bauer, -describing this handsome medal in 1760, says it is pre- 
served in His Imperial Majesty's Cabinet of Coins, Vienna. 

XIII. (1648.) — The Thirty Years' war was brought to a happy conclu- 
sion by the Emperor Ferdinand III at the treaty of Westphalia, on October 
24, 1648. In January of the same year the Emperor found time in spite of 
his cares of State to experiment with the fascinating art of Hermes. A certain 
Rich thau sen, who claimed to have received the power of projection from an 
adept now dead, performed a transmutation in the presence of the Emperor 
and of the Count of Rutz, director of mines. All the precautions suggested 
by experience with imposters were observed, and with one grain of 
the powder furnished by Richthausen, two and a half pounds of mercury were 
changed into gold. To commemorate this event the Emperor had a medal 
struck of the value of 300 ducats, appropriately inscribed. The obverse con- 
tained a full-length representation of Apollo with rays proceeding from his 
head ; in one hand he held the lyra and in the other the caduceus ; his feet 
were covered with winged sandals, thus personifying the transmutation of 
mercury into gold. Above and below the figure were the words: divtna 

METAMORPHOSIS EXHIBITA PRAG/E XV JAN. AO. MDCXLVIII IN PR^SENTIA SAC. 

CAES. MAJEST. FERDiNANDi TERTii. (The Divine Metamorphosis, exhibited at 
Prague, January 15, 1648, in the presence of his Imperial Majesty Ferdinand 
the Third.) 

On the reverse there was no ornamentation, and the words : raris H/EC 

UT HOMINIBUS EST ARS ITA RARO IN LUCEM PRODIT. LAUDETUR DEUS IN STER- 
NUM QUI PARTEM SU^ INFINIT^^ POTENTI^ NOBIS SUIS ABIECTISSIMIS CREATURIS 

COMMUNICAT. (Like as rare men have this art, so cometh it very rarely to 
light. Praised be God forever, who doth communicate a part of His infinite 
power to us His most abject creatures.) The size of this medal is given as 21 
Wiirtemberg inches in diameter, and I in thickness. It was still to be seen at 
the Treasury in Vienna in 1797 ; it has been figured in several works, among 
which may be named J. J. Becher s Oedipus Chimicus (Amstelodami, 1664), 
Zwelffers Mantissa Spagirica (1652), and W. Coopers Philosophical Epitaph 
(London, 1673). 

XIV. (1650). — Two years after this successful experiment the Emperor 
made another projection at Prague, operating on lead with some of the pow- 
der received from Richthausen. With the gold thus obtained Ferdinand made 



1890.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 83 

a second medal bearing the inscription : aurea progenies plumbo prognata 
PARENTE. (A golden daughter born of a leaden parent). This medal was seen 
by the traveler Keyssler in the last century, at the Imperial castle of Ambras 
in the Tyrol. Richthausen, who had furnished the Emperor with the means 
for these transmutations, was ennobled, being made Lord of Chaos. (J. G. 
Keyssler's Neueste Reisen durch Deutschland. 2 Abth. Hannover, 175 1.) 

XV. (1658). — The accomplished Richthausen, now Lord of Chaos, gave 
further proof of his skill (in legerdemain or in chemistry?) in the year 1658. 
The Elector John Philip of Mainz, a warm patron of alchemists, having 
received some of the powder of projection from Richthausen, and taking extra- 
ordinary precautions to prevent fraud, himself converted four ounces of 
mercury into gold. The metal was superfine and additional silver had to be 
added to reduce it to the usual quality. Pieces of this gold were in the 
possession of Professor G. W. Wedel of the University of Jena ; and Mainzer 
ducats were also coined from a portion of the abundant metal. These bear 
on the obverse the arms of the Electorate of Mainz and the words : georg 
[lus] FRiD. [ericus] d.[ei] g. [ratia] archiep[iscopus] p.[rinceps] e. [lector] 
Ep[iscopus] worm.[atle]. (George Frederick, by the grace of God Arch- 
bishop, Prince, Elector, Bishop of Worms). 

Reverse. The words : ducatus nov. [us] aur.[eus] elector. [atusJmogunt 
[liC] (New golden ducat, struck for the Electorate of Mainz) and below this 
the Mainzer wheel. They are also stamped with the sign § which denotes that 
the gold was made by hermetic art from mercury. (Moncony*s Voyages 

n- 379) 

XVI. (1652.) — A silver piece of Lx)w Dutch origin is figured by Rey- 
her. On the obverse are these curious emblems : a tower with flames issuing 
from the archway, a snail bearing a ring in his mouth, and a background of 
hills above which birds are flying. Around this the words : 

•fi Vant* geen DAT Elck Versmeet ; 
Ben ick in t' wesen bracht 

DiEK* EER MAER VuLLIS WAS 

Bral nu met a* hoochst pracht. 

( No one has found that which each despises. 

1 am brought into being 

Though I was little more than filth 

Now I shine with the greatest brilliancy.) 

Reverse. Three miners at work with pick and spade in a quarry or mine ; 
around this the words : — 

•fi Langst geweest, eerst gevonden ; 
Door Goots gaeft te deser stonden. 

T' KOOMPT van GoDT 

DiT Edel Lot A. 1652. 

(A long time existing, just discovered 

Through God's gift at this time 

This noble lot comes from God. [Anno : In the year] 1652.) 

Reyher says this is preserved in the treasury of the illustrious Count of 
Schwartzburg, residing at Arnstadt in Thuringia. 

[To be continued.] 



84 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [April, 

MEDALLIC MEMORIALS OF THE GREAT COMETS, 

AND THE POPULAR SUPERSTITIONS CONNECTED WITH THEIR APPEARANCE. 

BY DAVID L. WALTER. 
[Continued from Vol. XXIV, p. 55.] 

VI. THE COMETS OF THE YEAR 1618. 
THE COMETS OF THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR. 

There were three (some say four) Comets observed during the year 1618, 
and there are many medals commemorative of them. I shall make observa- 
tions on the medals as they present themselves, merely saying for the present 
that I divide them into three classes, viz: A, those dated August ; B, those 
dated November 19th ; C, those with no date, and which we cannot assume 
as commemorating any particular one of the Comets, though I suspect they 
are of the last and greatest one. 

A. MEDALS OF THE AUGUST COMET. 

I. Obverse, The Comet within a circle of eight arches, seven of which termi- 
nate in trefoils, while the eighth terminates in the nucleus of the Comet itself, the tail 
of which streams out from it. Around all this is a double octagonal line in place of 
an inner circle, in which is the legend, CoMeta. VentVrI : DeI VIrga : 25 aug 
(ornaments) (The Comet, the rod of God who cometh. 25th August). [The small 
letters are not capitals but a sort of italic script.] 

Reverse, Within a circle two clasped hands, on a pedestal inscribed l.s., a light 
half extinguished in a candlestick and some reeds bent and broken ; over all the sun, 
signifying the Divine presence, and referring to Isaiah, chap, xlii : 3, which reads, " A 
bruised reed shall He not break, and the smoking flax shall He not quench : He shall 
bring forth judgment unto truth.*' Legend (around in a double circle), keines : 
wiRDT . versert . WER . GOTT . RECHT . EHRT : (Nonc that honors God rightly shall be 
destroyed). Within the circle, esai 41 (sic\) (Isaiah 41). This is possibly a mistake 
of the engraver of Van Loon*s cut, but there are other medals with esai 24 (see infra), 
also incorrect, the verse being from chapter 42. Around the inscription is a double 
outer diamond, etc., and ornamentation resembling the obverse, but with urns instead 
of angels' heads. Silver, Klippe, diamond shape : length of sides 31 mm. 19 A S. 

Van Loon, II, 103. He curiously enough says the two pieces described by him 
on the above page are similar, except in size ; they arc entirely different. Our plate 
III, No. I. 

The next medal is another on the August Comet, and refers to a catas- 
trophe which destroyed the town of Pliirs in Lombardy, in this year, and of 
course was attributed to the Comet, as the legend shows. 

2. Obverse. View of Pliirs. Legend Q) den 25 avgvsti anno CoMeta VentVri. 
deI VIrgae {sic.) (The 25th of August in the year 161 8 Q) the Comet of the rod of 
the approaching God.) The chronogram appears defective as described. I have 
never seen the medal. Probably a d and one more 1 should be in large capitals. 

Reverse, View of a lake. Inscription (?) : alles * was war * in • plvrs ' der • 
stadt • GOTT • DVRCH * BERGFALL ' VERSENKET ' HAT. (literally, All that was in the City 
of Pliirs God has sunk through the fall of a mountain.) 

Ruland and Pfeiffer 15, quoting Haller, II, 182. 

I have not been able to procure the latter work, but my friend, W. T. R. Marvin 
of Boston, kindly communicates the history of the disaster, as follows : Plurs was a 



1890.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 85 

town of Lombardy, on the borders of Switzerland, earldom of Chiavenna, situated on 
the river Maira, a branch of the Po, and at the foot of Mount Conto, one of the 
Rhaetian Alps. At the time of the catastrophe it had a population of 1,000 to 1,200 
inhabitants, and was a summer resort for people from Milan, Vienna, and other cities. 
Its ruin was caused by the fall of a portion of the mountain, which buried most of the 
place, and its destruction was completed by the flooding of the river, which was 
dammed by the debris, forming a small lake, probably that alluded to on the reverse. 
The inhabitants had been warned of their danger by one of the residents who had 
discovered a rift in the mountain-side, but they scoffed at his fears and he alone 
escaped, even his daughter being entombed. The neighboring village of Schilan 
perished in the same disaster, and even the names of these places are almost forgotten. 

Van Loon gives on the same page as No. i , a medal which he describes 
as differing only in size from that, but it is entirely different (see No. 3 below) ; 
it is dated November 19. Van Loon says that the Comet, though seen in 
Germany August 25th, was ** not seen in the Netherlands until November 
27th," a patent absurdity! The fact is that the August, the 19th November, 
and the 27th of November Comets, were all distinct. As to the August 
Comet and that of 19th November, thus dated on the medals, this is too 
evident to admit of argument ; as to the two November Comets, we find them 
both spoken of by the authorities (see below). 

B. MEDALS OF THE COMET OF NOVEMBER 19TH, 1618. 

It is of this Comet that Van Loon (II, 103), speaks, and quotes the Merc. 
Franc, for 1618, and Brandfs History of the Reformation (Dutch), to the 
effect that this *' terrible Comet which troubled the spirits of the people, had 
a dark red tail, and extended from the sign of the Balance towards that of the 
Bear, and in eighteen days travelled sixty-four degrees." It was the subject 
of a book composed in Dutch by Professor Nicholas Mulerus, of. Groningen, 
entitled **The Celestial Trumpet of the year MDCXIIX" {sic) Early in the 
next year another book was published with the approbation of the Counselor 
Deputies of the States, containing remarks on the Comet and the conjunctions 
of affairs in the Netherlands. It contained among other things several poeti- 
cal pieces. It was written in Dutch, and the authorship was ascribed by 
some to Jacques Kats, Pensioner Counselor of Middleburg. It is evident that 
the Comet of August was not thereby intended, and while the Comet of 19th 
November may have been, yet it is more likely from the date that the great 
Comet of the end of November, seen also in December, and even in January, 
1619, was the subject of the learned essayist. Be that as it may, we now 
describe the medals dated November 19, 1618. 

3. Obverse, Within a circle formed by a wreath, with a rosette on top and 
bottom, the Comet travelling in a southwesterly direction (on this medal), under which 
a line and inscription: anno 1618 - 19 no. (year 1618, 19th November); outside of 
the wreath are ornaments in the corners. 

Reverse. Within a double circle the hands, reeds, sun, and smouldering candle, 
similar to No. i (q. v.), no pedestal for the hands, which appear to rise out of the 
water. Legend, around, in a double inner circle, keins wirt versert • wer • gott 
RECHT EHRT ' ESA. 42. Many of the letters are joined together. In the corners are 
angels' heads with wings. The legend is translated above. Silver, Klippe. 21 mm., 
14 A. S., length of side. 

Described from a specimen formerly in my own collection. (Stolen therefrom.) 



&6 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [April, 

4. Very similar ; the letters and medal itself are a little smaller, but it bears the 
incorrect inscription on the reverse, esai 24 instead of 42. I have seen this medal. ^ 
Silver, Klippe. About 20 mm. 13 A. S. 

Van Loon, II, 103, plate III, fig. 2. 

5. Obverse. Similar to No. i. Described as *'Com6te dans les epicycloides 4 
feuilles de trefle." cgmetaiventvri : dei:virgo :{sic) 1618 19 no.*. (Translated above.) 

Reverse, The sun above water from whence arise rushes, etc., etc., as the 
others. Exergue, esai. 42. Gold, Klippe. Square. 37 mm. 
Coster,^ Jetons. 

6. Obverse, The Comet with thick swollen train. Exergue, w * r • n * Legend, 
ANNO • 1618 • DEN 19 NOVEMBER * H ' 4 * MANE. (1618, November 19, 4th hour [hora] 
in the morning.) 

Reverse. Only the two hands lifted out of the water to the Hebrew tetragram- 
maton. 

Exergue, esa. 24. Legend, wer gott recht ehrt keins wirt versehrt. 
(Translated above.) Silver. 21 J mm. 

Ruland and Pfeiffer, 13. 

c. medals of 1618 comet, without date of month, probably of third comet. 

In addition to what has been said above, Sir Isaac Newton says four 
Comets appeared in 161 8, and ** the second and fourth were probably the 
same." He speaks of the last of these thus: *'In the year 16 18, end of 
November, there began a rumor that there appeared about sun-rising a bright 
beam, which was the tail of a Comet, whose head was yet concealed within 
the brightness of the solar ray. On November 24th, and from that day, the 
Comet itself appeared, with a bright light, its head and tail being extremely 
resplendent. The length of the tail which was at first 20'' or 30*^, increased 
till December 9, "when it rose to 75° with a light much fainter and dilute than 
in the beginning." It appears to have been visible in January, 16 19. 

As already remarked, Newton says the second Comet, which appeared 
October 3 1 , was the same as the one thus described. The intermediate one 
was that of November 19. We now describe the medals not bearing any 
month, and which probably commemorate this last and greatest Comet. 

7. Obverse. A sarcophagus on a bier covered with a pall bearing a large cross, 
and on which lie a helmet and sword ; a Bible leans against it ; to the left is a withered 
tree ; over all the Comet sweeps through the sky. Legend, bedrovng eines come- 
tens (threatening of a Comet). Exergue, es werden zeich(en) gesche(hen) lv 21 
(and there shall be seen signs, Luke 21). The singularly appropriate quotation is 
from Luke xxi : 25, "And there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the 
stars ; and upon the earth distress of nations, with perplexity," etc. 

Reverse. In seven lines, gott geb das vns der comet stern besservng vn- 
SERS LEBENS LERN (God grant that the Comet star may teach us to better our lives). 
Silver. 27 mm. 18 A. S. 

Plate III, figure 3, from the specimen in my own collection. 

I Ruland and Pfeiffer describe under their Nos. 11 medal, 3 r mm.; this is probably the same as described 

and 12 a medal and its '''variant^* similar to above, 3 by Coster; see next note. 

and 4, but versehrt instead of versert, and size of 2 Me also describes ** Meme piece r^duite au modele 

sides 25 mm. I have not seen these ; my medal, /'. e. 30 m. de diam. sur flaon carr^ d'argent " (same piece re- 

No. 3, is 21 mm. and Van Loon*s (No. 4) scant 20 mm. If duced to size of 30 millimetres in diameter, struck on a 

there arc such varieties thev can be styled 4^ and 5^. square planchet in sUver). 
" Pestilentia in Nummis," No. 40, describes a similar 



1890.3 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 87 

This weird and very roughly executed medal is I think the most extraor- 
dinary and interesting of the series described. He who reads the chapter of 
Luke referred to, and then views the medal with its emblems, coffin, withered 
tree, etc., and the awful Comet sweeping over the scene of desolation, may 
well fancy, if he be not totally void of imagination, what state of feeling pro- 
duced this piece two hundred and seventy years ago ! There was naught in 
the mind of the people evidently, but blood, ruin, and desolation, and the 
Thirty Years* War brought all these terrible things, as we find by the medals 
next to be described. The Comet was so terrible, and it left its impression so 
indelibly on the popular mind, as the forerunner of that long and fearful 
struggle which desolated Germany, that even two years after the Peace of 
Westphalia, 1648, the following medal was struck : 

MEDAL STRUCK 1650 IN COMMEMORATION OF THE 1618 COMET (PORTENDING THE 
THIRTY YEARS' WAR) AND THE PEACE OF WESTPHALIA (1648). 

8. Obverse, The Comet over the inscription in eight lines (very unskilfully 
divided words), godt • strafte • devtschlant • lange zeit mit grosen • fevr • pest 
KRiG HVNGER * DIE ZEIT Legend, Continuing the inscription, war ein * groser • 
comet • STERN ' ALLES EIN GROS RVT * 1618. (God punishcd Germany for a long time 
with great fires, pestilence, war and famine. In that time there was a great comet 
star, a great rod {Ruthe) to all.) 

Reverse, Inscription in eight lines, godt • gab • fride in heiligen romischen 

REICH ANNO l6SO DAFVR DANC DIE GANSE CHRISTENHEIT. GOTT VATER. SOHN. VNDT. 

HEiL(iger) GEi(st). (God gave peace in the holy Roman [German] Empire in the year 
1650, and therefore all Christendom thanks God, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.) 
Silver, Thaler. 
Madai 5178. 

[I take this direct from Madai. Ruland and Pfeiffer copy incorrectly from the 
same, and erroneously number it 5871.] 

VII. THE COMET OF 1664-5. 
THE COMET OF THE PLAGUE AND OTHER DISASTERS IN EUROPE. 

Newton speaks of this as the notable Comet of 1664-5, observed by 
Hevelius, and gives a great number of observations of it. The first is of 
December 3, 1664, at Dantzic, and the last March 9, 1665. It appeared for 
three months together, during which it traveled over almost six signs, and on 
one of the days thereof, described almost 20°. ** Its course did very much 
deviate from a perfect circle, bending toward the north, and its motion toward 
the end from retrograde became direct." 

An engraved piece, described by Ruland and Pfeiffer, seems to allege that 
the two Comets were seen at once on Christmas-day, in 1664, somewhere in 
the Netherlands or Low Dutch countries. I give it no number or credit. 
These engraved pieces I consider as of no value : any idle engraver, or boy 
that can handle a burin, can turn one out as of any period with little trouble. 
A description may be found in the appendix. 

A. GERMAN MEDAL. 

I. Obverse, Comet and star. Exergue, 1664. i. | xo (1664, ist December, 
xo = Dccitnoy or tenth month, the reckoning from March). All within a wreath. 

Reverse, Armored arm with sword, coming out of clouds to left ; underneath are 
a skull and cross bones Legend, bessr. in die hant. des herrnn. (Better in the 
hand of the Lord.) Silver, Klippe. Length of sides 22 mm. 

Ruland and Pfeiffer, No. 18. I have never seen it. 



SS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [April, 

The allusion is evidently to 2 Samuel xxiv: 13, 14. The King, David, having sinned. 
Gad the prophet comes and offers him his choice : " Shall seven years of famine come unto 
thee in thy land ? or wilt thou flee three months before thine enemies, while they pursue thee ? 
or that there be fAr^^ days' pestilence in thy land ? . . . And David said unto Gad, I am in a 
great strait : let us fall noiv into the hand of the Lord ; for His mercies are great; and let me 
not fall into the hand of man." The pestilence then broke out. 

It is evident from the legend that the Comet was regarded as a messenger of 
divine wrath threatening coming chastisement, and the pious medalist pre- 
ferred a punishment directly from the Almighty to a delivery into the hand of 
an earthly foe. It is more than probable that this medal was struck to 
commemorate an attack of the plague, as in the next year, 1665, the terrible 
plague of London occurred, and was said to have been introduced from the 
continent, some say from Holland, and on the London medal (below) this and 
the 1665 Comet are seen together as portending the plague and the fire. 

B. MEDAL OF BASLE IN SWITZERLAND. 

2. Olnferse. View of Basle, under which are a skull and hour-glass. 

Reverse. AO. 1664 e)en 7 und 25 decembris ist dieser comet zu basel ge- 
SEHEN WFRDEN. (This Comct was seen at Basle the 7th and 25th of December, 
A(nn)o 1664.) 

Ruland and Pfeiffer, 19. Cf. Haller, II, s. 25. 1274. 

As will be seen by this medal, the Comet was seen at Basle, December 7 
and 25. 

VIII. THE COMET OF 1665. 
THE COMET OF THE PLAGUE AND FIRE OF LONDON. 

I. Obverse. A city (London) half on fire and half covered by the pestilential 
vapors falling upon it (British Museum Med. (/. e. Medal) Cat., says fire and rain); 
above are the tetragrammaton mn- the radiant All-seeing eye, wind from cloud, and 
two immense Comets (the 1664-1665 Comet last described and that of April, 1665, 
which we are now considering.) In the foreground a river, dead trees, death Q) and a 
warrior, both on horseback, in conflict. Legend, sic pvnit (Thus He punishes). 
Exergue, mdclxvi. 

Reverse. A shrine and crucifix, cornfield and vineyard and the river. In the 
foreground St. Paul casts off the viper. Legend, mera bonitas (pure kindness). 

Plate III, 4, from the specimen in my collection, and that in the British Museum 

The allusion is to Acts xxviii : 3, etc. St. Paul, the well known patron saint of London, 
is invoked as its protector, and his " kindness " prayed for, is typified by his casting off the 
serpent which, as on the German " Plague Medals," signifies the pestilence. 

It may well be observed here that while no modern work, speaking of 
the plague, says more than that a Comet appeared, not mentioning the two 
(some say three) Comets of 1665, the medal puts us on enquiry, and we find 
that the 1664-5 Comet was probably co-existent with the plague on the 
continent, whence it was introduced into England in 1666; an example of the 
value as historical records of the medallic memorials which numismatics 
elucidates. 

The Comet of 1664-5, ^s already mentioned, had been visible over 
England for months, filling men's souls with fear and foreboding, and those 
years had been full of other omens and portents of evil augury. No birds 
were to be seen in 1665 ; and in the preceding summer, as we learn from the 



1890.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 89 

manuscript ** Treatise of the Plague y' by the learned Apothecary William 
Boghurst (which is preserved in the Sloane Collection, British Museum): — 

There was " such a multitude of flies that they lined the insides of the houses ; 
and threads of string hanging loose were covered with flies like ropes of onions : and 
swarms of ants that covered the highways, that you might have taken up a handful 
at a time ; and such a multitude of croaking frogs, that you might have heard them 
before you saw them/* 

There was an uneasy and depressed feeling in the minds of the people, 
particularly the Londoners, many of whom were still under the influence of 
the old gloomy Puritan feeling and saw in the license of the time, under the 
restored King, a fit subject for divine chastisement. As if to intensify this 
feeling into absolute terror, and to show that the Almighty wrath was indeed 
terribly kindled against the sinful city, there suddenly appeared in April, 
1665, another and greater Comet. **A terrible Comet," say contemporary 
accounts, ** a blazing Comet with a tail apparently six yards in length, which 
rose betimes in a lurid sky and passed from west to east with ominous move- 
ment." Hevelius, who observed it says, as quoted by Newton, that 

" In April it exceeded almost all the fixed stars in splendor, and even Saturn 
itself, as being of a more vivid color, for this Comet was more lucid than that which 
appeared at the end of the foregoing year [see preceding medal] ; and was compared 
with stars of the first magnitude/' 

Many of the common people insisted that it was plainly in the form of a 
fiery sword, pointing to the doomed city of London ; saw in it the manifest 
sign of divine displeasure, and awaited some awful disaster as a chastisement. 
The King and Queen, it is related, watched the Comet for a whole night. 
The worst fears of the public were soon realized. It was the plague and 
fire that the Comets foretold. In May, 1665, men in London told one 
another with blanched faces that the plague had broken out. It first appeared 
in Saint Giles' and Saint Martin's, and soon spread to all parts of the city. 
The rich, the middle classes, and even the poor, warned by terrible expe- 
rience, began to flee from the contagion. The streets were soon so blocked 
with vehicles conveying passengers and their luggage as to be impassable. 
The river was full of shipping on which citizens with their wives and children 
had taken refuge. To add to the horror of the ever increasing pestilence, the 
towns and cities round about refused to allow Londoners to enter their gates, 
and established cordons of guards to prevent their approach. The number of 
deaths which for the first week in June had been 43, increased in the last 
week of the same month to 263, although the population had been decreased 
by an almost incredible number of absentees. 

On the 29th of June the Court left for Hampton. It was time ! During 
the first week of July there were 753, in the second 1,082, in the third and 
fourth 1 ,800 deaths. By this time all who could leave, with the exception of 
those whom a sense of duty or undaunted courage kept in the city, had gone. 
Yet in August 17,000, and in September 26,230 persons died. Horrible 
indeed was the condition of the city beneath the terrible scourge, which it 
was now plainly seen had been foretold by the Comets. Victuals grew very 
scarce, none were brought into the city, and many died of sheer starvation. 
There were no vehicles in the streets except the dead carts, and no sound 
but their dismal rumbling and the doleful cry ** Bring out your dead." Whole 

VOL. xxiv. II 



^6 AMERICAN JOURNAL Ot NtJMISMAtlCS. [April, 

avenues were barricaded, for there was no one left alive therein. The steps 
of the few wayfarers echoed through the deserted streets, where grass grew 
on the road and between the doorsteps. Those who walked in the highways 
did so in the carriage track, as far as possible from the houses, with nostrums 
against the plague to their noses and spices in their mouths. Almost every 
house-door bore the long cross and the inscription '' Lord, have mercy upon 
us," which told that the plague was within. Oftentimes even, the dead were 
abandoned to decay in their homes, for there was none to attend to their 
burial. There were no domestic animals ; no dog bayed, and no cat walked 
at night ; 40,000 dogs and 200,000 cats had been killed because it was sup- 
posed that they conveyed the plague. No infants lived that year; there 
were no midwives nor nurses for them, and the physicians who remained 
had other and sterner work to do. Generally mother and child were buried 
together. The dead were interred in great trenches ; many it is to be feared 
who were still alive sharing a like fate. Sometimes the grave diggers fell 
dead into the trenches they dug ; one single parish lost one hundred and 
sixteen. 

There were no theatres or places of entertainment open, and but few 
churches, and in those, few or no worshipers. There were neither courts nor 
magistrates, neither police nor watchmen. Horrible tales are related of 
deaths in the streets, as for example of a man who fell on the sharp pickets 
of a fence from weakness and was impaled. The heat was great, but heavy 
and evil-smelling vapors hung over the city. In September it was believed 
that great fires might drive away the contagion. Immense piles of coal were 
therefore lighted in the streets ; at first they would not burn ; afterwards they 
blazed with great fury until rain fell. That one night 4,000 people died, and 
the terrible result of the experiment prevented its repetition. From the 5th 
of September to the 3d of October 24,171 died ; in the remainder of October 
about 9,000. The cold weather and the lack of victims caused the rate to 
fall to 3,449 in November, and in December to about 1,000. After this the 
pestilence died out ; confidence became restored, and the city in a measure 
resumed its normal aspect. But the remembrance of the terrible effect of the 
plague was not obliterated for generations thereafter. It is estimated that 
the official figures of mortality for the year (98,000, of which 68,500 from the 
plague) do not show more than half the number of deaths from the pestilence, 
for reasons that may well be imagined. Not the least of these was the 
desire of the authorities at first to avoid creating a panic. The awful mortal- 
ity can be seen at a glance, even taking the official figures, as given above. 
London had then a population variously estimated : probably 460,000 was 
near the correct figure, that is, including all within the Bills of Mortality. 
When it is remembered that the city's population was depleted by the vast 
numbers who left while they could, the fatal nature of the disease can be 
appreciated. It is to be remarked that the staunch Mayor, Sir John Laurence, 
did not leave the city but remained steadily at his post, as did Monk, Duke 
of Albemarle, and many doctors, most of whom sealed their devotion to their 
duty with their lives. 

(Molloy, Royalty Restored, or London laider Charles II. London, 
1885. Defoe, Journal of the Plague, Newton, Principia, and many other 
authorities.^ 

[To be condooed.] 



1890.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 91 

GLEANINGS. 

BRITISH MUSEUM COIN CATALOGUES : ROMAN MEDALLIONS. 

Among those most useful and interesting publications which are issued by the 
trustees of the British Museum, are to be found various numismatic works, classed as 
catalogues of coins. The earlier volumes of this series have illustrations on wood, 
excellent in their way, but far behind those plates which photography and autotype 
printing have of late years combined to produce. In the present note I take as my 
subject the volume published in 1874, and entitled "Roman Medallions in the British 
Museum," a quarto containing 150 pp. of letter-press and 56 autotype plates of medal- 
lions, ranging from Domitian, A. D. 69, to Attalus, A. D. 414, and thus covering, 
during that period of 345 years, great diversities in style and subject. 

It seems to me that nothing can well be more clear and complete than the plan 
of the printed contents of this book : there being, ist, a full detailed description of the 
obverse and reverse of every medallion possessed up to date by the Museum, including 
the 190 shown on the autotype plates ; 2d, an index of names ; 3d, an index of reverse 
inscriptions ; 4th, an index of mints ; Sth, an index of types ; 6th, a table of dates and 
titles ; 7th, a table of relative weights of English grains and French grammes ; Sth, 
and finally, a table for converting English inches into millimetres and the measures of 
Mion net's scale. 

The autotypes which are annexed to the foregoing letter-press are all of interest, 
and some few of great beauty. I select, as very fascinating, the following : 

A medallion of Hadrian : obverse, bust of Emperor to left ; reverse, a full-lengtb 
figure of yEsculapius, carrying his staff and serpent* This medallion, excellently 
executed, is surrounded by a very wide rim or border^ termed by French numismatists 
"encastrement." And in respect to such wide-rimmed pieces it may be interesting 
here to note the opinion of Eckhel thereon. That distinguished authority, whose judg- 
ment on this point is now considered the most reliable, held that such pieces were 
issued by authority of the Senate to record and commemorate important events, as 
the arrival of an Emperor, his departure, a triumph, or a religious solemnity ; further, 
that it was easy to comprehend how these pieces were put forth in bronze. only, seeing 
that the Senate had the right to coin in that metal and none other; and how the mark 
S. C. was omitted, to obviate confusion with circulating money. 

A reverse of a medallion of Antoninus Pius, the subject being apparently a 
victory in a biga, the horses both rearing; conceived and carried out in the most 
delightfully spirited manner, worthy of a Syracusan or Macedonian artist. 

A lovely medallion, the obverse showing a delicious head of the elder Faustina, 
veiled, to right ; the reverse presenting a design of Cybele seated on a lion. This 
specimen displays most excellent qualities. 

A head in profile to right of Faustina the younger, wearing her hair in simple 
bands and knot at the nape of her neck. The modeling of this head and throat is 
firm, simple, and true to nature. 

A medallion of Commodus, the design on the obverse showing a youthful bust of 
that ruler to right, wearing the aegis, laureled, and displaying his right shoulder and 
part of the biceps ; the reverse consisting of Minerva, seated, with shield, helm, and 
spear, — a design all but identical with the Britannia on the British copper coinage. 

The same Emperor as Hercules, an Alexandrian type, struck in two metals, the 
broad rim being of lighter color, a bizarre practice carried out quite frequently in 
Roman medallions, and reproduced, I may add, in the sixteenth century by Cavino, 
the Paduan imitator of such pieces and first brasses, as shown by a medal bearing the 
head of Antoninus, which I have just examined. 

A medallion of Septimus Severus, presenting his head, laureated, to left ; show- 
ing a nude back, and carrying a shield with a boss in its centre. 

* Vitellius had previously issued a large brass with this figure. 



92 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [APRI^ 

The gradual decline in art, until Byzantine or lower empire style predominated, is 
set forth in due order by means of these plates, several sheets of which have been 
reproduced from drawings executed by a lady named Godsall, which are able interpre- 
tations, but inferior to their companions which have been photographed from plaster 
or sulphur casts. Altogether the publication is worthy of every commendation possi- 
ble, for its complete and thorough character. 

WILLIAM TASKER-NUGENT. 



THE MEDALS, JETONS, AND TOKENS ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE 

SCIENCE OF MEDICINE. 

BY DR. HORATIO R. STORER, NEWPORT, R. I. 

[Continued from Vol. XXIV, p. 62.] 

In closing my remarks upon the Medical Medals of Canada, in the yourtial for 
October, 1889, I stated that medals would probably be found to have been conferred 
upon many Canadian practitioners who were not known as yet to numismatists. I 
have since learned of a number of medals which have been conferred on such gentle- 
men, in recognition of various services ; but as they were not struck specially for the 
recipients, and are of a character which renders them equally appropriate rewards 
for eminence in other than medical science, they are not included in this list. 

Incidentally, I queried in the last number of the Journaly as to an unifaced " Dr. 
Mark (and his little men) " token. Regarding this, Mr. Charles H. Wright of New 
York, Curator of the American Numismatic and Archaeological Society, writes me as 
follows: "The Doctor Mark referred to on this token was a Doctor of Music, who 
educated and trained poor orphan boys and gave public concerts through the British 
Isles (and perhaps here, though I am not aware of it). I heard him and his clever 
pupils several times in the North of Ireland some twenty-three years ago, and recall' 
with pleasure the excellent music at his entertainments." 

V. THE UNITED STATES. 

A. Personal Medals. 

The field now entered is so extensive that subordinate grouping and condensa- 
tion become necessary, as follows : 

1. Medals struck with sole reference to commemorating the individual. 

2. Medals commemorating with the individual a Medical College. 

3. Medals commemorating with the individual a Medical Society. 

4. Medals commemorating with the individual a Hospital. 

5. Medals conferred upon special physicians by a Medical College, Society, 
Hospital or other organization for medical or surgical relief. 

6. Medals conferred upon special physicians from other sources for medical (or 
collateral) reasons. 

7. Medals conferred upon non-medical persons for medical reasons. 

8. The medallic cards of physicians supposed to be in good standing. 

A large proportion of the medals to be enumerated seem unknown to all who 
have written upon the subject. 

I. Medals struck with sole reference to commemorating the individual. 

Dr. Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz (1807-73), of Cambridge, Mass. 

loi. Obverse, Bust to left. Inscription: l?. agassiz — 1807-1873 Beneath: 

F(RITZ). LAi^DRV. | NEUCHATEL — SUISSE — 

Reverse, Laurel boughs tied together. Within : viRO | ingenio, labore, | scien- 
TiA I PRAESTANTissiMO. Bronze. 58. Obverse concave. 



1890.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 93 

Struck at Geneva. Landry, the die cutter, was a pupil of Antoine Bovy. 

Amer. Jour, of Numis,^ Jan., 1875, p. 59, July, 1875, p. 6; Riippell, Beitrag zur 
Kenntniss der numismatischen Erinnerungen an Aerzte und Naturforscher (reprint, 
from Nnmismatische Zeitschrift)^ Vienna, 1876, p. 54.^ 

This superb and exceedingly rare medal is in my collection. 

102. Obverse. Head to right. Inscription : agassiz. Beneath the neck, w. 

BARBER so. 

Reverse, Within a circle, laurel boughs tied by a ribbon. Above, between their 
tips, an antique lamp. In centre of field, united by a flowing band, two inverted 
torches, crossed. Above them na 1807. Below, ob 1873. Legend : terra marique 
DUCTOR indagatione NATURiE [By land and by sea a leader in the investigation of 
Nature.] Exergue: crossed and drooping branches of bay. Bronze. 29. Struck at 
U. S. Mint, by order of the Director at that time, the late Dr. H. R. Linderman, as 
I learn from Mr. O. C. Bosbyshell, Superintendent. 

Amer, Jour, of Numis.y Oct., 1874, pp. 22, 42, and July, 1883, p. 15 ; Frank 
Leslie's Weekly^ Sept. 19, 1874. 

This in the Government (formerly the Lee) Collection, the Fisher, and my own. 

Surgeon Christopher A. Babcock ( -1794), of the Continental Army. 

Obverse, Masonic emblems (engraved). 

Reverse, Inscription : This medal is presented by Union Lodge, Danbury (Ct.), 
to William A. Babcock, (infant) son of their much esteemed Brother, Christopher A. 
Babcock, deceased, 1794. (Engraved.) 

Amer. Jour, of Numis.y April, 1876, p. 73, II, obv. figured- Marvin, Medals 
of the Masonic Fraternity, p. 14, II ; Storer, Medals, etc., illustrative of Sanitation, 
The Sanitarian^ February, 1890, p. 171, No. 1272. The figure of obverse was printed 
with comments by Morris, in the American Freemason in 1855. 

Dr. Babcock was stationed at Danbury, Ct., during the Revolution. When the 
British attacked that place. General Wooster was mortally wounded, and Dr. Babcock 
attended him. The Doctor died shortly after at New London, Ct. (not at Newport, 
R. I., as stated by Morris). He had become a member of the Union Lodge of Dan- 
bury, under General Wooster's Mastership, and it issued this medal to his memory, 
presenting it to his next male descendant. It is considered by Marvin as probably 
the earliest American Masonic medal. As it is an engraved medal, I do not include 
it in the regular enumeration. 

Dr. C. P. Bronson ( ), of New York (.?). 

103. Obverse. Bust to right, c. c. wright del. et sculp. Inscription : prof. 

C. p. BRONSON, A.M. M.D. 

Reverse. Within field : This medal is presented to Professor C. P. Bronson, 
M. D., by his eye patients for his valuable discoveries of principles for the preserva- 
tion and restoration of natural sight and for the great benefit they have received from 
the application of these principles. (In eight lines.) Bronze. 37. 

This is in the Government (formerly Lee) Collection, and I owe its description 
to Surgeon J. S. Billings, U. S. A., in charge. 

Prof. Joseph Henry (1797-1878, Appleton, Cyclopedia of Am. Biogr. [1799-1879, 
the medal]), of Washington, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

Prof. Henry commenced and pursued medical studies with a view to graduating as 
a physician, and is believed to have received the honorary degree as such. He is 
commemorated upon the reverse of the Linderman medal, soon to be described. No. 
126. 

I Upon Dr. RiippelPs specimen the date of death its several errors the least satisfactory medal that has 
was given as 1872, and he calls attention to the error, been struck in memory of any Swiss naturalist." Loc. 
It would seem, therefore, that the first issue must have cit. The other details to which he objects are, doubt- 
been suppressed, and a more correct die prepared, less, the word " Neuchatel, " which he claims should be 
Aside from this point, KUppell is, I think, too severe in either Neufchatel, or Neuenburg, — and the use of com- 
his criticism. He says that " It is, in my opinion, the mas after Ingenio and Lahore, while not after Scicntia. 
heaviest, dearest (eight dollars in Switzerland), and for 



94 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [April, 

Dr. David Hosack (1769-1835), of New York. 

104. Obverse. Head to right, the hair brushed upward. Inscription : david - 
HOSACK, M. D. Upon edge, in front of neck, furst. f. 

Reverse, A short cylindrical column and a multitude of emblems ; a lyre, spade, 
and staff of Aesculapius, a mounted sphere, bust, mallet, palette with brushes, scroll, 
note book, square and compasses, and paint tubes. Legend : arts and science. 
Exergue : furst f. Bronze, copper, copper silvered. 22 Struck at U. S. Mint. 

Weyl, Fonrobert Catalogue (Nord-Amerika), Nos. 5817-18 ; Storer, /oc cif., May, 
1887, p. 439, No. 25. 

In the Government (Lee), the Fisher Collection, my own, and that of Mr. 
J. M. Holt, of Newport, R. I. 

There seems to have been a very large issue of these medals, and they are the 
cheapest of American medicals. Mr. I. F. Wood, at the time Secretary of the Ameri- 
can Numismatic and Archaeological Society, endeavored to ascertain for whom the 
dies were made {Am, Journal of Numis,^ I, p. 16), and the question has been repeated 
(Journal of Am, History)^ but without reply. 

In 1822 Dr. Hosack received the silver medal of the Horticultural Society of 
London. This is now in the Fisher Collection. 

Dr. John Howard, of England. 

Five of the series of Howard tokens (Storer, loc, cit^ May, 1887, pp. 447-8. Nos. 
S3, 54, 55, and Ibid,^ Nov., 1888, p. 425, Nos. 697, 698) were struck for circulation in 
this country, and are therefore of especial interest to American collectors. For the 
sake of unity, however, their description will be given under England. 

P. A. Surgeon Elisha Kent Kane (1820-57), U. S. N. 

105. Obverse. Head to right. Below, upon a panel, a ship among ice. Uppii 
each side, two American flags. Inscription : dr. elisha kent kane, the gre^t 
ARCTIC navigator, u. s. n. Excrguc : g. h. lovett-n. y. 

Reverse, Within two palm leaves, crossed, the floor of a temple and Ma^pnic 
emblems. Above, in clouds, the radiant eye, etc. Externally, a double chased oircle, 
within which, above, the legend : non nobis solum sed toto mundo nati Below, 
MDCCCLix. Silver, bronze, white metal, tin, brass. 32. 

Marvin, Am, your, of Numis,, July, 1878, page 8, CCXCI ; Ibid,, Medalf of the 
Masonic Fraternity, p. 116; Storer, loc. cit,y Feb., 1890, p. 163, No. 1240. 

Struck by Kane Lodge of New York. I have it with both thick and Jhin plan- 
chet. It is also in the Government (Lee) Collection. 

106. Obverse, Bust of Dr. Kane, over a view of Arctic scenery (similar to the 
last?). 

Reverse, A broad border, with eagle, flying mottoes, stars and trophy. Within, 
bust of Washington, to right. Beneath neck, g. h. l(ovett). Inscription: george 
WASHINGTON. White metal. 32. 

Wood Catalogue, Feb. 25-29, 1884, No. 394; Storer, loc, cil., No. 1245. 

" Unique combination in a trial piece." 

107. Obverse, Nude bust, to right. Beneath, key f. Inscription : dr. e. k. - 

KANE. 

Reverse, born in phila. pa. | feb. 3, 1822, | commander of the | grinnell 
ARCTIC I expedition | MAY 30, 1853, | DIED | FEB. 14, 185/. Bronzc, brass, copper, 
white metal. 24. 

Snowden, Subnational Medals, in his Medallic Memorials of Washington in the 
Mint of the United States, p. 115, No. 46 ; Weyl, Fonrobert Catalogue, Nord-Amerika, 
No. 5000; Storer, loc. cil,, No. 1241. 

The dates of birth and death upon this medal are both of them wrong. The 
former should be 1820, and the latter Feb. 16. It is in the Collection of the U. S. 
Mint. I have it both in bronze and white metal. 

108. Obverse. As preceding. 

Reverse, Laurel boughs tied by ribbon. Above, a star. On either side, with 
letters arranged perpendicularly, f. c. key | & sons Within field : medal | die sink- 



1890.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMlSMAtlCS. $S 

ERS I 329 I ARCH ST. | PHiLADA. Silver (only two said to have been struck), bronze, 
copper, brass, white metal, tin. 24. 

Storer, loc, city No. 1242. 

I have this in copper, brass and white metal. 

109. Obverse, As preceding. 

Reverse. Plain. Tin. Rim milled. 

Bushnell, An Arrangement of Tradesmen's Cards, etc.. New York, 1858, p. 47; 
Storer, loc. cit. No. I24i^. 

1 10. Obverse. As preceding, save key alone, without f. 

Reverse. The same as obverse, but incused. Tin. 25. 

Storer, loc. cit. No. 1243. 

I have this. It is probably a trial piece, and was No. 1856 of the Coulton Davis 
Catalogue. 

1 1 1. Obverse. View of the discovery of the "open *' polar sea. No inscription 
or legend. 

Reverse. Arms of New York, surmounted by eagle on globe, within wreath of 
laurel. Gold, electrotype. 50. 

Snowden, loc. cit., p. 100, No. 6; Homes, On Medals, Historical Magaziney VII, 
1863 ; Storer, loc. cit.y No. 1238. 

This is in the Collection of the U. S. Mint. It was struck by the State of New 
York for presentation to Dr. Kane, in accordance with resolution of March 18, 1856. 
Homes states that there was no motto upon the State Arms, or space for other 
inscription, this having to be subsequently placed upon the rim, and that no provision 
was made for copies in any other metal. Electrotypes, however, seem to have been 
taken. 

112. Obi^erse and reverse similar to the last, but tiffany & co. to right of 
obverse ; and in exergue of reverse, to right and left of the ribbon binding the laurel 
wreath. Silver, bronze. 38. 

Storer, loc. cit.y No. 1239. 

This rare medal is in my collection. 

I To be continued] 



HOW NICKELS AND PENNIES ARE MADE. 

The copper used in the manufacture of pennies is of the very best quality. The 
metal is shipped in bulk from the mines to the factories of Merchant & Co., in Con- 
necticut. There it is rolled and stamped out in circles of the requisite size. These 
circles are perfectly plain, with the exception of the raised or milled edge. At this 
stage the pieces intended for pennies are as bright as gold pieces, while those intended 
for nickels resemble highly-polished silver. In this condition they are delivered to the 
Mint. Of course it is absolutely necessary that all the pieces should be of uniform 
size and weight. The transfer from the factory to the Mint is made, and the number 
of pieces in a package is reckoned by its weight. To find out how many small coins 
the amount of nickel and copper contracted for at present will make, multiply the 
number of pounds of copper by one hundred, and the number of pounds of nickel by 
seventy. This calculation will show that the metal now about to be made up into coin 
will make 35,000 nickels and 100,000 pennies. One hundred pennies, therefore, weigh 
exactly one pound. When these pieces reach the Mint they are subjected to the finish- 
ing process, which consists in stamping them with the denomination, lettering, and 
characters seen on the coins when they reach the public. To accomplish this, great 
power is needed, as the pieces are not heated again after leaving the factory. The 
amount required is simply enormous, considering the size of the pieces. The copper 
pennies require a pressure of ten tons avoirdupois, while with the nickel piece it is 
necessary to put on a pressure of from twelve to fifteen tons. — Ex. 



96 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [April, 



MONEY IN ENGLAND IN 1560. 

The following estimate of "fine," /. e., standard money in the Realm of England, 
A. D., 1560, was made by R. Stanley, of the Mint. {State Papers : Domestic.) 

Sovereigns, Half Sovereigns, Angels, Half Angels and Crowns, . ;£" 100,000 

Spanish Ryals, Pistolets, and French Crowns, .... 50,000 

Fine Gold and Silver made by King Edward, .... 100,000 

" " ** Queen Mary, 370,000 

;^620,000 

With respect to the pistoiets or pistoles, mentioned above, the following procla- 
mation was issued by the Queen on Nov. 2, 1560 : — 

Understanding that the piece of gold called the pistolet was made current at 5 J. \od,y and 
that divers in ignorance are deceived in taking other pieces of strange coin instead of pistolets^ 
for 5^. 10//., which are not of the same value, notice is given that no pistolets shall be current 
but only four pieces hereafter portrayed ; the ist and 2d of the King of Spain's coin, the 3d of 
Venice, and the 4th of Florence, which, not being counterfeited, Her Majesty only allows to be 
current as pistolets at the value of 5^. 10^. If the receivers of other strange coin as pistolets 
shall bring them to the Mint of London, Her Majesty is pleased to give their just value in gold. 

This proclamation gave engravings of the four pieces mentioned, both obverse 
and reverse. It was printed by Richd. Jugge and John Cawood, Paul's Churchyard. 
A sheet, much damaged, has been preserved. w. t. n. 



TRANSACTIONS OF SOCIETIES. 

BOSTON NUMISMATIC SOCIETY. 

November 8. A monthly meeting was held this day at 12, noon. In the absence 
of the President, Dr. Green was called to the chair, who welcomed the Secretary after 
his long absence, and congratulated the Society on his return. The. records of the 
last meeting were read and accepted. No business was transacted, and the Society 
adjourned at 12.30 P. M. 

December 13. A monthly meeting was held this day at 12, noon. The records 
of the last meeting were read and accepted. Dr. Green was appointed to nominate 
officers for 1890, to be reported at the annual meeting in January. Mr. Parmelee 
exhibited a number of interesting and rare pieces, among which were the " Liber 
Natus " with rev. of eagle standing on globe in unusually fine condition ; the same 
with rev. of arms of New York, a handsome oak-tree shilling, and a " Rosa Ameri- 
cana*' twopence of 1723, all from the sale of the Shorthouse collection, also three 
different dies of the **Non vi virtute vici,'* the **Gen. Washington'* with rev. of "Con- 
federation and rev. of shield of the United States, the "Fugio " Cent with rev. with 
stars in the rings, in gold and silver, etc. The Secretary showed the silver medal with 
heads of James II and Queen Maria on the recovery of the silver treasure by Sir 
William Phips, a beautiful stater of Demetrius Poliorcetes of Macedon, several tetra- 
drachms of the Ptolemies of Egypt, and two exquisite bronze medals of the Emperor 
William I of Germany, one on his ninetieth birthday and one on his completion of 
eighty years of military service. The Society adjourned shortly before i P. M. 

January lo, 1890. The annual meeting was held this day at 3.30 P. M. The 
records of the last meeting were read and accepted. Dr. Green reported the names of 
the former officers for re-election. The report was accepted, and the following 
declared officers for 1890; P resident , Jeremiah Colburn ; Vice-President and Curator^ 
Henry Davenport ; Treasurer^ Sylvester S. Crosby ; Secretary^ Wm. S. Appleton 



1890.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 97 

The Treasurer presented his annual report, with the certificate of Mr. Davenport as 
Auditor. The Secretary showed about a dozen of the copper coins of the Ptolemies 
of Egypt, varying in size from 30 to 10, four Arabic glass coins, and five Brunswick 
bell-thalers. The Society adjourned at 4 P. M. 

February 14. A monthy meeting was held this day at 3.30 P. M. The records 
of the last meeting were read and accepted. On motion of the President, it was voted 
to pay any deficit in the cost of publication of the American Journal of Numismatics 
from the funds of the Society in the hands of the Treasurer. Dr. Hall exhibited two 
varieties of Connecticut cents in excellent condition. The Secretary showed several 
of the large Roman copper coins for the Province of Egypt, mostly of the Emperor 
Hadrian ; they show proof of having been long in circulation. The Society adjourned 

^^ 4- ^- ^- Wm. S. Appleton, Secretary. 

AMERICAN NUMISMATIC AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

From information kindly furnished by Mr. H. Russell Drowne, the Secretary of 
the American Numismatic and Archaeological Society, we learn that during the winter 
the Society has taken possession of its new Rooms, which are located on the corner 
of 4th Avenue and 20th Street. It has received a number of accessions to its mem- 
bership, and from one of its most active and earnest workers who does not wish to 
have any public acknowledgment, some valuable additions have been presented to its 
Cabinet of Coins and Medals. At the December meeting Professor H. Carrington 
Bolton read an interesting and elaborate paper on the " Contributions of Alchemy to 
Numismatics " (which is now publishing in the Joumal)^ and for which the thanks of 
the Society were voted. It was hoped that other papers of a Numismatic character 
would be read before the Society during the winter. This Society seems to be one of 
the most prosperous in the country ; its list of members is increasing ; its funds are 
well invested and growing, and its Annual Transactions, which have been printed, 
contain much of value to the students of coins. 



MASONIC MEDALS. 

[Continued from Vol. XXIV, p. 70.] 

DCCCXIII. Obverse, A shield surmounted by a plumed helmet; from 
the obverse die of CCXXXVII. Reverse, Pillars, scales, etc. Similar to or 
perhaps, from the reverse die' of Dili, but the planchet is slightly larger. 
Copper. Size i6. 

DCCCXIV. Obverse, Inscription in six lines, the first and last curving 
to conform to the edge of the medal : centenaire | de la | concorde | orient 
DE I viENNE I LE 24 SEPTEMBRE 1 882. [Centennial of the Lodge Concord, in 
the Orient of Vienne,* Sept. 24, 1832.] Thejast line is separated from the 
remainder of the inscription by a semi-circle of dots, and the name of the 
Lodge is in script capitals interlaced. Reverse, A triangle through which is 
passed a branch of acacia ; a collar hangs upon the triangle, to which is sus- 
pended a small jewel, bearing the square and compasses. Legend above, 
• LiBERTE • EGALiTE ' FRATERNiTE * and below, L.*. F?? LE 5 juiN 1 78 1. [Liberty, 
equality, fraternity. Lodge founded June 5, 1781.] The legend is separated 

1 This mule I describe from one in the Lawrence struck for the Lodge Festival, September 24, 1882, some* 
collection. It was struck by the Lodge Militaircs Reu- thing over a year, as will be noticed, after the centenary 
nis of Versailles. of its foundation. It was shown in the Plymouth, (Eng- 

2 I describe this from an engraving in a little pam- land) Exhibition, No. 445, and has been erroneously 
phlet entitled *'Numismatique Ma9onnique,'* reprmted attributed to Vienna, Austria, but the Lodge is located 
from the Revue Beige de Numisraatique, for 1884, and in Vienne, a French town in the Department of Is^re, 
sent me by M. Brichaut. Wor. Bro. Shackles, of Hull, on the railroad between Lyons and Avignon. 
England, nas also sent me a rubbing. The piece was 

VOL. XXIV. 12 



98 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [APRI^ 

from the field by a circle. A knob and ring at the top for suspension. 
White metal. Size 2 1 . 

DCCCXy. Obverse, As obverse of CCCXLVI, I think from same die. 
Reverse, A triangular level, above which in a curving Hne, v.'. lemarchand. 
[Perhaps for Venerable or Wor. Master Le MarchandJ and below, also curv- 
ing* 23 9— 1862. Legend, a l'olivier ecossais. chev.*. de la renov.-. 
[Lodge of the Scotch Olive,' etc.] A five-pointed star at the bottom. Type 
metal (?) Size 21. 

DCCCXVL Obverse, Within a wreath of acacia, open at the top and 
crossed and tied at the bottom with a ribbon, the inscription in three lines, 
VRAis I AMIS I FiDELES. [Lodge of True and Faithful Friends.] Reverse, A 
star of seven points of formal rays ; and on its centre an equilateral triangle 
within which the date 1855 ; on its left side zele, on its right assiduite and 
on the bottom devouement. [Zeal, assiduity, devotion.] A broad loop is 
attached to the top for a ribbon.^* Silver. Size 14. w. t. r. m. 

[To be continued.] 

A ROYAL COLLECTOR. 

From an article, dated in July, 1856, in the Edinborough Review, I find that 
''foremost among English numismatists in point of time, as well as most illustrious in 
station, we must place Prince Henry, the accomplished and unfortunate son of James I. 
He purchased a noble collection, amounting in number, as Scaliger informs us, to 
30,000, of which 4,000 were gold, from the Flemish numismatist Gorloeus, who des- 
cribes it as having been formed by him with infinite pains, and as consisting chiefly of 
Greek coins. The collection passed into the hands of Henry's brother Charles, who 
was distinguished as a munificent patron of art in all its branches. Learned foreigners 
of the period mention Prince Charles's Cabinet of Coins in conjunction with, and at 
the head of his other valuable works of art ; and one of them, Charles Patin, assigns 
to him a place before all the contemporary sovereigns of Europe in regard to his taste 
and munificence as a collector. The royal example had its effect upon the nobles of 
the Court. Villiers, the favourite, the stately Thomas, Earl of Arundel, and William, 
the high-minded Earl of Pembroke, were all collectors of coins. To these names must 
be added Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, whose collection, having been presented 
by him to the University of Oxford, escaped the plunder and dispersion which was 
the fate of his Sovereign's in the civil wars. In fact, it is the only one of these early 
collections which remains intact." 

D'Israeli, in his "Curiosities of Literature," mentions that the Parliamentary 
Government passed an Act in 1648, "for inventorying the late King's goods " ; that 
the inventory itself is among the Harleian manuscripts (British Museum), under 
No. 4898, and that the coins or medals, according to this manuscript catalogue, were 
thrown promiscuously into drawers, one drawer having 24 medals, valued at jr^2 10 ; 
another lot of 20 valued at ^i, while one drawer, contaitiing 46 silver coins, with the 
box, was sold for ;£ 5. On the whole, the medals seem not to have been valued at 
much more than a shilling apiece. It is stated that after the Restoration, scarcely a 
third part of the medals remained. In 1757, Horace Walpole printed at Strawberry 
Hill a Catalogue of Charles the First's Capital Collection of Pictures, Limnings, 
Statues, Bronzes, Medals and other curiosities, now first published from an Original 
MS. in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, which is most interesting. As to the 
Pembroke Collection, it existed until 1848, say 200 years, the longest "life" possessed 
by a private cabinet of coins with which I am acquainted. With respect to the fate 
of the Villiers and Arundel collections my information is uncertain. w. t.-n. 

I Struck for same occasion as CCCXLVI, for the 2 I have not certainly located this piece, which is a 
Lodge named, of Havre. member's bijou of some French Lodge, very likely of 

Paris. It is in the Lawrence Collection. 



1890.] AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. 99 

ARCHAEOLOGY. 

ANCIENT ABORIGINAL MINING. 

Writing on " Ancient Mining in North America," Professor Newberry speaks in the 
Affierican Antiquarian of the great antiquity of the aboriginal works. The ancient copper 
mines on Lake Superior were abandoned not less than four hundred years ago ; for the heaps 
of rubbish around the pits made by the ancient miners were covered with forest trees that had 
reached their largest size. The old mica mines of North Carolina and the quarries of serpen- 
tine in the Alleghanies showed like evidences of antiquity. . Some population in the Mississippi 
Valley worked the oil-fields in various places. .The author, visiting Titusville in i860, when 
the first well had been opened, noticed pits in the ground which proved to be relics of the 
excavations of primeval oil-gatherers. A citizen, digging a well in one of the pits, had discov- 
ered and followed an old well which was cribbed up with timber and contained a primitive 
ladder, like those which have been found in the old copper mines of Lake Superior. The 
cribbing had been rudely done with sticks from six to eight inches in diameter, which had been 
cut or split by a very dull instrument, " undoubtedly a stone hatchet." The oil was probably 
gathered by being skimmed from the water that collected in the bottom of the pit. Traces of 
a similar well were observed at Enniskillen, Canada ; and depressions in the surface like those 
on Oil Creek, were noticed at Mecca and Grafton, Ohio. Ruins of an ancient lead mine exist 
on the Morgan farm, near Lexington, Ky., in the form, where they have not been disturbed, of 
an open cut, from six to ten feet wide, " of unknown depths, and now nearly filled with rubbish. 
On either side of this trench the material thrown out forms ridges several feet in height, and 
these are everywhere overgrown by trees, many of which are as large as any found in the forests 
of that region." Galena has been found in many of the ancient works in Ohio, but has never 
been smelted, and appears to have been valued merely for its brilliancy. Dr. Newberry does 
not believe that the Mound Builders were of the present Indian stock. — Popular Science 
Monthly. 



BOOK NOTICES. 



HiSTORiA NuMORUM A MANUAL o^ GREEK NUMISMATICS by Barclay V. Head 

ASSISTANT-KEEPER OF THE DEPARTMENT OP COINS AND MEDALS IN THE BRITISH 

MUSEUM. Oxford AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 1887 [All rights reservcif] 

This beautiful volume of nearly qcx) pages, dedicated to the memory of Joseph 
Eckhel, "scientiae numorum veterum insignis magistri,*' was welcomed in Europe 
with warm words of praise. Mr. Head in his preface pays a handsome tribute to 
Eckhel, while he also shows what strides the study of Greek Numismatics has made 
in the short century since 1792, when the first volume of the Doctrina Numorum 
Veterum appeared. He next gives a bibliography of Greek Numismatics of the 
present day, naming only works of value at this time, and mentioning nothing of 
earlier date than 1763. The introduction of about fifty pages contains a full but 
concise history of currency and coinage, dwelling at greatest length on the transmis- 
sion of weight standards, and dealing also with types, periods of art, and the various 
classes of inscriptions. The descriptive part or " Manual '* comprises 748 pages, in 
which the countries follow the geographical arrangement of Eckhel, which serves 
perfectly for a collection of ancient coins alone. In it are four hundred cuts of coins, 
*• executed by one of the new mechanical photographic printing processes," and admir- 
able they are. Of course the description of the coins of each country is brief in 
comparison with the special works which exist concerning some of them, but the most 
important of these special works are named at the head of the chapter devoted to each 
country. Moreover, that the best is extracted from such works is evident from the fact 
that 88 pages are devoted to Italy, 70 to Sicily, 40 to the Peloponnesus, 24 to Crete, 
and so on in proportion. There are seven different indexes, and five plates of various 
alphabets. It is of course too much to say that this work will enable one to identify 



loo AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS. [April, 1890. 

every ancient coin which he may happen to have, but it will certainly greatly help a 
student in the classification and arrangement of a collection. We cannot fail to 
appreciate the amount of time and thoughtful study which Mr. Head must have 
devoted to its preparation, and we gladly express here our thanks to him for having 
done so much to aid others in the study of Greek Numismatics. w. s. a. 



EDITORIAL. 



The present number concludes another volume of the Journal^ and one which, if we may 
judge from the favorable comments it has received during the year, will compare favorably 
with any of its predecessors, in the contributions to the science of Numismatics which it has 
contained. The present number, it will be observed, has an extra sheet, containing not merely 
the Title and Index, always furnished at this time, but four pages of reading matter in addition. 
For this we are indebted to the kindness of one of our contributors. Portions of the paper on 
" Contributions of Alchemy to Numismatics," appeared some time since in the Journal^ but 
later researches of the author have brought to light so much new material, that his paper has 
been greatly enlarged ; in order to present it to our readers without omitting something that 
was required for a complete account of the subject, these pages have been added without 
expense to our subscribers, and an illustration showing several of the rarer Alchemistic pieces 
will also be given to them at an early day. The interesting paper on Medals relating to 
Comets will be continued, with illustrations, in the next volume, where will be found engravings 
of some of these pieces described in this number. 

In the coming volume we shall continue our descriptions of Masonics, and Mr. Marvin 
will next take up those of Germany, which have come to his knowledge since the publication 
of his work. Dr. Storer's papers on Medical Medals will be continued, and other papers of 
interest and value are in preparation, and will be duly announced. We shall be greatly obliged 
to those of our subscribers who will aid us in increasing our List of subscribers, especially by 
calling the attention of Public Libraries, Collectors, and others interested in our special depart- 
ment, to the Magazine. The Journal is devoted entirely to the advancement of Numismatic 
knowledge, and whatever may be received beyond the cost of manufacture is devoted to 
increasing its attractions to all lovers of coins and medals. 

We learn that the collection of Mr. Lorin G. Parmelee has been sold to New York 
parties, and that it is probable that it will soon be offered in one or more sales at auction. We 
have not learned the plans of its purchasers, but they will be given to our readers when it shall 
have been decided how to place it on the market. We can only regret that so valuable and 
complete a Collection of Coins, relating especially to our own country from its earliest coinage, 
should not have found a resting place in the Cabinets of the nation, — the Smithsonian, or 
some other equally appropriate place — as we have before suggested in the Journal, It is 
doubtful if such an opportunity will ever occur again. 

Mr. Frossard is soon to offer a small collection of Coins and Medals, many, we judge, 
from the collection of a well known connoisseur in New York. Among the choice pieces it 
contains are several of the Goethe Medals, which were described some time since by Dr. Storer 
in our pages. They are of exceeding rarity, and the Catalogue contains nearly one-third of all 
described by that gentleman ; that will no doubt bring good prices. 



CURRENCY. 



The Herald says : ** Mint Director Leech's statement that a feather had to be taken out of the tail 
of the eagle on the silver dollar, so as to reduce the number from eight to seven, has mystified a great 
many people. Is it a fact that the regulation eagle has only seven feathers in his tail P " Having 
struggled with this in vain, Brisko respectfully desires to be informed where ** the funny'' is. 



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